(in alphabetical order)





















































































Virectaria majorMyzus ornatus
Virgilia oroboidesAphis craccivora
Viscaria atropurpurea = Silene atropurpurea
V. vulgaris = Silene viscaria
Viscum albumTuberaphis coreana, viscisucta
V. articulatumMesothoracaphis rappardi
V. coloratumTuberaphis coreana
V. rotundifoliumSitobion sp. (Millar 1994)

Key to apterae on Viscum:-

1 SIPH tubular, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Anal plate entire. Eyes are multifaceted…..Sitobion sp.
SIPH as slightly raised pores. Anal plate bilobed. Eyes reduced to a few (usually 3) facets…..2
2 Head, thorax and abdominal segment I fused to form sclerotic, pill box-like prosoma (Fig.60a). ANT greatly reduced, 3-segmented, 0.07-0.09 × BL…..Mesothoracaphis rappardi
Cuticle membranous, pale, head fused to prothorax only. ANT 5-segmented, 0.20-0.27 × BL…..3
3 Front of head with 4 rounded spine-bearing tubercles, the medial pair conjoined at bases (Fig.60b). Thorax and abdomen with a continuous fringing row of wax glands…..Tuberaphis coreana
Front of head without tubercles. Wax glands not evident …..Tuberaphis viscisucta*
Visnea mocaneraAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
Vitex agnus-castus Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, viticis;
Myzus ornatus, persicae
V. donianaAphis gossypii
V. japonica (?)Aphis gossypii, ?nasturtii
V. lucensAphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus, persicae
V. negundo (incl. var. cannabifolia) Aphis gossypii, [punicae], [vitexicola]
V. rehmanniiAphis gossypii
V. strickeriAphis gossypii
V. trifoliaAphis gossypii
Vitex spp.Aphis spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
[Megoura lespedezae]

Key to apterae on Vitex:-

R IV+V tapering almost to a point, 1.05-1.30 × HT II. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH tapering, pale or dark, or darker towards apices, 0.8-1.7 × cauda which is pale with 6-13 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.75 × BD III. Hind tibial hairs all shorter than width of tibia at midlength…..Aphis viticis
R IV+V with blunt or rounded apex, and if ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu then other characters are not in that combination…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Vitis aestivalis (incl. var. bourquiniana) Daktulosphaira vitifoliae
V. amurensisAphis spiraecola
V. berlandieriDaktulosphaira vitifoliae
V. bicolorAphis illinoisensis
V. bourquiniana see V. aestivalis
V. californicaAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
V. candicansDaktulosphaira vitifoliae
V. cantoniensis = Ampelopsis cantoniensis
V. ×champiniDaktulosphaira vitifoliae
V. cinereaDaktulosphaira vitifoliae
V. cordifoliaAphis illinoisensis; Daktulosphaira vitifoliae
V. labruscaAphis illinoisensis; Daktulosphaira vitifoliae
V. riparia = V. vulpina
V. rotundifoliaDaktulosphaira vitifoliae
V. rupestrisDaktulosphaira vitifoliae
V. semicordata = Parthenocissus semicordata
V. tiliaefoliaAphis illinoisensis
V. trifoliata = Cissus erosa
V. viniferaAphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [hederae],
illinoisensis, spiraecola, [vitis Scopoli 1763];
Aploneura ampelina; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Daktulosphaira vitifoliae;
Geoica lucifuga; [Hyalopterus amygdali];
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
Pemphigus ?saliciradicis, Pemphigus sp. (Australia);
Prociphilus oleae
V. vulpinaAphis fabae, illinoisensis, [ripariae];
Daktulosphaira vitifoliae
Vitis spp.Myzus ornatus; Erisoma ulmi (?); Smynthurodes betae

Key to apterae on Vitis:-

1 Body pyriform, broadest anteriorly. ANT 3-segmented …..Daktulosphaira vitifoliae
Body not broadest anteriorly. ANT 5- or 6-segmented…..2
2 ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent, or present as pores…..3
ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH present, tubular…..9
3 SIPH present as pores surrounded by hairs. Dorsal wax glands present, each consisting of a ring of facets around an undivided central area (most easily seen on head and margins of abdomen) …..Eriosoma ulmi (?)
SIPH absent. Dorsal wax glands absent or of different form…..4
4 Body spindle-shaped with very short ANT and legs (e.g. hind tibia only 0.07-0.15 × BL), and sparse, short hairs. R IV with 2 hairs (often inconspicuous) …..Aploneura ampelina
Body oval or globular with longer ANT and legs (e.g. hind tibia 0.12-0.23 × BL). Hairs usually more numerous and/or longer, if short and sparse then R IV without hairs …..5
5 Hairs on body and appendages short and sparse. R IV with 0-1(-2) accessory hairs…..6
Body and appendages with longer and/or more numerous hairs. R IV with 4 or more hairs…..7
6 R IV+V 0.53-0.65 × HT II. Rostrum 0.17-0.21 × BL …..Pemphigus ?saliciradicis
R IV+V 0.73-0.99 × HT II. Rostrum 0.21-0.28 × BL …..Pemphigus sp. (Australia)
7 Anus and anal plate displaced dorsally. Some dorsal body hairs spatulate, and longest marginal hairs 130-150 μm long…..Geoica lucifuga
Anus and anal plate normally positioned. Dorsal hairs all pointed. Longest marginal hairs less than 50 μm long…..8
8 Body densely clothed in fine hairs. ANT 5-segmented, with ANT II elongate, similar in length to ANT III…..Smynthurodes betae
Body more sparsely hairy. ANT 6-segmented, with II much shorter than III…..Prociphilus oleae
9 SIPH with numerous very long hairs…..Greenidea viticola
SIPH without hairs…..10
10 Hind tibiae entirely black…..Aphis illinoisensis
Hind tibiae pale, or at least with extensive pale middle sections…..11
11 Head densely spiculose, ANT tubercles well-developed with inner faces almost parallel. SIPH long and tapering/cylindrical, with a well-developed flange. ANT III usually with 1-2 small rhinaria near base…..12
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
12 Cauda with 5 hairs (2 lateral pairs plus one subapical hair). Distal halves of femora black…..Aulacorthum kuwanai*
Cauda with (6-) 7 hairs (3 lateral pairs). Femora entirely pale or only dusky towards apices……Aulacorthum solani
Voandzeia see VignaFabaceae
Voandzeia subterranea = Vigna subterranea
Volutaria Asteraceae
Volutaria lipiiAphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae
V. muricataUroleucon jaceae (oviparae, UK; BMNH collection.)

