(in alphabetical order)





























































































Piper aduncumAphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Sinomegoura citricola
P. betleAphis gossypii; Neomyzus circumflexus
P. futokadsura = P. kadsura
P. guineenseAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
P. hispidumAphis gossypii
P. kadsuraAulacorthum solani; Neomyzus circumflexus;
Pseudomegoura magnoliae
P. longumSinomegoura citricola
P. nigrumAphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae
P. peltatum Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Uroleucon ambrosiae
P. tuberculatumAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
P. umbellatumAphis gossypii; Myzus persicae
Piper sp.[Aphis piperis (invalid name)]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Piperia dilatataAulacorthum solani

(or use key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium)

Piptantherum see OryzopsisPoaceae
Piptanthus tomentosus Aphis cytisorum ssp. sarothamni, fabae

Key to apterae on Piptanthus:-

Dorsum with an extensive black shield (fragmented in small individuals). Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-0.7 × BD III. Cauda with 7-11 hairs ….. Aphis cytisorum ssp. sarothamni
Dorsum with only scattered small sclerites anterior to SIPH. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-2.2 × BD III. Cauda with 11-24 hairs…..Aphis fabae
Piptocarpha Asteraceae
Piptocarpha rotundifolia Aphis gossypii
Piqueria trinervia Myzus persicae
Pirola see PyrolaEricaceae
Piscidia piscipulaAphis craccivora
Pisonia aculeataAphis craccivora, spiraecola
P. fragrans = Guapira fragrans
P. grandisAphis spiraecola
P. sechellarumAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Pistacia Anacardiaceae

Pistacia spp. are the primary hosts of many species of Fordini (Eriosomatinae, which produce a wide variety of galls, sometimes very large and elaborate. The only other aphids recorded from this genus are Brachunguis nevskyi (Kreutzberg), and the polyphagous Aphis gossypii. Following the host plant list, two keys to Fordini are provided, both taking the genus Pistacia as a whole. The first key is to the emigrant alatae produced in the galls, which usually open in autumn, and the second is to the alate sexuparae, which may be collected on the trunks when they return to Pistacia in spring. Confirmation of identity will often be possible from the descriptions and illustrations of galls given in the systematic section of the book.

Host Plant List:-

Pistacia aculeata (?) [Chaetogeoica ulmidrupa – see text]
P. aethiopicaAloephagus myersi
P. atlantica (incl. var. cabulica) [Aphis gossypii]; [Aploneura lentisci]; Baizongia pistaciae;
Forda formicaria, hirsuta, marginata, riccobonii;
Geoica harpazi, mimeuri, rungsi; Inbaria swirskii;
Slavum lentiscoides, wertheimae; Smynthurodes betae;
Tramaforda koachi, wooli
P. chinensis Asiphoniella dactylonii; Baizongia pistaciae;
Chaetogeoica foliodentata, [ovagalla], [sensucopia]
Forda marginata, sichangensis;
Geoica lucifuga, utricularia; [Stomaphis pistacicola]
P. integerrimaBaizongia pistaciae; Forda marginata, riccobonii;
Geoica utricularia
P. khinjukAsiphoniella cynodonti; Baizongia pistaciae;
Forda formicaria, kaussarii, sp. near sichangensis;
Geoica lucifuga, setulosa, [utricularia];
Paracletus cimiciformis; Rectinaphis buxtoni;
Slavum lentiscoides, wertheimae
P. lentiscusAploneura lentisci; Baizongia pistaciae; Forda marginata;
[Geoica utricularia]
P. mexicana (incl. texana) Geopemphigus blackmani, morral, torsus,
Geopemphigus sp. “A” of Muñoz Viveros &
Remaudière 1999
P. mutica (= P. atlantica?) Forda formicaria, hirsuta, ?riccobonii;
Geoica muticae;
Slavum esfandiarii, lentiscoides, wertheimae;
Smynthurodes betae
P. palaestina[Aphis gossypii]; Asiphoniella dactylonii;
Baizongia pistaciae; Forda formicaria, marginata;
Geoica wertheimae; Paracletus cimiciformis;
Rectinasus buxtoni
P. sinensis see P. chinensis
P. terebinthus[Aploneura lentisci]; [Aulacorthum solani];
Baizongia pistaciae;
Forda formicaria, hirsuta, marginata, [riccobonii];
Geoica mimeuri, utricularia;
Paracletus cimiciformis, donisthorpei;
Smynthurodes betae
P. texana = P. mexicana
P. veraPistachio
[Aphis gossypii]; [Baizongia pistaciae];
[Brachyunguis nevskyi];
Forda hirsuta, marginata, ?riccobonii;
Geoica utricularia; [Macrosiphum euphorbiae];
[Myzus persicae]; Paracletus cimiciformis;
Slavum lentiscoides, mordvilkoi;
Smynthurodes betae
P. weinmanniifolia Chaetogeoica foliodentata

Key to alatae from galls on Pistacia:-

1 ANT III and IV each usually with only a single subapical secondary rhinarium resembling the primary rhinaria on V and VI (sometimes absent on IV, or rarely one additional small rhinarium is present on III…..2
ANT III always with at least two secondary rhinaria, and usually with 3 or more …..7
2 Rhinaria on each of ANT III-VI very large, occupying more than half of circumference of a segment and 0.4-0.8 of its length…..Inbaria swirskii
Rhinaria on ANT III-VI much smaller (figs. 81A, B) …..3
3 Primary rhinarium on ANT VI elongate, 2 or more × longer than broad (fig. 81A) …..Aploneura lentisci
Primary rhinarium on ANT VI oval, like that on V (e.g. fig. 81B) …..4
4 R IV+V 0.05-0.08 mm long, less than 0.5 × HT II…..Slavum lentiscoides
R IV+V 0.08-0.13 mm long, more than 0.5 × HT II…..5
5 Wax pore plates pigmented and of granular appearance. Forewing veins Cu1a and Cu1b separated at their bases. HT II 0.20-0.25 mm long…..Slavum esfandiarii
Wax pore plates unpigmented. Forewing veins Cu1a and Cu1b joined at their bases. HT II less than 0.18 mm long…..6
6 Head without any distinct median suture. HT II with 4-8 hairs (as well as the 6 subapical ones). Embryos without mouthparts…..Slavum wertheimae
Head normal, with a distinct median suture. HT II with 14-17 hairs (+ 6 subapical). Embryos with mouthparts…..Slavum mordvilkoi
7 All antennal segments very thick, with hundreds of small (5-6 µm diameter) circular secondary rhinaria (fig. 81C). R IV+V long and narrow, about 4 × its basal width, with 20 or more accessory hairs arranged in 4 rows…..Rectinasus buxtoni
Secondary rhinaria much fewer and usually larger. R IV+V less than 3 × its basal width and with fewer hairs…..8
8 ANT III with 2-5 small to very small, round or oval secondary rhinaria (fig. 81D). Marginal wax glands on ABD TERG 1-5 often reduced or indistinct …..Asiphoniella cynodonti
If ANT III has fewer than 6 secondary rhinaria then these are large, occupying at least half of width of segment. ABD TERG 1-5 with or without marginal wax glands …..9
9 ABD TERG 1-5 usually with marginal wax glands…..10
ABD TERG 1-5 without marginal wax glands…..24
10 Secondary rhinaria with conspicuously ciliated rims…..11
Secondary rhinaria not ciliated…..18
11 ANT PT/BASE 0.4 or more…..12
ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4…..15
12 ANT III a little longer than ANT VI (incl. PT), with 5-12 secondary rhinaria arranged in a row. Abdominal wax glands with closely adpressed facets forming cohesive groups …..Asiphoniella dactylonii
ANT III a little shorter than ANT VI (incl. PT), with 5-16 secondary rhinaria distributed irregularly, never in a row (e.g. fig. 81E). Abdominal wax glands with facets loosely grouped, often not touching…..13
13 ANT PT with 7-9 hairs…..Chaetogeoica yunlongensis
ANT PT with 4-5 hairs…..14
14 Embryos inside alata bearing spinal and marginal hairs with finely-pointed apices …..Chaetogeoica foliodentata
Embryos inside alata bearing spinal and marginal hairs with truncate apices …..Chaetogeoica ovagalla
15 ANT III a little shorter than ANT VI (incl. PT), and bearing 3-5 rounded or broadly oval secondary rhinaria (fig. 81F). Dorsal abdomen unpigmented or with only faint narrow cross-bands…..Aloephagus myersi
ANT III much longer than ANT VI (incl. PT), and bearing 7-20 transversely oval or narrow elongate secondary rhinaria. Abdomen with broad dark transverse bands on ABD TERG 3-6…..16
16 ANT III with 13-32 narrowly elongate secondary rhinaria mostly extending around about half its circumference, IV with 3-9, V with 2-7 and BASE VI with 1-5 …..Geopemphigus blackmani
ANT III with 7-17 transversely oval secondary rhinaria, IV with 1-4, V and BASE VI usually without any…..17
17 Secondary rhinaria distributed III 7-13 (usually 8-11), IV 1(-2). ANT III 1.3-1.6 × ANT IV+V together…..Geopemphigus morral
Secondary rhinaria distributed III 9-17 (usually 10-15), IV 1-3(-5). ANT III 0.9-1.3 × ANT IV+V together …..Geopemphigus sp. “A” of Muñoz Viveros & Remaudière 1999
18 First tarsal segments usually with 2 sense pegs between the 2 long hairs. ANT III a little shorter than ANT VI (incl. PT); PT about 3 × its basal width (fig. 81G) …..Baizongia pistaciae
First tarsal segments with 0-1 sense pegs between the 2 long hairs. ANT III longer than VI. ANT PT shorter; less than 2 × its basal width…..19
19 ABD TERG 2-8 (or 3-8) each with a broad dusky or dark transverse band. Anal plate not joined to cauda…..20
At least ABD TERG 2-4 without any distinct dark transverse bands. Anal plate extending dorso-laterally, the extremities joined with the cauda to form a perianal ring …..21
20 Embryos with mouthparts. Secondary rhinaria subannular, mostly extending more than half-way around circumference of segment; III 18-30, IV 3-8, V 2-6, VI BASE 1-5 …..Geopemphigus torsus
Embryos without mouthparts. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 5-10, IV 1-4, V 0-1, VI BASE 0…..Geoica mimeuri
21 ANT III with only 3-7 large secondary rhinaria, usually in a single row (fig. 81I). ANT IV with 1-2 and V with 0-1 secondary rhinaria (when antennae 6-segmented). Embryos with spatulate dorsal hairs…..22
ANT III with at least 8 secondary rhinaria, not in a single row, and IV with at least 3 rhinaria (when antennae 6-segmented, e.g. fig. 81H). Embryos with dorsal hairs pointed or (rarely) spatulate…..23
22 ABD sternite 7 with a narrow, dark, transverse band separate from and anterior to subgenital plate. ANT III with at least 4 hairs, 8-15 µm long. Embryos of BL less than 0.7 mm, with a transverse row of 6-8 spatulate hairs between the long marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 …..Geoica lucifuga group
ABD sternite 7 without a transverse band. ANT III with 0-2 hairs, 4-9 µm long. Embryos with BL more than 0.8 mm, and with a transverse row of at least 12 spatulate hairs between the long marginals on each of ABD TERG 1-7…..Geoica setulosa
23 Embryos with 14-30 long very finely pointed spinopleural hairs between similar marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-7, and 35-64 similar hairs on anal plate. Hind tibiae short, usually less than 0.25 × BL. ANT III with 6-23 secondary rhinaria …..Geoica harpazi
Embryos with 6-17 long but acuminate hairs between similar marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-7, and 16-50 similar hairs on anal plate. Hind tibiae often more than 0.25 × BL. ANT III with 7-39 secondary rhinaria…..Geoica utricularia group
24 Antennae 5-segmented. Embryos with elongate hind tarsi…..25
Antennae 6-segmented. Embryos with hind tarsi only slightly longer than for and mid-tarsi …..26
25 BL 1.62-2.02 mm. Hind tibia length 0.41-0.45 mm…..Tramaforda koachi
BL 2.14-2.78 mm. Hind tibia length 0.49-0.55 mm…..Tramaforda wooli
26 ANT VI longer than ANT III, with a very large elongate primary rhinarium occupying almost the whole segment (fig. 81J) …..Forda formicaria
ANT VI not longer than ANT III, with primary rhinarium not especially large …..27
27 Secondary rhinaria numerous, small, subcircular. ANT PT reduced to a very short, almost non-existent stump, much shorter than its basal width (fig. 81N)…..Paracletus cimiciformis
Secondary rhinaria variable but usually transversely oval or quadrate, with long axis occupying more than half width of segment. ANT PT as long as or longer than its basal width…..28
28 All rhinaria with broad sclerotised rims. ANT III hardly longer than ANT VI, and bearing 3-6 mainly large secondary rhinaria…..Smynthurodes betae
Rhinaria without broad sclerotised rims. ANT III 1.5 or more × ANT VI, and often with more than 6 secondary rhinaria…..29
29 HT II with 4-8 dorsal and 2-7 ventral hairs (as well as 6 subapical hairs) …..30
HT II with 1-4 dorsal and 0-3 ventral hairs (+ 6 subapical)…..32
30 Antennae short, of total length only about 1.5 × head width across (and including) eyes or less, with ANT III 1.1-1.2 × HT II. Hairs on ANT III maximally 15-20 µm, at least as long as diameter of constricted base of segment. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 6-14, IV 2-4, V 0-3, VI BASE 0-2…..Forda sichangensis
Antennae about 2 × longer than head width across eyes, with ANT III 1.4-1.9 × HT II. Hairs on ANT III maximally about 10 µm or less, much shorter than diameter of constricted base of segment. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 15-30, IV 6-12, V 4-12, VI BASE 3-10 (e.g. fig. 81K) …..31
31 Longest hairs on ventral side of hind tibia 60-80 µm long. First segment of middle tarsus with two sense pegs…..Forda kaussarii
Longest hairs on ventral side of hind tibia 25-35 µm. First segment of middle tarsus with only one sense peg…..Forda marginata
32 Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 10-27, IV 5-10, V 2-6 and VI 1-5; mostly transversely oval, not extending half-way around segment (fig. 81L). Embryos with short hairs (about 10 µm long) on ABD TERG 1-5…..Forda riccobonii
Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-15, IV 2-6, V 1-4, VI 0-2; mostly narrow transversely elongate, often extending more than half-way around segment (fig. 81M). Embryos with hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 more than 20 µm long …..Forda hirsuta