See key to apterae under Amberboa.

Vriesea ringensSitobion luteum
Vriesea sp.Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Key to apterae on Vriesea:-

Dorsal abdomen with a large black oval patch. SIPH black with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation…..Sitobion luteum
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Vulpia (including Zerna)Poaceae
Vulpia alopecuros Rhopalosiphum padi
V. bromoidesIsraelaphis alistana; Sitobion avenae
V. geniculataForda marginata;
Metopolophium festucae ssp. cerealium;
Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae
V. membranaceaMetopolophium sabihae
V. myurosIsraelaphis alistana;
Metopolophium festucae ssp. cerealium;
Schizaphis graminum; Sipha maydis;
Sitobion avenae, fragariae
Vulpia sp.Rhopalosiphum maidis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Wahlenbergia abyssinica Uroleucon compositae
W. angustifoliaMacrosiphum euphorbiae
W. perrottetiiAphis gossypii
W. serpyllifolia = Edraianthus serpyllifolius

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Waldsteinia fragarioides Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae
Waltheria americana Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae
W. indicaAphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Warszewiczia coccinea Aphis spiraecola
Wasabia see EutremaBrassicaceae
Washingtonia Arecaceae
Washingtonia filifera Cerataphis brasiliensis
W. robustaCerataphis brasiliensis

(For a key to aphids on palms see under Calamus.)

Watsonia borbonica Neomyzus circumflexus
W. rosea = W. borbonica
Watsonia spp.Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale; Sitobion africanum

Key to apterae on Watsonia:-

SIPH black, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.6 × BD III. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dark cross-bands…..Sitobion africanum
Without that combination of characters …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Webbia canariensis Aphis aurantii, gossypii, [hyperici], spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Wedelia calycinaAphis gossypii
W. glauca = Pascalia glauca
W. paludosa = Sphagneticola trilobata
W. rugosaAphis spiraecola
W. trilobata = Sphagneticola trilobata
Wedelia sp.Uroleucon ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum

Key to apterae on Wedelia and Sphagneticola:-

1 SIPH entirely dark and with an extensive distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Dusky/dark scleroites present at bases of at least some of dorsal hairs…..2
SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without or with very little polygonal reticulation. Dorsal hairs not arising from scleroites…..3
2 Cauda pale, contrasting with dark SIPH …..Uroleucon ambrosiae (incl. ssp. lizerianum)
Cauda dusky, not much paler than SIPH …..Uroleucon sp. near macolai
3 ANT tubercles well developed with smooth divergent inner faces. ANT dark except at base, with ANT PT/BASE 5.9-7.5. SIPH dark except for basal 0.2-0.3 of length, with subapical polygonal reticulation restricted to much less than 0.1 of length..…Acyrthosiphon bidenticola
Without that combination of characters…..4
4 Dorsal cuticle with a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons, with 1-3 spicules in the centre of each polygon. (SIPH clavate)…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Dorsal cuticle without spinules arranged in polygons …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Weigela coraeensis Aphis spiraecola; [Macromyzus woodwardiae];
Micromyzus diervillae; Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae
W. floribundaMyzus ornatus, persicae
W. floridaAphis fabae; Micromyzus diervillae;
Neotoxoptera weigeliae
W. hortensisAulacorthum solani; Micromyzus diervillae;
Neotoxoptera weigeliae; Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae
W. japonicaMicromyzus diervillae
W. praecoxMicromyzus diervillae;
Neotoxoptera abeliae (?), yasumatsui
W. subsessilisMicromyzus diervillae; Neotoxoptera weigeliae
Weigela spp.Aphis gossypii, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1964b: 101)];

Key to apterae (excepted where otherwise indicated) on Weigela:-

(This key can be applied to fundatrices and alatae in spring populations, when these are the only available morphs.)