Partial key to alate sexuparae on trunks of Pistacia (embryos without mouthparts):-

1 Secondary rhinaria with ciliated rims…..2
Secondary rhinaria with plain rims…..5
2 Antenna 6-segmented, with ANT III, IV and V all similar to one another, each with a single large rhinarium near apex (sometimes III also bears another smaller, rhinarium) …..Aploneura lentisci and Slavum sp.
Antenna 5- or 6-segmented, ANT III clearly longer than IV and bearing 10-20 rhinaria …..3
3 Antennae 5-segmented, secondary rhinaria distributed III 10-11, IV 0-1. ABD TERG 1-6 bearing marginal tubercles (MTu). ABD TERG 8 with 6-8 hairs …..Aloephagus myersi
Antenna 6-segmented, secondary rhinaria distributed III 10-20, IV 1-3. Abdomen without MTu. ABD TERG 8 with 2-3 hairs…..4
4 R IV+V only 0.06-0.07 mm long, less than 0.4 × HT II which is 0.18-0.20 mm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 10-13, IV 1-3. Only dorsal wax glands present …..Asiphonella cynodonti
R IV+V 0.09-0.13 mm long, at least 0.6 × HT II which is 0.13-0.18 mm long. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 13-20, IV 1-12. Abdominal sternites with paired wax glands …..Geopemphigus sp.
5 Primary rhinaria with ciliated rims…..6
Primary rhinaria with plain rims; only the small accessory rhinaria on ANT VI sometimes ciliated…..10
6 ANT II bearing 5-7 hairs, and ANT BASE VI with 4-6 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 0.35-0.45. Mesothorax often with a pair of wax pore plates; abdomen with large marginal and small spinal wax pore plates. R IV+V only 0.6-0.7 × HT II and bearing only 2 (rarely 3 or 4) accessory hairs. Anal plate with a longitudinal double row of 4 or 5 pairs of long thick hairs in addition to a group of shorter hairs. First tarsal segments respectively with 4, 4 and 3 hairs…..Baizongia pistaciae
ANT II bearing 6-50 hairs, and ANT BASE VI (or BASE V if antenna 5-segmented) with 9-40 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 0.17-0.30. Mesothorax without wax pore plates; abdomen without marginal wax pore plates, sometimes with small groups of pores dorsally on the unpigmented area or posteriorly on the pigmented parts of the tergites. R IV+V as long as or longer than HT II and bearing 4-10 accessory hairs. Anal plate either bearing numerous hairs of similar length or, if with a double row of larger hairs then there are 6 or 7 pairs. First tarsal segments respectively with 3, 3 and 2-3 hairs…..7
7 ABD TERG 8 with numerous (60+) scattered hairs similar to those on anal plate …..Geoica harpazi
ABD TERG 8 with 7-20 hairs more or less in a transverse row…..8
8 Anal plate with numerous scattered hairs…..Geoica utricularia
Anal plate with 6-7 pairs of long stout hairs in a longitudinal double row in addition to a group of shorter hairs…..9
9 ABD TERG 5 and 6 bearing scattered hairs like ABD TERG 2-4. Wax pores present only between ABD TERG 1-3 except in very large specimens. Longest hair on marginal abdominal sclerites 2-4 is 25-40 µm long…..Geoica setulosa
ABD TERG 5 and 6 each with only a transverse row of hairs similar to those on ABD TERG 7 and 8. Wax pores commonly present between ABD TERG 4-7 as well as 1-3. Longest hair on marginal abdominal sclerites 2-4 is c.60 µm long…..Geoica lucifuga
10 R IV+V 0.7-1.0 mm long, about 3 × HT II. First tarsal segments respectively with 3, 3 and 2 hairs…..Rectinasus buxtoni
R IV+V 0.13-0.60 mm long, 0.6-1.4 × HT II. First tarsal segments respectively with 5-12, 5-12 and 4-8 hairs…..11
11 HT II very long, 0.70-0.95 mm. R IV+V 0.45-0.60 mm …..Tramaforda wooli
HT II 0.14-0.47 mm. R IV+V 0.14-0.31 mm…..12
12 Antennae 6-segmented……Forda spp.
Antennae 5-segmented….13
13 Hind tibia 0.69 – 1.25 mm long. R IV+V 0.70-0.95 × HT II …..Smynthurodes betae
Hind tibiae 1.5 – 2.3 mm long. R IV+V 0.40-0.70 × HT II…..14
14 ANT III 1.4-1.9 × ANT IV. R IV+V 0.55-0.70 × HT II, which is 0.30-0.32 mm long …..Paracletus cimiciformis
ANT III 0.7-0.8 × ANT IV. R IV+V 0.40-0.55 × HT II, which is 0.37-0.47 mm long …..Paracletus donisthorpei
Pistia stratiotesRhopalosiphum nymphaeae, rufiabdominale

Key to separate apterae of these two species:-

(Both have weakly developed ANT tubercles and tergum with a reticulate pattern of spicules.)

SIPH clavate. ANT and body hairs short. ANT 6-segmented ….. Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
SIPH cylindrical. ANT and body hairs long. ANT 5-segmented ….. Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale
Pisum abyssinicum Acyrthosiphon pisum
P. arvense = P. sativum
P. elatius = P. sativum ssp. elatius
P. sativum (incl. ssp. elatius) Acyrthosiphon gossypii, kondoi, [moltshanovi],
pisivorum, pisum;
Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;
Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Macrosiphum creelii, euphorbiae; Megoura crassicauda;
Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;
Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon; Sitobion nigrinectarium;
Smynthurodes betae
Pisum spp.Megoura viciae

Key to apterae on Pisum:-

(See Blackman & Eastop, 2000, for an illustrated key to common aphids on Pisum sativum.)

1ANT tubercles well developed with smooth, divergent inner faces…..2
ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, or if well developed then with steep-sided, spiculose or scabrous inner faces…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
2SIPH black…..3
SIPH mainly pale, sometimes darker distally…..5
3SIPH tapering/cylindrical, with subapical polygonal reticulation, at least 1.5 × cauda which is contrastingly pale…..Sitobion nigrinectarium
SIPH cigar-shaped, without polygonal reticulation, similar in length to cauda, which is black …..4
4 ANT III with 5-26 (usually 10-18) rhinaria, not in a row, on basal 0.75 of segment (ANT IV of alata with 0-7 rhinaria)…..Megoura viciae
ANT III with (15-) 21-50 rhinaria in a row extending over 0.75-0.90 of segment. (ANT IV of alata with more than 17 rhinaria)…..Megoura crassicauda
5. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation…..6
SIPH without subapical reticulation…..7
6ANT VI BASE 0.8-1.3 × R IV+V…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
ANT VI BASE 1.4-2.0 × R IV+V…..Macrosphum creeli
7 SIPH long and attenuate distally, 0.42-0.50 × BL and 2.5-3.5 × cauda …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii
SIPH 0.22-0.38 × BL, and 1.2-2.3 × cauda…..8
8 ANT VI BASE 0.25-0.4 mm long, 1.8-2.3 × R IV+V …..Acyrthosiphon pisum
ANT VI BASE less than 0.2 mm long, 1.0-1.5 × longer than R IV+V…..9
9 ANT PT/BASE c.3. (Alata wih 13-19 secondary rhinaria along whole length of ANT III) …..Acyrthosiphon pisivorum*
ANT PT/BASE 4.7-6.0. (Alata with 7-9 secondary rhinaria confined to basal half of ANT III) …..Acyrthosiphon kondoi
Pitcairnia hybrida (?) Aphis aurantii, gossypii, odinae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Pithecellobium (= Pithecolobium) Fabaceae
Pithecellobium dulce Aphis craccivora
P. histrixAphis craccivora
P. lucidum (= Archidendron lucidum)Anomalosiphum pithecolobii
P. samanAphis (Toxoptera) citricidus
End of abdomen with backwardly directed hair-bearing processes. SIPH with a subapical ring of hairs. Antennae 5-segmented with ANT PT/BASE less than 1. R IV+V nearly 2× longer than HT II ….. Anomalosiphum pithecolobii
End of abdomen without backwardly directed hair-bearing processes, SIPH without hairs, antennae usually 6-segmented with ANT PT/BASE more than 1, and R IV+V usually much less than 2× HT II …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Pitraea cuneato-ovata Aphis gossypii; Eucarazzia elegans
Pittosporum Pittosporaceae
Pittosporum coccineum Aphis spiraecola
P. crassifoliumAphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae
P. eugenioidesMacrosiphum euphorbiae
P. floribundum = P. napaulense
P. formosanum (see P.pentandrum)
P. heterophyllumAphis aurantii, craccivora
P. mayi = P. tenuifolium
P. napaulense[Greenidea (Trichosiphum) anonae]
P. pentandrum (var. formosanum) [Semiaphis heraclei]
P. tenuifoliumAphis spiraecola
P. tobiraAphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, odinae,
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae
P. undulatumAphis craccivora; Macrosiphum tonantzin
P. viridiflorum [Sitobion sp. (Millar, 1991]
Pittosporum sp(p). Myzus antirrhinii

Key to apterae on Pittosporum:-

Dorsum pale, appendages pale or dusky only at apices. Antennal tubercles well-developed, with divergent inner faces, smooth except for a few spicules ventrally. SIPH with only 2-4 indistinct rows of polygonal reticulation. R IV+V long, 1.18-1.32 × HT II, with 22-29 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 4-6 hairs …..Macrosiphum tonantzin
Without that combination of characters …..go to key to polyphagous aphids.
Pituranthos chloranthus Hyadaphis coriandri
P. tortuosusHyadaphis coriandri
Pituranthos sp.Brachyunguis harmalae

Key to apterae on Pituranthos:-

(Both species have SIPH shorter than cauda.)

ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH very short, not swollen (Fig.36h), cauda triangular. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu) …..Brachyunguis harmalae
ANT PT/BASE at least 1.5. SIPH slightly swollen (Fig.41b), cauda finger-like. No MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7 …..Hyadaphis coriandri
Pityrogramma (incl. Pentagramma)Adiantaceae
Pityrogramma calomelanos Idiopterus nephrelepidis; Micromyzus niger
P. chrysophyllaMicromyzodium filicium
P. tartareaAulacorthum solani; Idiopterus nephrelepidis;
Micromyzella filicis
P. triangularisNeomyzus circumflexus

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

Plagianthus regius Paradoxaphis plagianthi
Plagiochloa see TriboliumPoaceae
Plagiogyria japonica Macromyzus spinosus; Vietaphis aliquanti

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

Plagiomnium affine Muscaphis escherichi
P. maximoviczii[Schlechtendalia chinensis]
P. rostratum Muscaphis escherichi
P. undulatum Jacksonia papillata; Muscaphis escherichi, musci

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

Plagiothecium laetum Muscaphis escherichi ssp. irae
Planera Ulmaceae
Planera aquaticaTetraneura ulmi
Plantago alpina = P. neumannii
P. altissimaAphis plantaginis
P. aristata = P. patagonica var. aristata
P. asiaticaAphis gossypii; Dysaphis plantagifoliae, plantaginea;
[Eriosoma harunire]; [Pemphigus dorocola]
P. camtschaticaAphis fabae;
[Nectarosiphon obako Shinji 1922 (nomen dubium)]
P. carinataAphis longirostris
P. cornutiAphis plantaginis
P. coronopusAphis longirostris; Dysaphis maritima, plantaginea
P.depressaAphis fabae, gossypii, plantaginis;
Brachycaudus plantaginis
P. lagopusAulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Myzus ornatus, persicae
P. lanceolataAphis fabae, gossypi, longirostris, [montanicola],
nasturtii, plantaginis, solanella, [Aphis sp. (Sweden;
Ossiannilsson 1964a)];
Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi, lucifugus;
Dysaphis aucupariae, maritima, plantaginea, plantaginis,
Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;
Neotoxoptera oliveri; [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]
P.longifolia (?)Aphis plantaginis
P. majorAbstrusomyzus phloxae; [Acyrthosiphon gossypii];
Aphis fabae, frangulae, gossypii, nasturtii,
plantaginis, spiraecola;
Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi, plantaginis;
Dysaphis aucupariae, plantaginea, plantaginis, pulverina;
[Hyalomyzus eriobotryae]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ascalonicus, [cerasi], cymbalariae, ornatus,
Neomyzus circumflexus; Protaphis middletonii;
[Rhopalosiphum maidis, nymphaeae];
Smynthurodes betae
P. maritimaAphis longirostris, plantaginis; Dysaphis maritima;
[Geoica utricularia]; [Myzus cerasi]
P. mediaAphis fabae, longirostris, nasturtii, plantaginis;
Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Dysaphis aucupariae, plantaginea, plantaginis,
Myzus ascalonicus, cymbalariae, ornatus, persicae
P. neumanniiAphis plantaginis
P. orbignyana Aphis craccivora
P. ovata = P. orbignyana
P. palmataAulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus
P. patagonica var. aristata Brachycaudus helichrysi; Protaphis middletonii
P. psylliumDysaphis plantaginea; Myzus ascalonicus
P. radicataDysaphis plantaginea; Myzus persicae
P. rugeliiDysaphis plantaginea; Protaphis middletonii
P. sempervirens[Brachycaudus cardui]
P. stepposa = P. urvillei
P. subulataMyzus persicae
P. urvilleiAphis longirostris, plantaginis
P. virginicaAphis gossypii
Plantago spp.Dysaphis pavlovskyana, shaposhnikovi;
[Sitobion akebiae, avenae]