1 Head without spicules, ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24
Head spiculose (or if smooth in alata then SIPH dark and clavate). ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu…..2
2 SIPH not clavate, almost cylindrical on distal half (except sometimes for a subapical constriction)…..3
SIPH slightly to markedly clavate (i.e. with narrower section on basal half) …..5
3 Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. SIPH rather thick, less than 10 × longer than their width at midlength, with a slight S-curve …..Myzus ornatus
Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings. SIPH more than 10 × longer than their width at midlength, and rather straight…..4
4 ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5. SIPH 2.1-2.5 × cauda, with a large flange. ANT III usually with 1-3 rhinaria near base…..Aulacorthum solani
(Fundatrix) ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0. SIPH 2.5-3.2 × cauda, with a small flange (Fig.61a). ANT III without rhinaria…..Micromyzus diervillae
5 SIPH very markedly inflated, with diameter of balloon-like swollen part 2.0-4.5 × minimum diameter of basal part…..Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae
SIPH tapering, cylindrical, or moderately swollen with diameter of swollen part less than 2 × minimum diameter of basal part…..6
6 (Fundatrix) Cauda with 10-12 hairs. R IV+V 1.4-1.6 × HT II. (Al with smooth head, thick, dark SIPH – Fig.61b, and primary rhinarium on ANT V elongate, its long axis 1.2-1.4 × diameter of segment – Fig.61c)…..Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae
Cauda with 5-8 hairs. R IV+V either 0.9-1.4 or 1.7-2.1 × HT II. (Al. with spiculose head, thinner, pale/dusky SIPH, and primary rhinaria on ANT V almost circular, its diameter less than that of segment)…..7
7 ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5. (Al. with forewing-veins not dark-bordered) …..Myzus persicae
(Fundatrix) ANT PT/BASE much less (c.0.7 in two species, unknown in third). (Al.with forewing-veins thickly bordered with fuscous)…..8
8 Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 29-37, IV 11-23, V 6-11, and media of forewing fused to radial sector (Fig.61d)…..Neotoxoptera weigeliae
Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 6-15, IV 0-6, V 0-5, and media of forewing well separated from radial sector…..9
9 Al. with R IV+V 1.6-2.1 × HT II, and sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 10-15, IV 4-6, V 2-5 (possibly unreliable, as based on al. from secondary host) …..Neotoxoptera yasumatsui
Al. with R IV+V 1.1-1.4 × HT II, and sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 6-13, IV 0, V 0…..Neotoxoptera abeliae
Weingartneria see Corynephorus Poaceae
Weinmannia sp.Neomyzus circumflexus
Wendlandia densiflora Myzus debregeasiae
W. glabrataAphis gossypii, spiraecola
W. paniculataAphis odinae
Wendlandia spp.Myzus ornatus; Sinomegoura citricola, [rhododendri]

Key to apterae on Wendlandia:-

Head spiculose. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. ANT 1.1-1.2 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE 3.9-4.2. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 × HT II. SIPH pale, 2.1-2.4 × cauda…..Myzus debregeasiae*
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Westoniella eriocephala Brachycaudus helichrysi
Whipplea modesta Aphis sp. (California, USA; BMNH collection)
Whiteochloa sp.Hysteroneura setariae
Wickstroemia see WikstroemiaThymelaeaceae
Widdringtonia Cupressaceae
Widdringtonia cedarbergensis = W. wallichii
W. dracomontana [Aphis gossypii]; Cinara cupressi;
(= W. nodiflora?) Illinoia morrisoni; [Neomyzus circumflexus]
W. juniperoidesCinara tujafilina; Illinoia morrisoni;
(= W. nodiflora?) Siphonatrophia cupressi
W. nodifloraCinara cupressi, tujafilina
W. schwarziiCinara cupressi; Illinoia morrisoni;
Siphonatrophia cupressi
W. wallichiiCinara tujafilina
W. whyteiCinara tujafilina

Use key to aphids on Cupressus.

Wigandia caracasana Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Myzus persicae
W. urensMyzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Wikstroemia indica Aphis craccivora; Sitobion wikstroemiae
W. viridiflora = W.indica

Key to apterae on Wikstroemia:-

SIPH dark, with subapical polygonal reticulation. R IV+V short, blunt, convex-sided, 0.65-0.75 × HT II. ANT III with longest hairs only 0.2-0.3 × BD III, and 1-3 rhinaria near base…..Sitobion wikstroemiae
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Wissadula periplocifolia Aphis gossypii
Wisteria chinensis = W. sinensis
W. floribunda (incl. var. macrobotrys) Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;
Myzus persicae
W. sinensisAphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;
Aulacophoroides hoffmanni; Aulacorthum solani;
Myzus persicae
Wisteria sp.Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Wisteria:-

ANT, SIPH and distal 0.7 of femora blackish, cauda pale. Head minutely spiculose with well-developed divergent ANT tubercles. ABD TERG 2-7 with broad dusky sclerotic bands or paired patches…..Aulacophoroides hoffmanni
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Withania somnifera Aphis fabae, gossypii, [umbrella]; [Lipaphis erysimi];
Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Wolffia brasiliensisRhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Wollastonia see MelantheraAsteraceae
Wollastonia biflora = Melanthera biflora
Woodfordia floribunda = W. fruticosa
W. fruticosaAphis gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola, [umbrella]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Woodsia ilvensisMacrosiphum woodsiae
W. mollisMacrosiphum longirostratum
W. oreganaMacrosiphum woodsiae
W. scopulinaMacrosiphum woodsiae