Key to apterae on Plantago:-

1 ABD TERG 1-5 (-6) and 7 all with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu), those on ABD TERG 7 being as large as or larger than the adjacent spiracular plates…..2
MTu either absent or present, but not as above; in particular, if there are large MTu on ABD TERG 7 then they are similarly large on ABD TERG 1 only, and not consistently present on any intervening segments …..4
2 ANT and legs dark except for femoral bases. SIPH 2.2-3.5 × cauda which is black and bears 10-20 hairs…..Aphis sambuci
ANT and legs mainly pale, darker distally. SIPH 0.9-2.4 × cauda which is paler than SIPH and bears 6-9(-12) hairs…..3
3 R IV+V 1.24-1.41 × HT II. SIPH 1.62-2.4 × cauda…..Aphis plantaginis
R IV+V (1.29-)1.45-1.63 × HT II (only below 1.45 × in specimens with BL less than 1.2 mm). SIPH 0.94-1.64 × cauda…..Aphis longirostris
4 Cauda helmet-shaped, pentagonal or triangular in dorsal view, not longer than 1.2 × its basal width, and bearing 4-6 (usually 5) hairs…..5
Cauda (if at all evident) tongue-shaped, finger-shaped or bluntly triangular, but if less than 1.2 × its basal width then with more than 8 hairs …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
(but note that grass-feeding aphids may sometimes also occur on Plantago)
5 Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield, sometimes incomplete but usually extending from metanotum to ABD TERG 6…..6
Dorsum with or without scattered or segmentally divided dark sclerites …..8
6 SIPH swollen on distal half, strongly imbricated. Spiracular apertures reniform…..Dysaphis pavlovskyana
SIPH not swollen on distal half, smooth or weakly imbricated. Spiraclar apertures large and rounded…..7
7 ANT hairs short, longest on ANT III only c.0.2 × BD III. ANT PT/BASE 5.3-7.5. ANT III without rhinaria…..Brachycaudus lucifugus
ANT hairs long, those on ANT III 2.0-2.5 × BD III. ANT PT/BASE 2.2-2.5. ANT III with 6-16 rhinaria…..Brachycaudus plantaginis*
8 SIPH 0.8-2.0 × cauda …..9
SIPH 2.6-c.5 × cauda…..10
9 SIPH pale and smooth, with a subapical annular incision. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. MTu frequently absent…..Brachycaudus helichrysi
SIPH dusky to dark, imbricated. Dorsal abdomen with small dark scleroites at bases of hairs on ABD TERG 1-6, and dark cross-bands on 7 and 8. Well-developed MTu regularly present, on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-5…..Dysaphis pulverina
10 ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.1…..11
ANT PT/BASE 3.2-c.5…..12
11 Dorsal cuticle rather pale and not distinctly reticulate. Spinal and marginal tubercles (STu and MTu) if present not much larger than adjacent hair-bases …..Dysaphis aucupariae
Dorsal cuticle usually smoky and distinctly reticulate. STu and MTu when present up to 2 × diameter of adjacent hair-bases, MTu often appearing smoky …..Dysaphis maritima
12 ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.0. STu usually present on head and ABD TERG 7 and 8, and MTu usually on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-4 (-5)…..Dysaphis shaposhnikovi*
ANT PT/BASE 4.0-c.5. STu on ABD TERG 8 only or absent; MTu usually absent …..13
13 SIPH 3.0-3.4 × cauda, which is longer than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-4.5 …..Dysaphis plantaginea (or plantagifoliae – see text)
SIPH c.5 × cauda, which is not longer than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE c.5 …..Dysaphis plantaginis*
Platanthera bifolia Aphis fabae, [grossulariae]

(or use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium)

Platanus PlanesPlatanaceae
Platanus occidentalis [Aphis coreopsidis]; Aulacorthum solani
P. orientalis[Chaitophorus murreensis]
Platanus spp.Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Longistigma caryae;
Myzus persicae; [Sitobion akebiae]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Platostoma africanum Aphis gossypii
P. montanumAphis fabae, gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Platycarya strobilacea [Cervaphis quercus];
Kurisakia [onigurumii], sinoplatycaryae;
Mesocallis platycaryae

Key to apterae on Platycarya:-

Dorsal body hairs very long and thick, with knobbed apices; those on ABD TERG 8 much longer than HT II…..Mesocallis platycaryae*
Dorsal body hairs without knobbed apices, and all much shorter than HT II…..Kurisakia sinoplatycaryae*
Platycelyphium voense Aphis craccivora
Platycerium alcicorne Idiopterus nephrelepidis
Platycerium coronarium Micromyzus platycerii
Platycerium sp.Micromyzus katoi
Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.
Platycladus orientalis Cinara cupressi, [juniperi], lousianensis, tujafilina

Use key to aphids on Cupressus.

Platycodon glaucus = P. grandiflorus
P. grandiflorusAphis aurantii, citricidus, gossypii, solanella;
Aulacorthum solani; Megouroleucon codonopsicola;
Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae; [Sitobion akebiae];
Uroleucon kikioense, neocampanulae, [rudbeckiae]

Key to apterae on Platycodon:-

1 SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without polygonal reticulation. Head smooth or spiculose, if smooth then ANT tubercles not well developed …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
SIPH dark with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Head smooth, ANT tubercles well developed with smooth divergent inner faces…..2
2 Dorsal abdomen with large marginal and pre- and postsiphuncular sclerites but without scleroites at bases of spinal and pleural hairs. Dorsal hairs all shorter than ANT BD III. First tarsal segments with 4 hairs (2 sense pegs, 2 laterals)…..Megouroleucon codonopsicola
Dorsal abdomen with small marginal sclerites and scleroites at bases of spinal and pleural hairs. Dorsal hairs all much longer than ANT BD III. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs (1 medial sense peg, 4 laterals…..3
3 Cauda pale. R IV+V c.0.7 × HT II…..Uroleucon kikioense*
Cauda dark. R IV+V c.1.4-1.5 × HT II…..Uroleucon neocampanulae
Platylobium formosum Aphis platylobii
Platysace lanceolata Aphis gossypii
Plectranthus (including Coleus)Lamiaceae
Plectranthus albus = P. laxiflorus
P. amboinicusOvatus minutus
P. barbatusSitobion colei
P. blumei = P. scutellarioides
P. coetsa = Isodon coetsa
P. inflexus = Isodon inflexus
P. japonicus = Isodon japonicus
P. laxiflorusSitobion autriquei
P. longitubus = Isodon longitubus
P. monostachyos Aphis gossypii
P. rugosus = Isodon rugosus
P. scutellarioidesAphis affinis, gossypii; Eucarazzia elegans;
Macrosiphum mesosphaeri;
Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; [Ovatomyzus boraginacearum];
Sitobion colei
P. shirensisMyzus ornatus
P. striatus = Isodon lophanthoides var. graciliflorus
P. trichocarpus = Isodon trichocarpus
Plectranthus sp. [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]

See under Isodon for combined key to apterae on Isodon and Plectranthus.

Pleioblastus amarus Cerataphis bambusifoliae; Ceratovacuna hoffmanni;
Glyphinaphis bambusae
P. argenteostriatus Ceratovacuna japonica; Takecallis arundicolens
P. fortuneiMelanaphis bambusae; Paracolopha morrisoni
P. pygmaeus = P. fortunei
P. simoniiCeratovacuna japonica; Glyphinaphis bambusae
Pleioblastus sp.[Ceratovacuna longifila]

Use keys to aphids on Arundinaria and Bambusa.

Pleione formosana Aulacorthum solani
Pleione spp.Myzus ascalonicus, persicae

Use key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium.

Pleodendron fallax (?) Myzus ornatus
Pleopeltis excavata Micromyzella pterisoides

(or use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)

Pleurophyllum sp. [Jacksonia papillata]
Pleuropterus multiflorus = Fallopia multiflora
P. zuccariniiAphis nasturtii
Pleurospermum uralense Aphis fabae, pleurospermi

Key to apterae on Pleurospermum:-

R IV+V 1.4-1.5 × HT II and bearing 11-12 accessory hairs. Large marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 1-4(-5) and 7. ANT and tibiae mainly dark. Dorsal abdomen without any dark sclerotisation anterior to SIPH…..Aphis pleurospermi
R IV+V 0.9-1.1 × HT II and bearing 2 accessory hairs. MTu only regularly present on ABD TERG 1 and 7. ANT and tibiae with extensive pale regions. Dorsal abdomen usually with some dark markings anterior to SIPH…..Aphis fabae
Pleurothallis corniculata = Specklinia corniculata
P. cubensis = Acianthera rubroviridis
P. ruscifoliaSitobion luteum
P. velaticaulis = Stelis velaticaulis

Use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium.

Pleurozium schreberi Jacksonia papillata; Muscaphis escherichi;
Myzodium modestum; [Pachypappa rosettei, sacculi];
Pseudacaudella rubida

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

Plicosepalus acaciae Brachyunguis harmalae

(See key to apterae on Loranthus.)

Plinia cauliflora Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii;
Greenidea (Trichosiphum) psidii

Use key to apterae on Psidium.

Pluchea absinthoides Aphis spiraecola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Uroleucon tessariae
P. adnata = P. salicifolia
P. carolinensis (= P. odorata) Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Uroleucon ambrosiae
P. dioscoridisProtaphis delottoi, pseudocardui
P. indicaAphis gossypii
P. odorata auctt. = P. carolinensis
P. purpurascensAphis spiraecola; Uroleucon ambrosiae
P. roseaAphis spiraecola; Uroleucon ambrosiae
P. salicifolia Uroleucon ambrosiae

Key to apterae on Pluchea:-

1 ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. SIPH without polygonal reticulation …..2
ANT tubercles moderately or well developed, with smooth divergent inner faces. SIPH with distal zone of polygonal reticulation…..5
2 ANT PT/BASE 0.75-1.1. SIPH and cauda both shorter than R IV+V. Cauda bluntly triangular with 13-20 hairs. ANT III often with rhinaria on distal part. Dorsal abdomen with dark markings…..3
ANT PT/BASE 1.9-3.2. SIPH and cauda both longer than R IV+V. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped with 4-12(-15) hairs. ANT III without rhinaria. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings…..4
3 Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-38 μm, 1.5-2.0 × ANT BD III. ANT PT/BASE 0.75-0.93 …..Protaphis delottoi
Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 12-25 μm, 0.6-1.2 × BD III. ANT PT/BASE (0.8-)1.0-1.2 (-1.4)…..Protaphis pseudocardui
4 SIPH clearly darker than cauda, which has no constriction and bears 4-8 hairs. Femoral hairs all short……Aphis gossypii
SIPH and cauda both very dark. Cauda usually has an evident constriction between basal and distal part, and bears 7-15 hairs. Femora with some long fine hairs …..Aphis spiraecola
5 SIPH 1.1-1.35 × cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.30-0.35 of length …..Uroleucon ambrosiae
SIPH 1.7-2.2 × cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.13-0.28 of length…..6
6 SIPH reticulated over distal 0.22-0.28 of length. ANT III with 9-15 rhinaria. Cauda with pointed apex……Uroleucon tessariae
SIPH reticulated over subapical 0.13-0.20 of length. ANT III with 1-8(-10) rhinaria. Cauda with rounded apex…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
Plumbago auriculata Aphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [punicae],
P. capensis = P. auriculata
P. ceylonica (?)Myzus persicae
P. pulchellaAphis spiraecola
P. scandens = P. zeylanica
P. zeylanicaAphis craccivora, spiraecola; [Hysteroneura setariae];
Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Plumeria rubraAphis fabae, gossypii
P. tricolor = P. rubra