Key to apterae on Woodsia:-

(Both spp. have R IV+V with 13-35 accessory hairs, ANT III with a row of 6-21 rhinaria, and SIPH with rather indistinct subapical reticulation; otherwise go to key to fern-feeding aphids)

R IV+V 0.18-0.21 mm long, 1.54-1.95 × HT II …..Macrosiphum longirostratum
R IV+V 0.12-0.15 mm long, 1.38-1.61 × HT II…..Macrosiphum woodsiae
Woodwardia orientalis Macromyzus woodwardiae
W. radicansMacromyzus woodwardiae

(or try key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)

Wulfenia (including Wulfeniopsis)Plantaginaceae
Wulfenia amherstiana Myzus ornatus
Wulffia baccata = Tilesia baccata
W. stenoglossa = Tilesia baccata
Wyethia sp.Aphis asclepiadis; Aulacorthum solani;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Xanthium canadense = X. orientale
X. chinense = X. strumarium
X. communeProciphilus erigeronensis
X. echinatumCapitophorus xanthii
X. italicumCapitophorus xanthii; Uroleucon ambrosiae
X. orientaleAphis craccivora, fabae; Capitophorus xanthii;
Protaphis middletonii; Uroleucon ambrosiae
X. spinosumAphis asclepiadis; Brachycaudus cardui; Myzus persicae
X. strumarium[Acyrthosiphon gossypii];
Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Capitophorus xanthii;
Protaphis anuraphoides, [elatior], elongata;
Rectinasus buxtoni; Trama troglodytes;
Uroleucon ambrosiae, compositae, [formosanum]
Xanthium spp.Aphis spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Smynthurodes betae

Key to apterae on Xanthium:-

1 SIPH absent. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Eyes of 3 facets…..2
SIPH present, tubular. ANT PT/BASE more than 1. Eyes multifacetted …..4
2 HT II very elongate, more than 0.5 × hind tibia…..Trama troglodytes
HT II of normal length…..3
3 ANT 5-segmented, with ANT V BASE very long, more than 15 × longer than the short, peg-like PT. R IV+V extremely long, similar in length to hind femur …..Rectinasus buxtoni
ANT 5- or 6-segmented, base of last segment and R IV+V relatively much shorter …..use couplets 2 and 3 of key to polyphagous aphids
4 Cauda short, helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width, with a slight basal constriction, and bearing 4-8 hairs. Spiracular apertures large and rounded…..5
Cauda tongue-shaped, finger shaped, or bluntly triangular without a basal constriction (in which case it has 10+ hairs). Spiracular apertures reniform…..6
5 Dorsal abdomen with an extensive dark sclerotic shield. SIPH 2.1-3.4 × cauda. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes…..Brachycaudus cardui
Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerotisation. SIPH 1.1-1.4 × cauda. Mesosternum without dark processes…..Brachycaudus helichrysi
6 Dorsal body hairs mushroom-shaped, arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH swollen on apical third, 3.2-4.5 × cauda…..Capitophorus xanthii
Dorsal body hairs not mushroom-shaped, nor arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH less than 2.5 × cauda…..7
7 ANT PT/BASE 0.85-1.3 (-1.4). ABD TERG 1 and 7 with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH stump-shaped…..8
ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without MTu. SIPH tubular…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4
8 SIPH 0.77-0.82 × cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.1-1.2 × BD III …..Protaphis elongata…..Protaphis elongata
SIPH 0.9-1.2 × cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-0.8 × BD III…..Protaphis anuraphoides
Xanthoceras sorbifolium [Periphyllus lyropictus]
Xanthophyllum Polygalaceae
Xanthophyllum stipitatum Anomalosiphum murphyi
Xanthoselinum see PeucedanumApiaceae
Xanthosoma atrovirens = X. sagittifolium
X. mexicanum Aphis nasturtii; [Pentalonia nigronervosa]
X. nigrum = X. sagittifolium
X. roseum = X. sagittifolium
X. sagittifoliumAphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus persicae; Pentalonia caladii
X. violaceum = X. sagittifolium

Key to apterae on Xanthosoma:-

SIPH and femora covered with irregular, transverse rows of spicules. ANT PT/BASE 5.8-8.1. SIPH pale basally and dark distally. (Alata with dark-bordered wing veins, with radius and costa fused for part of lengths to form a closed cell behind the pterostigma)…..Pentalonia caladii
SIPH and femora smooth or imbricated, not markedly spiculose. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-6.2. SIPH pale or uniformly dark. (Alata with normal wing venation, veins not dark-bordered)…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Xeranthemum annuum Macrosiphoniella xeranthemi; Myzus persicae;
Protaphis anuraphoides, elatior;
X. cylindraceum[Aphis intybi]; Macrosiphoniella xeranthemi
X. inapertumAphis craccivora; Macrosiphoniella xeranthemi;
Protaphis anuraphoides
X. longepapposumMacrosiphoniella xeranthemi; [Uroleucon helenae]
Xeranthemum sp.Aphis gossypii

Key to apterae on Xeranthemum:-

1 ANT, legs, SIPH and cauda all almost entirely dark. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal c.0.3 of length…..Macrosiphoniella xeranthemi
ANT and tibiae mainly pale, only dark at apices. SIPH without polygonal reticulation …..2
2 ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped (or if very short then with only 4-7 hairs)…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4
ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.1. Cauda bluntly triangular with 16-20 hairs…..3
3 R IV+V 1.45-1.65 × HT II. SIPH 0.9-1.2 × cauda. Hairs on ANT III 0.6-0.8 × BD III…..Protaphis anuraphoides
R IV+V 1.25-1.35 × HT II. SIPH 0.8-1.0 × cauda. Hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.4 × BD III…..Protaphis elatior
Xerophyllum tenax Aphis asclepiadis
Ximenia americana Aphis gossypii
X. caffraSitobion africanum, [Sitobion sp. (Remaudière &
Autrique 1985)]

Key to apterae on Ximenia:-

SIPH black, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.6 × BD III. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dark cross-bands…..Sitobion africanum
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Xolisma see LyoniaEricaceae
Xylopia aromatica Aphis spiraecola
Xylosma congesta[Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a:104)];
Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus
X. japonica = Xylosma congesta
X. longifoliaAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
X. racemosa ssp. kwangtungensis = X. longifolia
X. venosa[Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a:104)]
Xylosma sp.[Ceratovacuna lanigerum];
[Tuberculatus paranaracola, yokoyamai]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Xylosteum see LoniceraCaprifoliaceae
Xysmalobium undulatum Aphis gossypii


Yoania see DanhatchiaOrchidaceae
Yoania australis = Danhatchia australis
Youngia japonica Aphis nerii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Cryptomyzus taoi];
Hyperomyzus lactucae; Myzus lactucicola, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; [Sitobion miscanthi];
Uroleucon ambrosiae, erigeronense, gobonis, formosanum,
formosanum ssp. crepidis, pseudambrosiae
Y. sonchifoliaMacrosiphoniella ixeridis; Uroleucon formosanum
Y. tenuifolia = Crepis tenuifolia

Key to apterae on Youngia:-

1 SIPH mainly or entirely dark with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 5-135 rhinaria…..2
SIPH pale or dark, if mainly or entirely dark then without polygonal reticulation. ANT III without or with fewer rhinaria…..7
2 ANT II with 5-7 rhinaria on basal third. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs …..Macrosiphoniella ixeridis
ANT III with 8-135 rhinaria usually extending beyond basal third. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs…..3
3 SIPH with pale basal section. Cauda tapering to a very thin apex, with subapical hairs usually shorter and often blunter than lateral hairs…..Uroleucon erigeronense
SIPH entirely dark, or only slightly paler at base. Cauda tapering or finger-like, not very thin at apex, with any subapical hairs similar to lateral hairs…..4
4 Cauda dark like SIPH…..Uroleucon gobonis (or compositae?)
Cauda pale, much paler than SIPH…..5
5 ANT III 1.5-2.0 × longer than ANT IV+V together, and bearing 54-135 strongly protruberant rhinaria…..Uroleucon formosanum (incl. ssp. crepidis)
ANT III much shorter than IV + V together, and bearing 8-46 rhinaria…..6
6 HT II rather long and thin, 6 or more × longer than its maximum thickness and 0.9-1.1 × R IV+V…..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae
HT II less than 5 × its maximum thickness and 0.70-0.85 × R IV+V…..Uroleucon ambrosiae
7 Dorsum with extensive uniformly dusky/dark sclerotisation. Head spiculose with well-developed scabrous ANT tubercles. SIPH slightly clavate. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 × HT II…..Myzus lactucicola
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Yucca angustifolia = Y. glauca
Y. filamentosaAphis asclepiadis, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;
Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;
Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae
Y. glaucaAphis carduella, fabae
Y. guatemalensisAphis asclepiadis
Y. mohavensis = Y. schidigera
Y. schidigeraAphis asclepiadis
Yucca spp. Aphis gossypii, [yuccae Lichtenstein (nomen nudum)]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Yushania alpina Hyalopterus pruni; Pseudoregma panicola;
Sitobion papillatum ssp. subnudum
Y. ancepsTakecallis affinis, taiwana
Y. niitakayamensis Chaitoregma tattakana; Cranaphis formosanus;
Melanaphis arundinariae; Takecallis arundinariae
[Takecallis affinis ssp. niitakayamensis?]

Use key to aphids on Arundinaria.


Zalacca see SalaccaArecaceae
Zaluzania augusta Uroleucon astronomus, mexicanum

Key to apterae on Zaluzania:-

(Both species have dark SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation.)

Coxae pale like trochanters. Tibiae dark basally and apically with middle parts contrastingly pale …..Uroleucon astronomus
Coxae dusky and at least partly darker than trochanters. Tibiae uniformaly pigmented…..Uroleucon mexicanum*
Zantedeschia (= Richardia Kunth, nec. L.) Araceae
Zantedeschia aethiopica Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;
Dysaphis tulipae; [Idiopterus nephrelepidis];
Myzus ascalonicus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;
Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon
Z. africana = Z. aethiopica