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Poa acroleucaSitobion akebiae
P. alopecurusPentamyzus tenuis
P. alpina[Acyrthosiphon loti]; Forda pawlowae;
Metopolophium alpinum, montanum; Schizaphis werderi;
Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae;
[Nasonovia brevipes]
P. alsodesSitobion avenae
P. ampla = P. juncifolia
P. angustifoliaAtheroides serrulatus;
Forda formicaria, hirsuta, marginata, pawlowae;
Geoica utricularia; Paracletus bykovi, cimiciformis;
Rhopalomyzus poae; Sipha maydis, tauricus;
Sitobion avenae
P. annuaAnoecia corni, furcata, haupti, vagans; [Aphis sambuci];
Aploneura lentisci; Atheroides serrulatus;
Baizongia pistaciae; [Brachycaudus helichrysi];
[Cavariella aegopodii]; [Colopha compressa];
Diuraphis noxia; Forda formicaria, marginata;
Geoica lucifuga, utricularia; Hyalopterus pruni;
Hysteroneura setariae; Jacksonia papillata;
[Matsumuraja capitophoroides]; Melanaphis pyraria;
Metopolophium chandrani, dirhodum;
Myzus ascalonicus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;
Paracletus bykovi ssp. uzbekistanicus;
Rhopalomyzus grabhami, lonicerae, poae;
Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi;
Schizaphis agrostis, graminum, [holci], palustris;
Sipha elegans, glyceriae, maydis;
Sitobion akebiae, alopecuri, avenae, fragariae, miscanthi;
Tetraneura caerulescens, fusiformis, fusiformis ssp.
bispina, [poae (Thomas 1879 – nomen dubium)], ulmi;
Utamphorophora humboldti
P. aquatica = Glyceria maxima
P. arcticaSitobion calvulum
P. arvensisForda marginata
P. botryoides (?)Anoecia vagans
P. bulbosaAnoecia corni; Aploneura lentisci; Baizongia pistaciae;
Forda formicaria, marginata, pawlowae;
Geoica [anchusae], utricularia;
Melanaphis pyraria; Paracletus cimiciformis;
Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum;
Sitobion avenae, fragariae; [Slavum lentiscoides]
P. chaixiiAnoecia furcata; Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae
P. compressaAtheroides serrulata; Forda marginata;
Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Schizaphis agrostis, graminum;
Sitobion avenae, fragariae
P. cookiiRhopalosiphum padi
P. exilis = P. infirma
P. flabellataPentamyzus falklandicus; Sipha glyceriae
P. foliosaJacksonia papillata
P. glaucaRhopalosiphum padi; Sipha glyceriae;
Sitobion avenae, fragariae; Utamphorophora humboldti
P. infirmaSitobion fragariae
P. juncifolia Forda marginata
P. laxa[Acyrthosiphon loti]; Pemphigus similis
P. maritima = Puccinellia maritima
P. molineriSitobion avenae
P. nemoralisAnoecia corni, furcata; Diuraphis holci, noxia;
Forda formicaria, marginata; Geoica utricularia;
Jacksonia papillata;
Metopolophium albidum, dirhodum, Metopolophium sp.
(Switzerland – BMNH, leg. K. de Rico);
Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion akebiae, avenae, fragariae
P. novae-zelandiae Sitobion miscanthi
P. palustrisRhopalosiphum padi; Sipha glyceriae; Sitobion avenae
P. pratensisAnoecia corni, cornicola, furcata; Aploneura lentisci;
Atheroides hirtellus, serrulatus; Baizongia pistaciae;
Forda formicaria, marginata;
Geoica setulosa, utricularia; Jacksonia papillata;
Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae, frisicum;
Paracletus bykovi ssp. uzbekistanicus, cimiciformis;
Rhopalomyzus poae;
Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi, padiformis;
Schizaphis graminum, muhlenbergiae;
Sipha flava, glyceriae, maydis;
Sitobion akebiae, avenae, fragariae, miscanthi, scoticum;
[Slavum lentiscoides]; Tetraneura ulmi, yezoensis
P. remotaRhopalosiphum padi
P. sachalinensisRhopalosiphum padi
P. schimperianaHysteroneura setariae; Myzus ornatus;
Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion graminis, yakini
P. sphondylodes = P. versicolor
P. sylvicola = P. trivialis
P. trivialis Anoecia corni, furcata; Aploneura lentisci;
Atheroides serrulatus; [Colopha compressa];
Cryptaphis poae; Forda marginata;
Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae,
festucae ssp. cerealium, frisicum;
Rhopalomyzus poae;
Rhopalosiphum [nigrum], oxyacanthae, padi,
Sipha elegans, glyceriae, maydis;
Sitobion akebiae, avenae, fragariae, miscanthi, scoticum;
Tetraneura ulmi; Utamphorophora humboldti
P. versicolorSitobion akebiae
Poa spp.Aphis craccivora; [Cerataphis lataniae];
Chaetosiphella berlesei; Geoica setulosa;
Glabromyzus howardii; Laingia psammae;
Paracletus bykovi; [Pemphigus bursarius]; Sipha uvarovi;
Sitobion graminearum, [Sitobion sp.(Chowdhuri et al, 1969b)];
[Subiziphya clauseni Quednau 1990]
Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.
Podocarpus Podocarpaceae
Podocarpus acutifolius Neophyllaphis totarae
P. alpinusNeophyllaphis gingerensis
P. chinensisNeophyllaphis brimblecombei, podocarpi, varicolor
P. cunninghamii Neophyllaphis totarae
P. elatusNeophyllaphis brimblecombei, fransseni
P. falcatus = Afrocarpus falcatus
P. glomeratusNeophyllaphis (Chileaphis) cuschensis
P. gracilior = Afrocarpus gracilior
P. hallii = P. cunninghamii
P. henkeliiNeophyllaphis podocarpi
P. lambertiiNeophyllaphis (Chileaphis) propinqua
P. latifoliusNeophyllaphis grobleri
P. lawrenceiNeophyllaphis gingerensis
P. macrophyllusNeophyllaphis brimblecombei, burostris, podocarpi,
P. macrophyllus var. maki = P. chinensis
P. milanjianusNeophyllaphis grobleri
P. nageia = Nageia nagi
P. neriifoliusNeophyllaphis podocarpi
P. nivalis[Neophyllaphis sp. (New Zealand; Teulon et al. 2013)]
P. nubigenusNeophyllaphis (Chileaphis) michelbacheri
P. parlatoreiNeophyllaphis (Chileaphis) iuiuyensis
P. rumphii Neophyllaphis fransseni
P. salignusNeophyllaphis (Chileaphis) podocarpini
P. spinulosusNeophyllaphis lanata
P. totaraNeophyllaphis totarae
P. usumbarensis = Afrocarpus usumbarensis
Podocarpus sp.Neophyllaphis (Chileaphis) pueblohondensis

Key to Neophyllaphis spp. on Podocarpus and related genera (Afrocarpus, Nageia):-

This key cannot be applied to oviparae (which are usually alate), except where stated.

1 Knob of cauda globose, about as wide as long…..2
Knob of cauda elliptical or elongate, much longer than its maximum width …..9
2 Aptera with eye of 3 facets only. Knob of cauda with 4-16 hairs (with 0-1 dorsal). SIPH cone with 2 small hairs, or ring-like…..3
Aptera with compound eyes. Knob of cauda with 16-43 hairs (of which 0-10 dorsal). SIPH cone with a ring of 6-19 hairs…..4
3 Knob of cauda with 10-16 hairs. HT II more than 2 × R IV+V…..grobleri
Knob of cauda with 4-6 hairs. HT II less than 2 × R IV+V …..burostris
4 HT II 0.22-0.32 mm, more than 2.5 × R IV+V…..5
HT II 0.16-0.25 mm, 2.5 × R IV+V or less…..6
5 Cauda of aptera with membranous distal part of knob very small, contrasting little with rest of knob. Alate morphs without dorsal hairs on first tarsal segments (although present in apterae)…..iuiuyensis*
Cauda of aptera with almost half of knob membranous and differentiated clearly from more sclerotic basal part. Alate morphs with a pair of dorsal hairs on each first tarsal segment …..podocarpini
6 Length of ANT III of aptera only about 0.3 mm, c. 0.5 × head width across eyes. Alate morphs with a pair of dorsal hairs on each first tarsal segment …..michelbacheri
Length of ANT III of aptera at least 0.35 mm, c. 0.6-1.0 × head width across eyes. Alate morphs (where known) without dorsal hairs on first tarsal segments (although they may be present in apterae)…..7
7 Dorsal abdomen of aptera with dark spinopleural cross-bands each bearing 9-20 hairs. Head capsule with pale area around eyes. (Alata unknown)…..pueblohondensis*
Dorsal abdomen of aptera with separate small sclerites/scleroites mostly bearing one hair each. Head capsule without pale area around eyes…..8
8 Mesonotum of aptera with a pair of large spinopleural sclerites, and metanotum and ABD TERG 1-7 each with a single transverse row of hairs, the spinopleural ones arising from small scleroites. Alata with ANT III bearing 47-70 secondary rhinaria …..propinqua
Meso- and metanota and ABD TERG 1-7 with numerous scattered hairs all arising from dark scleroites. Alata with ANT III bearing 31-50 secondary rhinaria …..cuschensis*
9 Knob of cauda with 16-25 hairs…..viridis
Knob of cauda with 9 or fewer hairs…..10
10ANT III of aptera more than 2.6 × ANT IV (that of alata 3.0-5.5 × ANT IV) …..11
ANT III of aptera less than 2.6 × ANT IV (that of alata 1.7-3.3 × ANT IV) …..12
11 ANT III of alata at least 1.5 × ANT IV-VI combined. ANT III of aptera about equal in length to ANT IV-VI combined. Rostrum not reaching to hind coxae. …..fransseni
ANT III of alata less than 1.1 × ANT IV-VI combined. ANT III of aptera shorter than ANT IV-VI combined. Rostrum extending backward well beyond hind coxae …..varicolor
12 ANT III of aptera less than 0.26 mm long, less than 0.8 of length of fore tibia. ANT III of alata less than 0.4 mm long, bearing 10-25 secondary rhinaria…..13
ANT III of aptera more than 0.26 mm long, more than 0.8 of length of fore tibia. ANT III of alata more than 0.4 mm long, bearing 30-58 secondary rhinaria…..14
13 Aptera with many dorsal abdominal hairs arising from pigmented scleroites of varying size and shape. Pigmented areas of head without a reticulate pattern and localised, the dorsal and lateral areas being well separated, with a clear area posteriolaterad to antennal base. Alata with 10-22 seconday rhinaria on ANT III, usually not extending to apex of segment, and ANT IV without rhinaria…..gingerensis
Aptera with dorsal abdominal hairs not based on pigmented scleroites. Pigmented areas of head with a reticulate pattern, the dorsal and lateral areas being contiguous, and the lateral pigmentation extending forward from triommatidium to antennal base. Alata with 20-25 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, distributed over whole length of segment, and ANT IV often with a few rhinaria …..totarae
14 Aptera with ANT III 0.35-0.62 mm long; ANT III and ABD TERG 3-5 with longest hairs 9-18 µm long. Alata with ANT III a little longer than IV+V+VI together, bearing 39-58 secondary rhinaria, and knob of cauda pale and without spinules on proximal half of dorsal surface…..brimblecombei/
Aptera with ANT III 0.25-0.38 mm long; ANT III and ABD TERG 3-5 with longest hairs 20-30 µm long. Alata with ANT III usually a little shorter than IV+V+VI together, bearing 30-44 rhinaria, and knob of cauda entirely pigmented and spinulose …..podocarpi

Podospermum see ScorzoneraAsteraceae
Podospermum canum see Scorzonera cana
P. purpureum see Scorzonera purpurea
P. laciniatum see Scorzonera laciniata

Podranea bryceiAphis gossypii
P. ricasolianaAphis gossypii, spiraecola

Use key to
polyphagous aphids

[Sitobion sp. (van Harten 1972)]

Pogonatherum paniceum Tetraneura basui,
fusiformis, radicola/yezoensis
P. saccharoideum = P. paniceum

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Pogonatum dentatum Myzodium modestum
P. urnigerumMyzodium modestum

Use key to aphids on mosses under Polytrichum.

Pogostemon (including Dysophylla)Lamiaceae
Pogostemon amaranthoides Aphis gossypii
P. benghalensisAphis
P. elstozia (?elsholtzioides) Subovatomyzus leucosceptri
Pogostemon sp.Aphis nasturtii; Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

to apterae on Pogostemon

Head smooth with well-developed, divergent ANT tubercles. Antennal and body hairs short, with somewhat capitate apices. SIPH pale, almost smooth, slightly but distinctly swollen on distal half, with a subapical annular incision. ANT PT/BASE 5.8-7.9 …..Subovatomyzus leucosceptri
Without this combination of characters…..go
to key to
polyphagous aphids
Pohlia gracilis = P. filum
P. filumMuscaphis escherichi; [Rhopalomyzus poae]
Pohlia sp.Myzodium modestum; [Prociphilus xylostei]

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

Cerataphis freycinetiae(?)
Poinciana see CaesalpiniaFabaceae
Poinciana pulcherrima = Caesalpimia pulcherrima
(in error as Poincianella pulcherrima?)
Poitea punicea Aphis craccivora
Polanisia duodecandra [Aphis polanisiae (nomen
dubium), polanisagraveolens (invalid)];
Myzus persicae
P. graveolens = P. duodecandra
Polemonium boreale Aulacorthum solani; Nasonovia dzhetisuensis
P. caeruleumMacrosiphum euphorbiae; Nasonovia dzhetisuensis;
Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae
P. caeruleum var. ?multiflorum [Macrosiphum chukotense]
P. carneumMacrosiphum euphorbiae
P. caucasicumNasonovia
P. foliosissimum Nasonovia muesbecki ssp. montana,
P. himalayanum Aulacorthum solani
P. mellitumMacrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae
P. racemosumAphis polemoniradicis
P. speciosumNasonovia polemonii
Polemonium sp. Nasonovia hottesi

to apterae on Polemonium

(Only alatae of Nasonovia hottesi are known; some characters of apterae of this species are inferred from alatae).

1 ANT tubercles undeveloped. Large hemispherical or flattened marginal tubercles (MTu) present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-4(-5) and 7. SIPH short and dark, 1.2-1.5 × cauda, which is about as long as its basal width and bears 10-16 hairs ..…Aphis polemoniradicis
Without that combination of characters…..2
2 Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones. ANT III with numerous rhinaria. First tarsal segments with 4 hairs. (Sec. rhin. in al. III 40-86, IV 0-22, V 0-3) …..3
Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria. First tarsal segments with (2-)3 hairs. (Sec. rhin. in al. III less than 30, IV 0-5)…..go to key to
polyphagous aphids
3 R IV+V 2.4-3.0 × HT II, and bearing more than 20 accessory hairs…..4
R IV+V 1.4-2.3 × HT II, with 10-15 accessory hairs…..5
4 SIPH 1.3-1.44 × cauda…..Nasonovia muesbecki ssp. montana*
SIPH more than 3 × cauda…..Nasonovia polemonii
5 SIPH 0.85-0.95 × cauda. R IV+V 2.0-2.3 × HT II, with 13-15 accessory hairs…..Nasonovia
SIPH longer than cauda (1.2-1.5 × longer in al.). R IV+V c.1.4 × HT II, with c.10-11 accessory hairs (data for al.)…..Nasonovia hottesi*
Polianthes tuberosa Aphis fabae, [polyanthis (nomen dubium)];
Myzus persicae
Polianthes sp.Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

[Pleotrichophorus stroudi]
Aulacorthum takahashii
Pollinia ciliata = Microstegium ciliatum
P. gryllus = Chrysopogon gryllus
Polyalthia longifolia Aphis gossypii, spiraecola
Polyalthia sp.Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Greenidea anonae

Use key to apterae on Annona.