Key to apterae on Zantedeschia:-

Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8…..Dysaphis tulipae
Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width. STu absent from head, and rarely on ABD TERG 8…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Zanthoxylum (including Fagara)Rutaceae
Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Aphis citricidus, odinae;
[Myzus xanthomelii Shinji (nomen dubium)]
Z. alatum = Z. armatum
Z. alba = Z. martinicense
Z. americanumAphis fabae, nasturtii
Z. armatum Aphis gossypii; [Sinomegoura photiniae]
Z. avicennaeAphis citricidus
Z. bungeanumAphis citricidis, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii;
Myzus persicae; [Sorbaphis chaetosiphon]
Z. bungei = Z. bungeanum Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii; Myzus persicae
Z. clava-herculisAphis aurantii, spiraecola
Z. cocoAphis citricidus
Z. cubense = Z. rhodoxylum
Z. flavumAphis aurantii
Z. gilletiiAphis aurantii
Z. macrophyllum = Z. clava-herculis
Z. mantshuricum = Z. schinifolium
Z. martinicense Aphiscitricidus
Z. microphyllum = Z. tragodes
Z. nitidumAphis odinae; Hyperomyzus gansuensis
Z. ornatum (?)Aphis aurantii, citricidus, odinae, spiraecola;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Sinomegoura citricola
Z. piperitumAphis citricidus, gossypii, odinae;
Myzus persicae, [xanthomelii Shinji (nomen nudum)];
Pseudomegoura magnoliae
Z. planispinum = Z. armatum
Z. rhodoxylum Aphis aurantii
Z. rhoifoliumAphis citricidus
Z. scandensAphis victoriae
Z. schinifoliumAphis citricidus, odinae, spiraecola, victoriae
Z. simulans Aphis citricidus, gossypii
Z. tragodes Aphis odinae
Zanthoxylum sp.Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Zanthoxylum:-

1 SIPH pale and markedly swollen, c.1.7 × cauda. ANT III-IV with many small round rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE c.6…..Hyperomyzus gansuensis
Without that combination of characters…..2
2 ANT VI BASE with 5-7 hairs. ANT III, IV and most of V completely lacking in pigment, paler than rest of cuticle. SIPH 0.8-1.08 × cauda. ABD TERG 8 with 5-8 hairs. (Stridulatory apparatus present) …..Aphis (Toxoptera) victoriae
ANT VI BASE usually with 2 hairs, and other characters not in above combination. (Stridulatory apparatus present or absent) …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Zea (including Euchlaena)Poaceae
Zea maysAnoecia corni, vagans;
Aphis fabae, craccivora, gossypii, solanella;
[Brachycaudus helichrysi]; Colopha graminis, ulmicola;
Diuraphis noxia;
Forda formicaria, marginata, pawlowae;
Geoica lucifuga, setariae, utricularia;
Hysteroneura setariae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Melanaphis sorghi;
Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae ssp. cerealium;
Myzus obtusirostris, persicae; Pemphigus brevicornis;
Paracletus bykovi, bykovi ssp.uzbekistanicus;
Protaphis [knowltoni], middletonii;
Rhopalosiphoninus indicus;
Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi,
rufiabdominale, [Rhopalosiphum “sp. x” of Valenzuela
et al. 2009 (in Australia and New Zealand)] ;
Schizaphis graminum; Sipha flava, glyceriae, maydis;
Sitobion africanum, akebiae, avenae, fragariae,
leelamaniae, miscanthi;
Smynthurodes betae;
Tetraneura caerulescens, fusiformis, nigriabdominalis,
radicicola, ulmi
Z. mexicanaRhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Zebrina see TradescantiaCommelinaceae
Zehneria indicaAphis nerii
Z. scabraAphis gossypii
Z. umbellataAphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Zelkova Ulmaceae

The small but probably ancient aphid fauna of Zelkova is poorly studied. The gall makers span 4 genera of Eriosomatini, all distinct from those on Ulmus, and are probably relicts of a much larger fauna in the past. Tinocallis on Zelkova include some that also feed on Ulmus (nirecola, ulmiparvifoliae), plus several others that are included in the key rather tentatively as they have not been seen by the authors. There are certainly other Tinocallis still to be described from Zelkova.

Zelkova acuminata (= Z. serrata?) Aphis craccivora; [Eriosoma ulmi];
Tinocallis zelkowae
Z. carpinifoliaAphis gossypii;
Byrsocryptoides zelkovae, zelkovaecola;
Zelkovaphis caucasica;
Tinocallis nevskyi, saltans, zelkovae
Z. crenata = Z. carpinifolia
Z. davidii = Hemiptelea davidii
Z. formosana (= Z. serrata?) Myzus persicae;
Tinocallis mushensis, ulmiparvifoliae, viridis,
Z. schneiderianaAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii;
Tinocallis sophorae, suzhouensis, [ulmicola],
viridis, zelkowae;
Z. serrata (incl. var. japonica)Keyaki
Aphis gossypii;
Colophina arma, clematicola, clematis, [monstrifica],
Hemipodaphis persimilis;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
Paracolopha morrisoni; Stomaphis yanonis;
Tinocallis saltans, takachihoensis, ulmiparvifoliae,
Z. serrata var. latifolia Tinocallis latifoliae
Z. siculaZelkovaphis trinacriae

Key to aphids on Zelkova:-

1 Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. SIPH as short truncate cones without hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 2 with paired spinal hair-bearing processes (Adult viviparae all alate) …..2
Cauda rounded, anal plate entire. SIPH absent or if present then not in form of short truncate cones without hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 2 without spinal processes. (Adult viviparae apterous and alate)…..12
2Forewing with at least distal branches of media thickly bordered with fuscous, and Cu1a with a distal fuscous patch…..3
Forewing veins not thickly bordered with fuscous; sometimes with small spots at distal ends…..5
3ANT PT/BASE about 0.25. Dorsal abdomen with extensive paired dark markings (fig. 119B). Head and pronotum pale with dark markings. Forewing with a bridge of fuscous between media and distal part of Cu1b…..Tinocallis (Eotinocallis) zelkovae
ANT PT/BASE at least 0.9. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Head and pronotum almost wholly dark. Forewing without a bridge of fuscous between media and Cu1b …..4
4Pronotum with one pair of finger-like spinal processes. Spinal processes of ABD TERG 3-8 pale, low, undeveloped on some tergites. SIPH pale…..Tinocallis (Sappocallis) takachihoensis
Pronotum with two pairs of finger-like spinal processes. ABD TERG 3-8 with dark spots, developed into cone-shaped processes on some tergites, and with dark marginal sclerites on 4-6. SIPH dark…..Tinocallis (Sappocallis) saltans
5Head and often also pronotum with a well-defined black median longitudinal line, which may be lacking in spring generations, but in that case thorax is without spinal processes. Mesonotal lobes not dark…..6
Head and pronotum without any pigmentation in the median area, or if with a dark medial line then mesonotal lobes are dark. Pro- and mesonota with paired spinal processes …..9
6 Pro- and mesonota with hairs borne on paired short spinal processes about as long as their basal widths. Femora with dark subapical spots…..Tinocallis sophorae*
Pro- and mesonota without spinal processes. Femora without dark subapical spots …..7
7ANT III mainly dusky/dark, longer than IV+V together, and bearing 24-43 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 1.2-1.6 × HT II, with 6-10 accessory hairs …..Tinocallis mushensis*
ANT III pale with dark apex, not usually longer than ANT IV+V together, and bearing 10-26 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 0.8-1.0(-1.2) × HT II, with 4-5 accessory hairs …..8
8ANT (I-VI) 0.86-1.13 × BL…..Tinocallis latifoliae*
ANT (I-VI) 0.53-0.79 × BL…..Tinocallis zelkowae
9ANT III with secondary rhinaria distributed over more than half of length …..10
ANT III with secondary rhinaria concentrated on thickened basal half …..11
10Hind femora pale with contrasting dark subapical bands, Head with inner pair of posterior hairs on processes that are shorter than or as short as their basal widths…..Tinocallis(Sappocallis) nevskyi
Hind femora dusky or pale with diffuse inconspicuous subapical spots. Head with inner pair of posterior hairs on processes that are 1.5-2.0 × longer than their basal widths…..Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae
11Forewing veins ending in conspicuous dark triangles. Dorsal body hairs fine, mostly longer than basal diameter of ANT III. Spinal processes on ABD TERG 1 and 2 usually dark-tipped, and those on ABD TERG 2 often united at base. Marginal processes often as long as or longer than ANT I…..Tinocallis viridis
Forewing veins not ending in conspicuous dark triangles. Dorsal body hairs stiff, as short as or shorter than basal diameter of ANT III. Spinal processes pale, those on ABD TERG 2 not united at bases. Marginal processes shorter than ANT I …..Tinocallis suzhouensis*
12 BL more than 4 mm. Rostrum much longer than body. Abdomen with a medial ventral row of 5 dark patches…..Stomaphis yanonis
BL less than 3 mm. Rostrum much shorter than body. Abdomen without ventral dark markings except posteriorly…..13
13SIPH tubular…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4
SIPH poriform or absent…..14
14 (Remaining couplets refer to alatae emerging from leaf-roll or pouch galls.) Media of forewing once- or twice branched. Hind wing with 1 or 2 oblique veins. SIPH pores present…..15
Media of forewing unbranched. Hind wing always with 1 oblique vein. SIPH pores present of absent…..21
15 Total length of antennal flagellum (III-VI) 0.9-1.4 mm. ANT III bearing 28-44 secondary rhinaria…..16
Total length of antennal flagellum (III-V or III-VI) 0.3-0.8 mm. ANT III bearing 9-22 secondary rhinaria…..18
16 BL 1.5-1.9 mm…..Colophina zelkovae
BL more than 2 mm…..17
17 Total length of antennal flagellum (III-VI) 1.2-1.4 mm. ANT PT 0.01-0.02 mm long, with quadrate apex (fig. 120A). Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 31-43, IV 9-14, V 10-16, VI 8-11…..Colophina clematis
Total length of antennal flagellum 0.9-1.1 mm. ANT PT very short and indistinct, less than 0.01 mm long, with rounded apex. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 28-37, IV 8-13, V 9-13, VI 5-8…..Colophina arma
18Antennae 5-segmented, with ANT V nearly as long as III; secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 9-12, IV 3-6, V 5-9…..Colophina clematicola
Antennae 6-segmented…..19
19 R IV+V 0.15-0.19 mm long, densely spinulose and 1.38-1.59× HT II. (Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 12-22, IV 2-4, V 2-4, VI 0-1) …..Hemipodaphis persimilis
R IV+V 0.07-0.17 mm long, smooth or spinulose and 0.53-1.02× HT II …..20
20R IV+V 0.15-0.17 mm, spinulose, 0.83-1.02× HT II. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 14-20, IV 3-5, V 4-6, VI 0-2…..Zelkovaphis trinacriae
R IV+V 0.07-0.10 mm long, nearly smooth, 0.53-0.72× HT II. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 10-16, IV 2-4, V 2-4, VI 0…..Zelkovaphis caucasica
21 ANT VI BASE (or V in 5-segmented antennae) with 3-7 secondary rhinaria. ANT PT very short and broad, about 0.01 mm or less, with rounded apex (fig. 120B). SIPH pores absent. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-16, IV 4-6, V 3-8, VI 3-7…..Paracolopha morrisoni
ANT VI BASE with 0-1 secondary rhinaria. ANT PT about 0.02 mm or more, with rounded or pointed apex. SIPH pores present. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-11, IV 2-3, V 0-4, VI 0-1…..22
22 ANT V about equal in length to (i.e. less than 1.2×) ANT IV (fig. 120C). Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 8-11, IV 2-3, V 0-3, VI 0-1 …..Byrsocryptoides zelkovaecola
ANT V 1.4-1.8× longer than ANT IV (fig. 120D). Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-11, IV 2-3, V 1-4, VI 0-1…..Byrsocryptoides zelkovae
Zerna see VulpiaPoaceae
Zeugites americana Hysteroneura setariae; Neomyzus circumflexus;
Rhopalosiphum padi