Polyandrococos see Allagoptera Arecaceae
Polyandrococos caudescens = Allagoptera caudescens
Polyanthes see PolianthesAsparagaceae
Polycarpaea carnosa Aphis gossypii
P. repensMyzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Polycarpon prostratum Aphis gossypii
P. tetraphyllumBrachycaudus helichrysi; Myzys persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Polycodium stamineum Illinoia azaleae, pepperi
Use key to apterae on Vaccinium.
Polygala anatolica [Aphis sp. near craccivora]
P. arenariaAphis gossypii
P. butyraceaAphis craccivora
P. lancifolia Aphis craccivora
P. senega[Aphis polygalasenega (invalid)]
P. virgata = P. lancifolia
Polygala sp.Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ornatus;
Nasonovia ribisnigri

Key to apterae on Polygala:-

Thoracic spiracles greatly enlarged, rounded, much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4, usually more than 8.0. ANT III with 14-36 rhinaria …..Nasonovia ribisnigri
Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT PT/BASE less than 6. ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Polygonatum biflorum Macrosiphum insularis
P. caniculatumCatamergus kickapoo
P. commutatum = P.biflorum
P. falcatumAulacorthum solani; Pseudomegoura magnoliae
P. multiflorumAulacorthum speyeri; Metopolophium dirhodum;
Myzus ascalonicus
P. officinaleAulacorthum speyeri
P. pubescensCatamergus kickapoo
Polygonatum sp.Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Polygonatum:-

1 Head smooth, ANT
tubercles well-developed with their inner faces divergent
Head densely spiculose,
at least ventrally, and ANT tubercles with inner faces steep-sided or
apically convergent
2SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Median frontal
tubercle developed, so that front of head has W-shaped outline in dorsal view
SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal
reticulation (several rows of closed cells). Median frontal tubercle not developed,
so that head has U- or V-shaped frontal sinus in dorsal view
3 SIPH 0.28-0.32 mm long,
0.13-0.19 × BL and 1.9-2.6 × HT II
…..Catamergus kickapoo
SIPH 0.55-1.15 mm long,
0.21-0.35 × BL and 3.0-6.5 × HT II
4 ANT BASE VI 1.9-2.3 × R IV+V.
ANT PT/BASE 2.9-4.9. Cauda thick, c.2 × longer than its midpoint width in
dorsal view
…..Macrosiphum insularis
ANT BAsE VI 0.9-1.3 × R
IV+V. ANT PT/BASE 5.3-6.2. Cauda c.3 × longer than its midpoint width in
dorsal view
…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
5 Dorsal abdomen with
extensive dark sclerotisation across ABD TERG 2-4, fused with marginal
sclerites. SIPH dark basally and apically, cauda dark
Dorsal abdomen without extensive dark sclerotisation. SIPH pale, or
dark only apically, cauda pale/dusky
…..go to key
to polyphagous aphids
, starting at couplet 5
Polygonum alatum = Persicaria nepalensis
P. alpinum = Persicaria alpina
P. amphibium = Persicaria amphibia
P. amplexicaule = Persicaria amplexicaulis
P. angustifoliumAphis elegantula; Brachycaudus brevirostratus;
Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus;
Macchiatiella rhamni (ssp. tarani?)
P. arenariumAphis
P. argyrocoleonAphis polygonata; Aspidaphis adjuvans
P. aviculareAcyrthosiphon bistorti;
Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii, poygonata;
Aspidaphis adjuvans; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus amygdalinus, rumexicolens;
Brachyunguis shaposhnikovi;
Capitophorus hippophaes; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus certus, persicae; Pemphigus sp.; Sitobion avenae;
Trichosiphonaphis polygoniformosana
P. barbatumAkkaia bengalensis; Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola;
Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus, mitegoni;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus formosanus;
Trichosiphonaphis polygoni
P. bistorta = Persicaria bistorta
P. bistortoides = Bistorta bistortoides
P. blumei = Polygonum longisetum
P. bucharicum = Polygonum coriarium
P. cespitosum = Polygonum posumbu
P. capitatum = Persicaria capitata
P. carneumAphis fabae; Sitobion avenae
P. chinense = Persicaria chinensis
P. cognatumTrichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae
P. conspicuum = Polygonum japonicum var. conspicuum
P. convolvulus = Fallopia convolvulus
P. coriariumCapitophorus eniwanus, hippophaes; [Dysaphis emicis];
Macchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani; Tricaudatus polygoni
P. cristatum = Fallopia scandens
P. cuspidatum = Fallopia japonica
P. divaricatumBrachycaudus brevirostratus;
Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus;
Macchiatella itadori
P. diversifolium (?) Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus
P. douglasiiMacchiatiella rhamni
P. dubium = Persicaria dubia
P. ellipticum Acyrthosiphon bistorti; Brachycaudus amygdalinus;
Sitobion avenae, [fragariae]; Tricaudatus polygoni
P. equisetifolium (?) Aphis polygonata
P. equisetiformeAphis craccivora, nasturtii, polygonata;
Aspidaphis adjuvans; Blackmania eastopi;
Brachycaudus amygdalinus, sedi
P. erectum = Persicaria acuminata
P. fagopyron = Fagopyron esculentum
P. flaccidum = Polygonum pubescens
P. glabrum = Persicaria glabra
P. hydropiper = Persicaria hydropiper
P. hydropiperoides = Persicaria hydropiperoides
P. incarnatum = Persicaria lapathifolia
P. japonicum var.
Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus
P. juriiCapitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus
P. lapathifolium =
Persicaria lapathifolia
P. laxiflorumCapitophorus hippophaes
P. longisetum = Persicaria longiseta
P. maritimumAphis polygonata
P. minus = Persicaria minor
P. molle Akkaia bengalensis, neopolygoni;
Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus, mitegoni;
Tricaudatus polygoni; Trichosiphonaphis polygoni
P. montanum = Polygonum douglasii
P. muhlenbergii = Persicaria amphibia
P. multiflorum = Persicaria multiflora
P. nepalense = Persicaria nepalensis
P. newberryi = Aconogonon davisiae
P. nitens = Polygonum ellipticum
P. nodosum = Persicaria lapathifolia
P. odoratumAulacorthum solani
P. orientale = Persicaria orientalis
P. paronychiaAbstrusomyzus phloxae
P. patulumCapitophorus hippophaes
P. pensylvanicum = Persicaria pensylvanica
P. perfoliatum = Persicaria perfoliata
P. persicaria = Persicaria maculosa
P. phytolaccifolium = Aconogonon
P. plebeiumMyzus formosanus
P. polymorphumMacchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani
P. polystachyum = Persicaria wallichii
P. portoricense = Persicaria glabra
P. posumbu Trichosiphonaphis polygoni
P. proliferumMacrosiphum euphorbiae
P. pubescens Aphis gossypii; Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus
P. pulchrum = Persicaria pulchra
P. punctatumCapitophorus hippophaes; [Hyalomyzus jussiaeae];
Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
P. reynoutria = Fallopia japonica
P. ripariumBrachycaudus brevirostratus; Capitophorus eniwanus
P. roseovirideCapitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus
P. runcinatumAkkaia bengalensis; Aphis gossypii, nasturtii;
Myzakkaia polygonicola, verbasci; Myzus formosanus;
[Rhopalosiphum maidis]
P. sachalinense = Fallopia sachalinensis
P. sagittatum = Persicaria sagittata
P. salicifolium = Persicaria
P. scabrum = Persicaria lapathifolia
P. scandens = Fallopia scandens
P. senegalense = Persicaria senegalensis
P. senticosumCapitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus;
Trichosiphonaphis polygoni, polygonifoliae
P. serrulatum = Persicaria serrulata
P. setaceum = Persicaria hydropiperoides
P. sieboldii = Persicaria sagittata
P. sinense = Persicaria chinensis
P. songaricumAphis polygonata; Macchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani
P. sphaerocephalum Akkaia bengalensis
P. tenuicauleAphis nasturtii; Capitophorus hippophaes;
Neomyzus circumflexus
P. thunbergiiAkkaia neopolygoni, odaiensis, polygoni, taiwana;
Aphis polygonacea; Aspidophorodon salicis
Myzus kawatabiensis;
Trichosiphonaphis cornuta, lijiangensis, lonicerae,
polygoni, polygonifoliae, polygoniformosana, tade
P. tinctorium = Persicaria tinctoria
P. tomentosum = Persicaria lapathifolia
P. tripterocarpum Brachycaudus brevirostratus
P. undulatumMacchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani
P. viscosum[Capitophorus elaeagni];
[Myzus polygoniyonai Shinji (nomen dubium)]
P. viviparum = Persicaria vivipara
P. vulgareAphis gossypii
P. weyrichiiCapitophorus eniwanus; Tricaudatus polygoni
P. zuccarinii = Pleuropterus zuccarinii
Polygonum spp.Akkaia pseudopolygoni; [Aphis longisetosa, rumicis];
Aspidophorodon longituberculatus;
Capitophorus [formosartemisiae], himachali;
[Cavariella aegopodii]; Dysaphis microsiphon;
[Idiopterus nephrelepidis]; [Liosomaphis atra];
[Macrosiphum pseudogeranii];
[Micromyzodium sp.]; Myzakkaia niitakaensis;
Myzosiphum ryukyuense; [Myzus dycei];
Pemphigus [brevicornis], tibetapolygoni;
Prociphilus erigeronensis; [Pseudoregma nipponica];
Rhopalosiphum padi; Sinomegoura citricola;
Smynthurodes betae

Key to apterae on Polygonum, Persicaria and Aconogonon:-

1 ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent…..2
ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. SIPH present…..7
2 Body and appendages densely clothed with fine hairs. ANT II elongate, longer than IV. Anus and anal plate displaced dorsally. No wax pore plates …..Smynthurodes
Body and appendages sparsely hairy. ANT II much shorter than IV. Anus not displaced dorsally. Wax pore plates present…..3
3 Wax pore plates comprising rings of bead-like facets surrounding clear central areas, the marginal ones being transversely elongate…..Kaltenbachiella nirecola
Wax pore plates comprising numerous small pores without a clear central area, each gland bearing a single hair near its centre…..4
4Wax pore plates present on head, thorax and abdomen, especially well developed marginally on abdomen. R IV+V 0.13-0.175 mm long, with 4-8 accessory hairs. Cauda and anal plate forming a dark, rounded posterior projection of the abdomen …..Prociphilus erigeronensis
Wax pore plates absent from head and margins of abdomen, spinal and pleural plates present on thorax and abdomen, or on ABD TERG 3-7 only. R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm long, with 0-2 accessory hairs. Cauda and anal plate not produced posteriorly…..5
5 Wax pore plates present on thorax and ABD TERG 1-7. ANT PT/BASE c.0.35. R IV+V with a pair of accessory hairs…..Pemphigus tibetapolygoni*
Wax pore plates only on ABD TERG 3-7 (or 4-7). ANT PT/BASE less than 0.3. R IV+V without accessory hairs…..6
6 R IV+V 0.55-0.66 × HT II…..Epipemphigus imaicus*
R IV+V 0.70-0.83 × HT II…..Pemphigus sp(p).
7 Head cuticle with extensive spiculosity, at least on ventral side…..8
Head cuticle mostly smooth, wrinkled, corrugated or papillated; without spicules, or with spicules only either anterioventrally or posteriorly…..29
8 SIPH with subapical reticulation (c.4 rows of closed polygonal cells) …..Myzosiphum ryukyuense*
SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation, at most with 1-2 rows of tranversely elongate cells…..9
9 ABD TERG 1-4 with long thin marginal processes bearing small apical hairs (Fig.42a; only alatae are known, but these are assumed to be also present in aptera)…..Aspidophorodon longituberculatus
ABD TERG 1-4 without long thin marginal processes…..10
10 Tergum almost entirely very dark brown to black, sclerotic and very rugose. SIPH black, scabrous, with a well-developed flange (e.g.Fig.42b). Cauda with 4-6 hairs, and distal part somewhat constricted (e.g. Fig.42c)…..11
Tergum membranous or sclerotic, smooth or rugose, pale or dark; if entirely dark then smooth, finely spiculose wrinkled or reticulate. SIPH various. Cauda with 4-15 hairs, and distal part not usually constricted…..13
11 Cauda with (5-)6 hairs…..Myzakkaia niitakaensis
Cauda with 4 hairs…..12
12 Longest hairs on ANT tubercles 15-25 μm long, and hair on outer side of ANT I 20-25 μm long…..Myzakkaia polygonicola
Hairs on ANT tubercles and ANT I all very short and blunt, maximally 10 μm long …..Myzakkaia verbasci
13 SIPH flangeless (Figs. 42d, g, h (although sometimes with a swollen apical rim, e.g. Fig.42g) …..14
SIPH with a distinct apical reflexed flange (e.g. Fig.42i)…..18
14 SIPH tapering, cylindrical or only very slightly swollen towards apex, with apical diameter less than 0.35 × basal diameter (e.g. Fig.42d)…..15
SIPH expanded on distal part, and with apical diameter more than 0.35 × basal diameter (e.g. Figs 42g, h)…..16
15 ANT I with a finger-like projection at inner apex (Fig.42e). R IV+V 1.3-1.4 × HT II …..Trichosiphonaphis cornuta*
ANT I with a rounded scabrous boss at inner apex (Fig.42f). R IV+V 1.0-1.2 × HT II …..Trichosiphonaphis polygoni
16 ANT PT/BASE 0.75-0.9. Cauda with 4 hairs…..Aspidophorodon salicis
ANT PT/BASE 5.0-6.2. Cauda with 5-14 hairs…..17
17 Cauda with 7-14 hairs. SIPH with a slight subapical constriction (Fig.42g). Ventral hairs on head short and blunt, similar to dorsal hairs. BL usually more than 2 mm …..Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae
Cauda with 5-7 hairs. SIPH without any subapical constriction (Fig.42h). Ventral hairs on head pointed and much longer than dorsal ones. BL usually less than 2 mm …..Trichosiphonaphis tade
18 SIPH bearing 5-30 hairs…..19
SIPH without hairs…..21
19 SIPH with 15-30 hairs, the longest of them exceeding width of flange (Fig.42i). Cauda with 4-7 hairs…..Trichosiphonaphis polygoniformosana
SIPH with 5-20 hairs which are all shorter than, or at most equal to, width of flange. Cauda with 7-15 hairs…..20
20 R IV+V 1.0-1.15 × HT II. Cauda with 7-8 hairs …..Trichosiphonaphis gerberae*
R IV+V 1.3-1.35 × HT II. Cauda with 9-15 hairs …..Trichosiphonaphis lonicerae*
21 SIPH 0.85-1.25 × cauda, which is triangular or pentagonal and only about as long as its basal width in dorsal view…..22
SIPH 1.5-2.5 × cauda, which is elongate triangular or tongue-shaped, and clearly longer than its basal width…..23
22 ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.0. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 × HT II. Tergum smooth and mainly pale and membranous. SIPH with a large flange (Fig.42j). Cauda pentagonal, with 2-4 hairs (Fig.42k)…..Myzus
ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.0. R IV+V 1.0-1.06 × HT II. Tergum uniformly pigmented, sclerotic and finely wrinkled. SIPH with a small flange (Fig.42l). Cauda triangular with (4-) 5 hairs (Fig.42m)…..Myzus brevisiphon
23 Dorsal hairs 30-45 μm long, 1.5-2.2 × ANT BD III. Tergum uniformly pigmented, sclerotic, densely ornamented with minute rounded spicules. SIPH dark, thick, tapering, c.0.09-0.11 × BL and only about 3 × longer than their width at midlength (Fig.42n) …..Myzus formosanus
Dorsal hairs short and blunt, mostly shorter than ANT BD III. Tergum usually pale, smooth or wrinkled, not finely spiculose. SIPH pale/dusky, tapering, cylindrical or swollen distally, more than 0.15 × BL…..24
24 SIPH tapering, coarsely imbricated, with a slight S-curve. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.5…..Myzus ornatus
SIPH tapering, cylindrical or swollen distally, not curved, not coarsely imbricated. Dorsal abdomen without dark ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE 2.6-5.3…..25
25 SIPH tapering/cylindrical on distal half. ANT III usually with 1-2 small rhinaria near base …..Aulacorthum solani
SIPH at least slightly swollen on distal part. ANT III without rhinaria …..26
26 SIPH 0.54-0.81 × ANT III. Inner faces of ANT tubercles approximately parallel in dorsal view. SIPH almost smooth or weakly imbricated, with narrowest part of basal half not wider than hind tibia at midlength…..Myzus ascalonicus
SIPH 0.82-1.34 × ANT III. ANT tubercles apically convergent. SIPH modertely imbricated, with narrowest part of basal half wider than tibia at midlength…..27
27 ANT tubercles themselves rather low, but with scabrous processes extending forward from ANT bases. SIPH weakly swollen subapically (over about distal 0.25). Dorsum with an evident reticulate pattern…..Abstrusomyzus phloxae
ANT tubercles broadly rounded, without forwardly-directed processes. SIPH slightly to moderately swollen over about distal 0.5. Dorsum without a reticulate pattern …..28
28R IV+V in most specimens with only one pair of lateral accessory hairs (plus 0-3 ventral accessory hairs). Value of function cauda/(ANT III × PT) in range 0.80-1.52, but rarely more than 1.25 except in small specimens (those with ANT III less than 0.32 mm) …..Myzus persicae
R IV+V in most specimens with two pairs of lateral accessory hairs. Value of function cauda/(ANT III × PT) in range 1.2-2.7 (rarely less than 1.25) …..Myzus certus
29Dorsal hairs, or at least those on head and ABD TERG 8, long, thick and capitate, and arising from tuberculate bases. R IV+V rostrate; i.e. RV extended into a short beak-like process. SIPH more than 1.8 × cauda, and slightly to moderately swollen on distal part …..30
Dorsal hairs not long, thick and capitate. R IV+V not rostrate. SIPH tapering, cylindrical, swollen, flask-shaped, as short truncate cones, or absent…..35
30R IV+V 1.2-1.7 × HT II…..31
R IV+V 0.9-1.1 × HT II…..32
31SIPH 2.2-2.5 × cauda, and only moderately swollen on distal part. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 maximally 30-60 μm long, and on ABD TERG 8 maximally 35-70 μm long …..Capitophorus eniwanus
SIPH 2.6-3.1 × cauda, and markedly swollen on distal part. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 maximally 58-69 μm long, and on ABD TERG 8 maximally 65-72 μm long …..Capitophorus himachali*
32ANT 5- or 6-segmented, 0.4-0.6 × BL. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-3.8. ABD TERG 7 with marginal hairs longer than the minute spinal hairs…..Capitophorus essigi
ANT 6-segmented, 0.8-1.2 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE 5.75-8.75. ABD TERG 7 with spinal hairs much longer and thicker than marginal hairs…..33
33ANT I with very short inconspicuous hairs (maximally 8-15 μm) at inner apex. ABD TERG 6 with short thin inconspicuous hairs …..Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus
ANT I with conspicuous, thick capitate hairs (maximally 20-35 μm) at inner apex. ABD TERG 6 with thick, capitate spinal hairs…..34
34Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 all very small, so that those on ABD TERG 6 are much longer and thicker than those on ABD TERG 5 …..Capitophorus
Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 gradually increasing in size from anterior to posterior …..Capitophorus mitegoni
35Cauda very broadly rounded, hardly developed, less than half as long as its basal width in dorsal view…..36
Cauda various, and more than half its basal width…..41
36SIPH cylindrical or flask-shaped, more than 2.7 × longer than their basal width. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-10. ANT III with or without sec. rhinaria…..37
SIPH as short truncate cones. ANT PT/BASE 1.2-2.2. ANT III without sec. rhinaria …..39
37SIPH flask-shaped with “neck” much narrower than flange. ANT 5-segmented, without sec. rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.5. R IV+V 0.6-0.8 × HT II …..Blackmania eastopi
SIPH cylindrical. ANT 6-segmented, ANT III with sec. rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 6.5-10. R IV+V 1.0-1.4 × HT II…..38
38SIPH pale. Dorsum with variably-developed dark markings, if with a dark central patch then it is on ABD TERG 4-5 only, wider than long, and incomplete in spinal region…..Macchiatiella
(incl. ssp. tarani)
SIPH dark. Dorsum usually with a large solid dark patch extending over much of ABD TERG 2-5 or 3-5, as long as or longer than wide…..Macchiatiella itadori
39 First tarsal segments all with 2 hairs. Paired spinal tubercles (STu) regularly present on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and flat marginal tubercles (MTu) on marginal sclerites of ABD TERG 2-5. ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.5…..Brachycaudus acaudatus
First segments of fore and mid tarsi usually with 3 hairs. STu usually absent, and MTu only sporadically present. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.2…..40
40ANT 5- or 6-segmented, only 0.24-0.38 mm long, 0.17-0.28 × BL. Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 6 and 7 are pointed, 25-44 mm long, similar to those on ABD TERG 8. If dark sclerotic bars are present then these are on ABD TERG 6-8 only …..Brachycaudus amygdalinus
ANT usually 6-segmented, 0.49-0.95 mm long, 0.33-0.48 × BL. Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 6 and 7 are only 10-15 mm long, much shorter than those on ABD TERG 8. If dark dorsal sclerotic bars are present then these are on ABD TERG 5 as well as 6-8, and often there are irregular dark sclerites on more anterior segments …..Brachycaudus rumexicolens
(or brevirostratus?)
41ABD TERG 8 extended into a very large cowl-like supracaudal process with reticulate sculpturing, completely covering cauda in dorsal view (Fig.42o). SIPH as small thin tubes, less than 0.7 × cauda, swollen distally and with subapical aperture and no flange (Fig.42p). ANT 5-segmented…..Aspidaphis adjuvans
ABD TERG 8 not so extended, and other characters not in that combination …..42
42ANT PT/BASE less than 0.7. SIPH very small, less than 0.5 × cauda, which is longer than its basal width…..Brachyunguis shaposhnikovi
ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. SIPH more than 0.7 × cauda, or if less then cauda is shorter than its basal width…..43
43SIPH moderately to markedly clavate, and smooth-surfaced…..44
SIPH not clavate; tapering/cylindrical or very slightly swollen, imbricated or thick and scabrous…..45
44Appendages mainly dark. Dorsal cuticle with a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons. ABD TERG 7 and 8 without median tubercular processes. SIPH with smooth constricted subapical region…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Appendages pale. Dorsal cuticle not spinulose. ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8, with a median tubercular process bearing a pair of short blunt hairs (Fig.42q). SIPH with tranverse striae on subapical region…..Tricaudatus polygoni
45ANT tubercles with longer-than-wide forward-pointing projections. SIPH very rugose, scaly or warty, thick and tapering from a broad base, or swollen for most of length and tapering to a small terminal flange and aperture. Cauda constricted on basal part and swollen on distal part…..46
ANT tubercles either undeveloped or without forward-pointing projections. SIPH and cauda not as above…..51
46SIPH dark, with diameter at flange 0.4-0.5 × diameter at base, and more than width of hind tibia at midlength (e.g. Fig.42r). ANT 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.4 …..47
SIPH pale or only dark distally, and narrowing apically to a usually small oblique flange of diameter only 0.16-0.33 × diameter at base, and less than midlength width of hind tibia (e.g. Fig.42s). ANT 5- or 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.3…..48
47Projections on ANT tubercles rather straight, c. 0.75 × length of ANT I measured along its outer side (Fig, 42t). BL usually less than 2.1 mm…..Akkaia taiwana
Projections on ANT tubercles bent outward distally (Fig.42u), and at least as long as ANT I measured along its outer side. BL usually more than 2.1 mm …..Akkaia bengalensis
48ANT 6-segmented. Projections on ANT tubercles c. 3 × their basal widths, almost as long as ANT I + II together when measured along their outer sides…..49
ANT 5-segmented. Projections on ANT tubercles c. 2 × their basal widths, hardly longer than ANT I when measured along its outer side…..50
49Projections on ANT tubercles nearly straight, slghtly tapering (Fig.42w), projecting forward almost to distal end of ANT II. ANT less than 0.5 × BL. R IV+V a little shorter than HT II …..Akkaia neopolygoni
Projections on ANT tubercles curved outward distally, with club-shaped apices, projecting forward to a little beyond most distal part of ANT I. ANT c.0.6 or more × BL. R IV+V more than 1.1 × HT II…..Akkaia pseudopolygoni*
50Dorsal cuticle of head papillated, except on anterior part. Inner apex of ANT I with a rounded scabrous projection…..Akkaia polygoni
Dorsal cuticle of head mostly smooth. Inner apex of ANT I not projecting anteriorly …..Akkaia odaiensis*
51ANT III with 1 or more rhinaria on basal part. Body spindle-shaped, with pale elongate finger-like cauda. SIPH usually with subapical polygonal reticulation…..52
ANT III usually without any rhinaria except in alatiform specimens, or with rhinaria on distal part. Body oval. SIPH without polygonal reticulation…..56
52Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.2 × BD III…..53
Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 × BD III…..54
53SIPH mainly dark, paler at base. ANT PT/BASE 6-8. ANT BASE VI 1.4-1.6 × R IV+V. Cauda with 7 hairs…..Macrosiphum venaefuscae
SIPH pale, sometimes darker towards apices. ANT PT/BASE 5.3-6.2. ANT BASE VI 0.9-1.3 × R IV+V. Cauda with 8-14 hairs…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
54SIPH pale, rather long and thin, without subapical reticulation or with only a few closed cells. R IV+V with acute apex and c.10 accessory hairs. Cauda with 5-6 hairs …..Acyrthosiphon bistorti*
SIPH dark, rather thick, with subapical reticulation on distal 0.19-0.35 of length. R IV+V short and blunt, with 4-6 accessory hairs. Cauda with (6-) 7-13 hairs…..55
55 SIPH 1.1-1.4 × cauda. HT II 1.25 -1.6 × R IV+V…..Sitobion avenae
SIPH 1.4-1.9 × cauda. HT II 1.0-1.3 × R IV+V……Sitobion miscanthi
56 Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width, with 4-6 hairs…..57
Cauda tongue-shaped or bluntly triangular, if about equal to its basal width then with more than 10 hairs…..58
57 SIPH imbricated, very small, 0.03-0.08 mm. Well-developed MTu present
on ABD TERG 1-5. Spiracular apertures reniform. Dark dorsal abdominal
cross-bands often present
…..Dysaphis microsiphon
SIPH smooth, 0.08-0.14 mm. MTu absent. Spiracular apertures rounded. Never with dark dorsal markings…..Brachycaudus helichrysi
58 ANT tubercles moderately developed, with divergent inner faces. Dorsal thorax and ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-5 with extensive dark reticulate sclerotisation, but ABD TERG 1 and (5-)6-8 mainly membranous. Well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) present on prothorax and ABD TERG 2-6, but not on ABD TERG 1 or 7 …..Aphthargelia rumbleboredomia*
ANT tubercles weakly developed. Dorsal abdomen membranous or with different pattern of sclerotisation. Marginal tubercles always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7 …..59
59 SIPH pale and 0.63-0.85 × cauda…..Aphis polygonata
SIPH pale or dark, 0.8-2.5 × cauda, but if pale then more than 0.9 × cauda …..60
60 ANT PT/BASE 1.18-1.45. Abdomen with paired dark spino-pleural sclerites on ABD TERG 1-4, and short cross-bands on ABD TERG 5-8. SIPH 1.2-1.6 × cauda, which is bluntly triangular and bears 5-9 hairs…..Aphis elegantula
ANT PT/BASE either less than 0.5 or more than 1.5, and other characters not in above combination …..61
61 SIPH black, 0.40-0.48 mm long, 1.9-2.3 × cauda which is also black, usually has a distinct midway constriction, and bears 7-11 hairs. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings …..Aphis polygonacea
Without the above combination of characters; if SIPH black and more than 1.8 × cauda then either cauda is not black, or it has more than 11 hairs, or dorsal abdomen has extensive black sclerotisation …..go
to key to
polyphagous aphids
, starting at couplet 25
Polymnia canadensis Neomyzus circumflexus; Uroleucon zinzalae
Polymnia sp.[Capitophoris hippophaes]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Polymnia:-