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Zigadenus elegans = Anticlea elegans
Z. nuttallii = Toxicoscordion nuttalliii
Z. venenosus = Toxicoscordion venenosum
Zigadenus sp. (?) [Acyrthosiphon purshiae]; Aphis asclepiadis;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae, valerianae;
[Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum (in Japan)]

Key to apterae on Zigadenus:-

1 Body oval, ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH dark, without subapical polygonal reticulation …..Aphis asclepiadis
Body spindle-shaped. SIPH pale or dark with a subapical zone of reticulation …..2
2 SIPH entirely dark, or only pale at base…..Macrosiphum valerianae
SIPH pale or only gradually darkening distally …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
Zilla spinosaMyzus persicae
Zingiber kawagoii Pentalonia caladii
Z. miogaMyzus ornatus, persicae; Pseudomegoura magnoliae
Z. officinaleAphis gossypii; Astegopteryx [nipae], styracophila;
Pentalonia caladii; Pseudoregma sundanica
Z. spectabilePentalonia caladii
Zingiber spp.Pentalonia kalimpongensis; Pseudoregma sundanica

Use key to apterae on Hedychium.

Zinnia angustifolia Aphis fabae
Z. elegansAphis [euonymi], fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, solanella,
Aulcorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Metopolophium dirhodum];
Myzus ornatus, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus
Z. multiflora = Z. peruviana
Z. peruvianaAphis fabae, gossypii; Uroleucon ambrosiae
Zinnia spp.Uroleucon compositae, [kashmiricum]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Zizania aquaticaRhopalosiphum nigrum
Z. caduciflora = Z. latifolia
Z. latifoliaMelanaphis sacchari; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale;
[Schizaphis scirpi]

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Zizia apteraAphis fabae; [Brachycaudus cerasicola]
Z. aureaAphis asclepiadis, saniculae, spiraecola, thaspii;
Cavariella aegopodii, [archangelicae], [pastinacae]
Zizia sp.[Anuromyzus cotoneasteris]

Use key to apterae on Cicuta.

Ziziphora bungeana = Z. clinopodioides ssp. bungeana
Z. clinopodioidesAphis craccivora, frangulae ssp. beccabungae, gossypii;
Brachycaudus cerasicola; [Ovatus insitus]
Z. tenuiorAphis craccivora, fabae, frangulae ssp. beccabungae,
Ziziphora sp.Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Brachyunguis nurikamalae

Key to apterae on Ziziphora:-

1 ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.0…..Brachyunguis nurikamalae*
ANT PT/BASE more than 1.0…..2
2 Cauda semicircular, much shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield…..Brachycaudus cerasicola
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Ziziphus Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus jujubaAphis craccivora, frangulae
Z. lotusAphis gossypii, nasturtii; Myzus persicae
Z. nummulariaAphis nasturtii
Ziziphus sp. Cervaphis schouteniae

Key to species on Ziziphus:-

Body with very long branched hair-bearing processes (as in fig. 92A). SIPH about 1.0-1.5 × hind tibia and bearing a subapical ring of hairs …..Cervaphis schouteniae
Body without long hair-bearing processes. SIPH shorter and without hairs…..use key to aphids on Rhamnus
Zornia pratensisAphis craccivora
Zosima absinthifolia Aphis craccivora
Z. tordyloides = Semenovia rubtzovii
Zoysia japonicaGeoica lucifuga;
Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?)

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Zuelania guidonia Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
Zygadenus see ZigadenusLiliaceae
Zygocactus Cactaceae
Zygocactus bridgesii Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae
Z. truncatusMyzus persicae
Zygocactus sp.Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Zygophyllum fabago Acyrthosiphon gossypii, [pisum];
Aphis craccivora, gossypii;
Brachyunguis [harmalae], zygophylli;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae
Z. simplexAphis craccivora
Z. turcomanicum (?) Brachyunguis zygophylli

Key to apterae on Zygophyllum:-

1 ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.8. SIPH stumpy, 0.25-0.75 × cauda …..Brachyunguis zygophylli
ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. SIPH longer than cauda…..2
2 SIPH pale and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midpoints, 0.33-0.45 × BL and 2.5-3.5 × cauda…..Acyrthosiphon gossypii
SIPH pale or dark, thicker and relatively shorter …..go to key to polyphagous aphids