SIPH dark, with polygonal
reticulation on distal 0.28-0.35 of length. R IV+V more than 2 × HT II and
bearing 20-30 accessory hairs. ANT III dark with 30-40 rhinaria distributed
over more than half of length
…..Uroleucon zinzalae
Without the above
combination of characters
…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Polypodium ellipticum see Colysis
P. glycyrrhizaAulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum adianti, walkeri
P. hesperiumMacrosiphum rhamni
P. loriceumIdiopterus nephrelepidis
P. lycopodoides see Microgramma
P. mettenianum (?) Micromyzella filicis
P. orientale = Arthropteris orientalis
P. pectinatum = Pecluma pectinata
P. piloselloides see Microgramma
P. phyllitidis see Campyloneurum
P. punctatumMicromyzella filicis; Micromyzus katoi
P. revolutum (?)Idiopterus nephrelepidis
P. scolopendria see Phymatosorus
P. ?virginianumMacrosiphum miho
P. vulgareAulacorthum solani; Idiopterus nephrelepidis;
Macrosiphum dryopteridis; Myzus cymbalariae;
[Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae]; Taiwanomyzus alpicola
Polypodium spp.Amphorophora ampullata ssp. bengalensis;
Macromyzella polypodicola; Macromyzus woodwardiae;
Micromyzodium filicium, polypodii;
Micromyzus mawphlangensis; Shinjia orientalis;
Taiwanomyzus himalayensis

Key to apterae on Polypodium and other fern genera:-

Note: Albrecht (2015) provides an identification guide to aphids on ferns in Northern Europe with simplified keys and colour photographs.

(Cyrtomophorodon cyrtomophitum
Qiao & Zhang, described from Cyrtomium in China, could not be included in the key on the basis of the published description; it might run to Micromyzella
, but with somewhat shorter SIPH.)

1 Tarsi vestigeal, without claws, reduced to a very small thumb- or finger-like process (e.g Fig.43a)…..2
Tarsi normally developed, with 2 claws…..3
2 Head spiculose. ANT 5-segmented (in both apt. and al.) …..Mastopoda pteridis
Head without spicules. ANT 6-segmented…..Shinjia orientalis
3 ANT III bearing many (10-37) small papillate rhinaria on distal half (Fig.43b). SIPH 0.5-1.1 × head width…..Papulaphis
ANT III without rhinaria, or with fewer rhinaria that are either on basal half or extend along segment; if on distal half then SIPH 1.4-1.9 × head width…..4
4 SIPH cylindrical/tapering, rather thick, 1.5-2.1 × width of hind tibia at their respective midlengths, and with a distinct subapical zone of reticulation (several rows of closed polygonal cells;e.g. Fig.43c). Head with numerous spicules…..5
Without the above combination; if SIPH have a distinct zone of polygonal reticulation then they are not more than 1.5 × thicker than hind tibia at midlength, and head is without spicules, or with spicules confined to ventrolateral areas…..8
5 Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerites. Longest hairs on ANT III only 0.2-0.3 × BD III. SIPH entirely dark…..Macromyzella polypodicola
Dorsal abdomen with raised dark sclerites at bases of dorsal hairs (e.g. Fig.43c). Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-1.3 × BD III. SIPH pale or dark…..6
6 ANT III and IV with rhinaria…..Macromyzus maculatus
ANT III and IV without rhinaria…..7
7 Longest hairs on ANT III 0.45-0.6 × BD III. SIPH pale distally and with a small flange…..Macromyzus
Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.3 × BD III. SIPH entirely dark, with flange well-developed (Fig.43c)…..Macromyzus woodwardiae
8 SIPH pale or dusky, or black on basal 0.25-0.33 and pale distally, or dark only at apex …..9
SIPH mostly dark, sometimes paler towards base …..48
9 Head smooth, or spiculose only ventrally…..10
Head with spicules or nodules on both dorsal and ventral surfaces…..32
10 SIPH clavate, almost smooth, without subapical reticulation, or at most with 3 rows of imperfect cells (e.g. Fig.43d, e)…..11
SIPH tapering or cylindrical, with normal imbrication, and often with some subapical polygonal reticulation…..15
11 Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield …..Gibbomyzus pteridophytorum
Dorsum pale…..12
12 SIPH rather strongly swollen over 0.7 of length, with maximum width of swollen part c. 3 × narrowest width just proximal to flange (Fig.43d). ANT III with 19-27 rhinaria. Femora scabrous over distal 0.5-0.7 of length……Amphorophora scabripes
SIPH swollen on distal part with maximum width c. 2 × narrowest width just proximal to flange (Fig.43e). ANT III with 1-38 rhinaria. Femora scabrous over distal c.0.3 …..13
13 ANT III with 1-6 rhinaria near base. R IV+V 1.15-1.4 × HT II. ANT VI BASE 1.3-1.6 × R IV+V…..Amphorophora ampullata ssp. bengalensis
ANT III with 5-23 rhinaria. R IV+V 0.85-1.15 × HT II. ANT VI BASE 1.5-2.0 × R IV+V …..14
14 ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.2 (-5.6). SIPH 1.9-2.7 × cauda …..Amphorophora ampullata s. str.
ANT PT/BASE 5.0-6.6. SIPH 1.5-2.1 × cauda …..Amphorophora ampullata s.sp. laingi
15 ANT less than 0.7 × BL, with ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH dark at apices, without polygonal reticulation …..Aphis nasturtii
ANT more than 0.9 × BL, and ANT tubercles moderately to well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. SIPH usually with some subapical polygonal reticulation …..16
16 Entire tergum anterior to SIPH dark-pigmented…..Macrosiphum cystopteris
Tergum usually pale or if pigmented it is darkest posteriorly…..17
17 R IV+V with 13-35 accessory hairs…..18
R IV+V with 4-12 accessory hairs…..19
18 R IV+V 0.18-0.21 mm, 1.6-1.95 × HT II. Tergum unpigmented …..Macrosiphum longirostratum
R IV+V 0.12-0.15 mm, 1.38-1.61 × HT II. Tergum of abdomen sometimes pigmented posteriorly…..Macrosiphum woodsiae
19 ANT III-VI and tibiae almost entirely dark. SIPH without any discernible polygonal reticulation…..Macrosiphum cyatheae
ANT III-VI and tibiae pale or dusky, or only dark towards apices. SIPH usually with at least a few subapical polygonal cells…..20
20 Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-c.1.0 × BD III…..21
Longest hairs on ANT III 0.2-0.45 × BD III…..23
21 ANT III with 1-7 (-10) rhinaria. SIPH 1.7-2.2 × cauda …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
ANT III with (4-) 7-46 rhinaria. SIPH 2.2-2.8 × cauda…..22
22 ANT not more than 1.2 × BL. Longest hairs on ANT III c.1.0 × BD III. SIPH 2.2-2.3 × cauda which bears 12-13 hairs…..Macrosiphum lapponicum*
ANT more than 1.3 × BL. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-0.7 × BD III. SIPH 2.5-2.8 × cauda which bears 8-10 hairs…..Macrosiphum lambi
23 SIPH without a broad base (Fig.43f), less than 0.2 × BL and 1.8-2.1 × cauda. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 × HT II…..Macrosiphum adianti
SIPH broad-based (Fig.43g, h), 0.21-0.33 × BL and 2.2-2.9 × cauda. R IV+V 0.8-2.1 × HT II…..24
24 R IV+V almost always less than 0.14 mm (except in large specimens of walkeri) …..25
R IV+V usually more than 0.14 mm (except in small specimens of clydesmithi) …..28
25 ANT III usually without rhinaria, sometimes with 1. Front of head dusky/dark with clusters of rather large spinules or nodules ventrally below ANT tubercles …..Macrosiphum rebecae
ANT III with 1-8 rhinaria. Head pale, with or without fine spinules ventrally …..26
26 R IV+V less than 0.11 mm, 0.8-1.0 × HT II. ANT IV shorter than ANT V …..Macrosiphum miho*
R IV+V usually more than 0.11 mm, 1.0-1.5 × HT II. ANT IV usually as long as or longer than ANT V…..27
27 Cauda with (7-) 8-10 hairs (often 4 lateral pairs) …..Macrosiphum dryopteridis
Cauda with 7-9 hairs (usually 3 lateral pairs)…..Macrosiphum walkeri
28 Joints between ANT III-IV and ANT IV-V contrastingly black. ANT III usually with 1 rhinarium, sometimes 0 or 2. HT II 0.08-0.10 mm…..Macrosiphum rhamni
Joints of ANT III-V pale or dark but not black. ANT III with 0-36 rhinaria, rarely less than 2. HT II 0.08-0.17 mm…..29
29 Dorsal hairs short, thick and capitate; those on ANT tubercles less than 0.6 × BD III. SIPH with 0-3 rows of often rather indistinct subapical reticulation (Fig.43g) …..Macrosiphum clydesmithi
Dorsal hairs thin with blunt or only slightly incrassate apices; longest hairs on ANT tubercles more than 0.6 × BD III. SIPH with 3-10 subapical rows of distinct polygonal reticulation (e.g. Fig.43h) …..30
30 R IV+V 0.8-1.3 × HT II, which is 0.13-0.17 mm long. ANT III with 14-36 rhinaria …..Macrosiphum osmaroniae*
R IV+V 1.2-1.45 × HT II, which is 0.10-0.14 mm long. ANT III with 3-35 rhinaria …..31
31 R IV+V 0.14-0.15 mm, 1.21-1.44 × HT II, which is 0.10-0.12 mm. Hind tibiae usually dusky throughout…..Macrosiphum ptericolens
R IV+V 0.16-0.18 mm, 1.28-1.55 × HT II, which is 0.12-0.14 mm. Hind tibiae with middle section pale…..Macrosiphum pteridis
32 SIPH tapering, cylindrical, or only slightly swollen subapically…..33
SIPH clavate; i.e at least slightly swollen over c.0.4 or more of length distally, with narrower basal section…..44
33 SIPH black on basal 0.25-0.33, contrasting with complete lack of pigmentation distally (Fig.43i). Head black with ANT tubercles very well developed, their inner faces straight and slightly divergent. Dorsal hairs long and capitate, arising from tuberculate bases …..Idiopterus nephrelepidis
SIPH entirely pale or differently pigmented. Head pale or dark, and if ANT tubercles are well developed then they usually have parallel or gibbous, apically convergent inner faces. Dorsal hairs short or long, if long then not capitate…..34
34 Dorsal abdomen with a large black roughly U-shaped patch, and paired dark patches on thorax…..Neomyzus circumflexus
Dorsum either pale or with different pigmentation…..35
35 Dorsal hairs long, as long as or longer than ANT BD III. SIPH nearly twice as wide as hind tibia at their respective midlength points, dark on basal and distal parts with a paler section in between (e.g. Fig.43j). ANT III without rhinaria…..36
Dorsal hairs very short, much shorter than BD III. SIPH not more than 1.5 × wider than hind tibia at their respective midlengths. ANT III with or without rhinaria …..38
36 Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation. Dorsal hairs very long, 3-4 × BD III …..Micromyzodium filicium
Dorsum pale, with hairs all less than 2 × BD III…..37
37 R IV+V c.2.3-2.5 × HT II. Cauda with 4 hairs…..Micromyzodium polypodii
R IV+V less than 1.7 × HT II. Cauda with 5-10 hairs …..Micromyzodium dasi*
38 Tibiae pale or only dark at apices…..39
Tibiae entirely dark…..43
39 Abdomen with a central dark sclerite extending over ABD TERG 1-5. R IV+V 1.45-1.65 × HT II…..Myzus lefroyi*
Dorsal abdomen without a large dark central sclerite. R IV+V 1.0-1.4 × HT II …..40
40 ABD TERG 1-5 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Head and ABD TERG 7 and 8 often with spinal tubercles (STu). SIPH 5-7 × longer than their midlength diameter. Immatures with outer apices of hind tibiae spinulose …..Myzus sp. (“Aspidium”, Pakistan;
BMNH collection, leg. M.A. Ghani)
MTu and STu absent. SIPH 8-18 × longer than their midlength diameter. Hind tibiae of immatures with or without spinules…..41
41 ANT I-II dark, femora dark distally. SIPH slightly expanded subapically, with a small flange (Fig.43k). Cauda dusky/dark…..Micromyzus niger
ANT I-II and femora pale. SIPH tapering from base to the well-developed flange. Cauda pale…..42
42 BL 1.8-3.0 mm. ANT III-V and BASE VI mainly pale with dark apices. Head densely spiculose dorsally and ventrally…..Aulacorthum solani
BL 1.2-1.4 mm. ANT III-VI wholly dark. Head with rounded nodules near eyes dorsally, wrinkled with sparse spinules ventrally…..Vietaphis aliquantus*
43 ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.5. Tibiae black, contrasting with pale femora. Cauda elongate, rounded at apex, more than 2 × longer than its basal width in dorsal view …..Micromyzus osmundae
ANT PT/BASE 4-5. Tibiae dark, but not black. Cauda triangular, c.1.4 × its basal width in dorsal view …..Micromyzus nikkoensis
44 SIPH almost smooth or very weakly imbricated, especially on swollen part (e.g. Fig.43l). HT I with 3 hairs. ANT III with 0-12 rhinaria…..45
SIPH either moderately or very coarsely imbricated. HT I with 2 hairs (no sense peg). ANT III never with rhinaria…..47
45 Longest hairs on ANT III c. 0.67 × BD III, and hairs on ABD TERG 7 and 8 pointed, c.1.8-1.9 × BD III. ANT PT/BASE 3.3-3.8. R IV+V with 4 accessory hairs …..Taiwanomyzus himalayensis
ANT and dorsal body hairs all minute, blunt. less than 0.5 × BD III. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-2.8. R IV+V with either 2 or 6 accessory hairs…..46
46 ANT III with 0-7 rhinaria on basal part. R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs …..Taiwanomyzus filicis
ANT III with 9-12 rhinaria over 0.5-0.67 of length. R IV+V with 6 accessory hairs …..Taiwanomyzus babai*
47 SIPH more than 0.8 × ANT III, with moderate imbrication. Dorsal cuticle almost smooth …..Myzus persicae
SIPH less than 0.8 × ANT III, with coarse imbrication. Dorsal cuticle scaly …..Myzus cymbalariae
48 SIPH clavate, with maximum width of swollen part 1.3-1.6 × minimum width of basal part (Fig.43m). Dorsum with an extensive dark shield. ANT III with 1-2 rather large rhinaria…..Taiwanomyzus alpicola
SIPH tapering, cylindrical or somewhat swollen in middle, but without a distinctly narrower stem. Dorsum pale or dark, ANT III with or without rhinaria…..49
49 ANT less than 0.75 × BL…..50
ANT more than 0.75 × BL…..53
50 ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces apically convergent. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH often paler towards base (Fig.43n) …..Myzus filicis
ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. SIPH uniformly dark…..51
51 SIPH clearly darker than cauda, which bears 4-8 hairs……Aphis
SIPH and cauda both very dark. Cauda with 7-15 hairs…..52
52 Hind tibiae mainly dark. ANT PT/BASE 3.4-4.7. R IV+V 1.25-1.6 × HT II. SIPH 1.7-2.7 × cauda…..Aphis nerii
Hind tibiae pale except at base and apex. ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.9. R IV+V 1.0-1.24 × HT II. SIPH 0.9-1.7 × cauda…..Aphis spiraecola
53 SIPH 1.1-1.5 × cauda, which bears 10-28 hairs.Stridulatory apparatus present ….. Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
SIPH 1.6-3.7 × cauda, which bears 3-9 hairs. No stridulatory apparatus …..54
54 SIPH 2.5-3.7 × cauda…..55
SIPH 1.6-2.4 × cauda…..59
55 SIPH tapering/cylindrical, or slightly swollen subapically, at least 10 × longer than their width at midlength (e.g. Fig. 43o)…..56
SIPH slightly swollen in middle (cigar-shaped), less than 10 × longer than their width at midlength (e.g. Fig.43p)…..58
56 R IV+V 1.34-1.62 × HT II, and bearing 8-15 accessory hairs. Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation, not segmentally divided…..Micromyzella davalliae
R IV+V 0.85-1.05 × HT II, with only 2-6 accessory hairs. Dorsum pale or with broad dusky sclerotic cross-bands…..57
57 R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs. Cauda much paler than SIPH, with several or all of hairs short and blunt…..Micromyzella sleonensis
R IV+V with 5-6 accessory hairs. Cauda dusky/dark with all hairs fine-pointed …..Micromyzus pojanii
58 R IV+V c.1.1 × HT II, with 4 accessory hairs. Dorsum mainly pale, with a fragmented spinal patch on ABD TERG 1-3…..Micromyzus mawphlangensis*
R IV+V 1.67-2.25 × HT II, with 8-12 accessory hairs. Dorsum pale or dark …..63
59 HT II 0.104-0.118 mm long. R IV+V 1.05-1.24 × HT II. SIPH thin and cylindrical (Fig.43q) …..60
HT II 0.07-0.09 mm long. R IV+V 1.25-2.3 × HT II. SIPH rather thick, often somewhat cigar-shaped (e.g. Fig.43r)…..61
60 First tarsal segments all with 2 hairs. Cauda dark. ANT BASE VI 0.132-0.155 mm. R IV+V 0.81-0.92 × ANT BASE VI…..Micromyzella kathleenae
First tarsal segments all with 3 hairs. Cauda pale. ANT BASE VI 0.099-0.127 mm. R IV+V 0.91-1.13 × ANT BASE VI…..Micromyzella sophiae
61 R IV+V 1.7-2.3 × HT II and bearing 8-14 accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE 4.4-6.0 …..Micromyzus katoi group
R IV+V 1.2-1.7 × HT II and bearing 4-9 accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-4.6 …..62
62 SIPH 1.6-2.0 × cauda. ANT III without rhinaria (?). ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.3. First tarsal segments with 3 or 4 hairs…..Micromyzus vandergooti*
SIPH 2.0-2.3 × cauda. ANT III usually with 1 or more rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.6. First tarsal segments with 2 or 3 hairs…..Micromyzella filicis
63 Dorsum uniformly dark…..Micromyzella pterisoides
Dorsum pale, membranous…..Micromyzus platycerii
(Micromyzella judenkoi could not be included in the key because apterae of this species have not been described; these would probably run through the key to the last couplet. Alatae of M. judenkoi differ from those of M. filicis by frequently having secondary rhinaria on ANT IV and V – see text.)
Polypogon australis Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae
P. elongatusMetopolophium dirhodum
P. fugaxChaetogeoica graminiphaga; Geoica sikkimensis;
Paracletus bykovi ssp. uzbekistanicus;
Sipha elegans, maydis;
Tetraneura fusiformis, radicola/yezoensis
P. interruptusRhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae
P. linearisMetopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Schizaphis graminum; Sitobion avenae
P. littoralisSitobion miscanthi
P. monspeliensisMetopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Schizaphis graminum; Sipha maydis;
Sitobion avenae, fragariae;
Tetraneura basui, fusiformis;
Utamphorophora humboldti
P. viridisForda formicaria; Geoica lucifuga;
Metopolophium dirhodum;
Paracletus cimiciformis (as Forda rotunda);
Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum;
Sitobion avenae; Tetraneura ulmi

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Polypsecadium arnottianum Lipaphis pseudobrassicae
Polyscias balfouriana Aphis solanella, spiraecola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae
P. fulva Aphis nerii, odinae; Myzus persicae
P. guilfoyleiAphis aurantii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae
P. scutellaria (var. “Fabian”) Aphis spiraecola
Polyscias sp.Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous

Polyspora sp.Aphis fabaebg
Polystachya concreta Cerataphis orchidearum; Sitobion luteum
P. flavescens = P. concreta
P. luteola = P. concreta
P. minuta = P. concreta

Use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium.

Idiopterus nephrelepidis
P. aculeatumAmphorophora ampullata
P. californicumMacrosiphum walkeri
P. lobatum = P. aculeatum
P. lonchitisNeomyzus circumflexus
P. munitumAulacorthum solani;
Macrosiphum adianti, [ptericolens], walkeri
P. polyblepharum Macromyzus woodwardiae
P. rigensIdiopterus nephrelepidis
P. setiferumIdiopteris nephrelepidis
P. varium = Dryopteris
Polystichum spp.Amphorophora ampullata ssp. laingi;
Macromyzella polypodicola;

Use key to fern-feeding
aphids under Polypodium.

Polytrias amaura = P. indica
P. diversiflora = P. indica
P. indicaHysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum maidis;
Schizaphis hypersiphonata, rotundiventris; Sipha flava

Use key to apterae of
grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Polytrichastrum alpinum Myzodium modestum
P. formosumDecorosiphon corynothrix; Jacksonia papillata;
Myzodium modestum; Muscaphis escherichi;
Pseudacaudella rubida
P. longisetumMyzodium modestum

Use key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

Polytrichum (incl. Meiotrichum) Polytrichaceae
Polytrichum commune Decorosiphon corynothrix; [Geoica utricularia];
Melaphis rhois; Muscaphis musci; Myzodium modestum;
[Pachypappa rosettei, sacculi]; [Prociphilus xylostei];
Pseudacaudella rubida
P. formosum = Polytrichastrum formosum
P. juniperinumDecorosiphon corynothrix; Melaphis rhois;
Muscaphis musci; Myzodium modestum;
[Pachypappa sacculi]
P. lyalli[Prociphilus xylostei]
P. piliferum = Polytrichum juniperinum
P. strictumDecorosiphon corynothrix; Myzodium modestum

Key to apterae on Polytrichum and other mosses:-

This key includes some species collected from unidentified mosses, or extracted using Berlese funnels where the moss species could not be certainly identified. One species that is typically a grass feeder, Jacksonia papillata, is also included, as this aphid is regularly extracted from moss samples and is suspected to sometimes feed on mosses (Müller 1973b). From couplet 3 onward, all species except J. papillata have some morphological features that are typical of moss-feeding aphids; ANT PT tapering almost to a fine point (e.g. Fig.44a), and cauda swollen basally but with a thin papillate distal part (e.g. Fig.44b).

Note: Albrecht (2015) provides an identification guide to aphids on ferns in Northern Europe with simplified keys and colour photographs.

1 ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. Eyes 3-faceted…..2
ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. SIPH present, tubular. Eyes multifaceted …..3
2 Tarsi 1-segmented. ANT 4- or 5-segmented…..Melaphis rhois

[Note: species of other genera of Fordini in east Asia with mosses as secondary hosts (Kaburagia, Nurudea, Schlechtendalia) could not be included in the key, as no specimens are available; probably these only occur on mosses as immature stages of sexuparae.]

Tarsi 2-segmented. ANT 6-segmented…..Pemphigus hydrophilus
3 SIPH with a subapical constriction, a well-developed flange and a large apical pore (Figs. 44c, f, g). ANT 6-segmented…..4
SIPH with no subapical constriction, flange absent or weakly developed and a reduced apical or subapical pore (Figs 44h-j). ANT 5- or 6-segmented…..7
4 ANT and legs with numerous very long, erect, bristle-like hairs. SIPH markedly swollen on distal half, to a maximum of c.2 × minimum width of stem (Fig.44c) …..Decorosiphon corynothrix
ANT and legs with shorter more normal hairs. SIPH tapering/cylindrical, or only slightly swollen (e.g. Figs 44f, g)…..5
5 ANT tubercles undeveloped, cuticle of head almost smooth dorsally (Fig.44d), with nodules on ventral side. Dorsal cuticle almost smooth in pleuro-spinal region, nodulose on margins …..Pseudacaudella rubida
ANT tubercles developed as rounded, densely nodulose bosses (Fig.44e). Dorsal cuticle rugose or with a reticulate sculpture extending to marginal areas…..6
6 Dorsal abdomen strongly sclerotised and rugose. SIPH uniformly black, darker than femora (Fig.44g)…..Myzodium modestum
Dorsal abdomen not strongly sclerotised, with reticulate sculpturing. SIPH not distinctly darker than hind femora…..Myzodium mimulicola
7 ANT tubercles well developed, rounded, apically convergent, nodulose. Cauda tongue-shaped, without a thin apical part…..Jacksonia papillata
ANT tubercles undeveloped. Cauda with swollen basal part and thin apical part …..8
8 SIPH tapering to a rounded apex, with pore placed subapically (e.g. Fig.44h). ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.5…..9
SIPH with obliquely or tranversely truncate apex and terminal pore (Figs. 44i, j). ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.3…..10
9 ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.16. R IV+V 1.2-1.5 × HT II…..Muscaphis escherichi
ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.5. R IV+V 0.9-1.15 × HT II…..Muscaphis cuspidata
10 SIPH stout, with ends somewhat obliquely truncate (Fig.44i). R IV+V 0.7-1.1 × HT II …..Muscaphis utahensis
SIPH not stout, with ends transversely truncate (Fig.44j). R IV+V 1.4-1.9 × HT II …..11
11 SIPH 0.09-0.13 × BL, less than 3 × cauda…..Muscaphis musci
SIPH 0.25-0.31 × BL, 3.7-4.4 × cauda…..Muscaphis mexicana
Poncirus trifoliata Aphis aurantii, citricidus, gossypii, odinae, spiraecola;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Pontederia cordata Aphis nasturtii;Aulacorthum solani;
Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.