(in alphabetical order)




























































































Larix Larches Pinaceae

The aphid fauna of Larix seems to reflect the apparently close relationship between the tree species in this genus. Host records of the best-known larch-feeding aphids (Cinara cuneomaculata, C. laricis, Adelges laricis) show no sign of discrimination between species of Larix, and it seems possible that the less well-known and less widely distributed aphids would be equally non-specific in their choice of hosts if given the opportunity. For Adelges species, it is not possible to provide a complete key in the present state of knowledge.

Larix cajanderiCinara laricis
L. deciduaEuropean Larch
Adelges [abietis], diversis, geniculatus, laricis, segregis,
[tardus], viridana, viridis;
[Aphis fabae];
Cinara [boerneriana Paŝek 1954 (nomen dubium)],
[costata (?- as Lachniella laricina del Guercio 1909)],
cuneomaculata, kochiana, laricicola, laricis
L. × eurolepisAdelges laricis, viridana, viridis; Cinara laricis
L. europaea = L. decidua
L. gmelinii (incl. var. olgensis) Dahurian Larch
Adelges [abietis], karamatsui, laricis, roseigallis, viridana;
Cinara cuneomaculata, kochiana, laricicola, laricis
L. kaempferi Japanese Larch, Karamatsu
Adelges isedakii, [japonicus], karamatsui, kitamiensis,
laricis, torii, viridana, viridis;
[Aphis fabae];
Cinara chibi, cuneomaculata, kochiana,
kochiana ssp. kochi, laricicola, laricis;
Prociphilus [?kuwanai], laricis, [ushikoroshi]
L. kamtschaticaCinara cuneomaculata, kochiana, laricicola, laricis
L. koreana = L. gmelinii var. olgensis
L. laricinaAlaskan Larch, Tamarack
Adelges aenigmaticus, lariciatus, laricis;
Cinara cuneomaculata, laricifex, spiculosa, subterranea
L. leptolepis = L. kaempferi
L. lyalliAdelges lariciatus, laricis; Cinara lyalli
L. occidentalisWestern Larch
Adelges oregonensis; Cinara laricifoliae
L. potaniniiAdelges laricis ssp. potaninilaricis
L. russica = L. sibirica
L. sibiricaRussian or Siberian Larch
Adelges [abietis], laricis, tardoides, viridana, viridis,
Cinara cuneomaculata, kochiana, laricicola, laricis;
Elatobium laricis

Key to larch aphids:-

1 Antennae of aptera with at most 3 segments. Antenna of alata 4- or 5-segmented with 3 large primary, but no secondary, rhinaria. Forewing with radial sector absent. Always oviparous, with a distinct, chitinous ovipositor …..2
Antenna of aptera and alata 6-segmented, that of alata with secondary rhinaria. Forewing with radial sector present. Parthenogenetic morphs viviparous …..5
2 Wax glands of overwintering first instar larva (neosistens) with double walled facets secreting hollow tubes of wax (e.g. fig. 55A). Head and prothorax of alata bearing wax gland areas of granular appearance, with facets not clearer than the surrounding cuticle, or at most with small groups of clear facets on marginal areas of prothorax (fig.55D) …..3
Wax glands of overwintering neosistens either absent or if present then with simple, thin-walled facets secreting solid wax filaments (fig.55B). Head and prothorax of alata with or without wax gland areas bearing numerous facets that are clearer than surrounding cuticle (figs 55E, F) …..4
3 Wax glands of overwintering first instar larva (neosistens) each with 5-6 triangular double-walled pores….. Adelges (Sacciphantes) roseigallis*
Wax glands of overwintering first instar larva (neosistens) each with 4 rounded, double-walled pores….. Adelges (Sacciphantes) viridis group
4 Overwintering first instar larva (neosistens) with dorsal sclerotic plates of head and thorax separate (fig. 55B). Adult aptera (sistens) pyriform, BL 1.8-2.5 mm. Dorsum membranous, with small groups of wax gland facets on all segments (the marginal groups largest) (fig. 55G). Alata of BL 1.8-2.6 mm, with anterior and posterior cephalic wax gland areas united to form a continuous longitudinal swathe of facets on each side of the epicranial suture (fig. 55E). ANT IV and V of alata with minimal width of basal articulation of segment usually less than 0.5 of width of rhinaria…..Adelges (Cholodkovskyana) viridana group
Overwintering neosistens heavily sclerotised, with dorsal sclerotic plates of head and thorax coalesced (fig. 55C). Adult aptera (sistens or progrediens) oval or sub-circular, with paired spinal, pleural and marginal sclerotic plates on thorax and ABD TERG 1-5; these are rounded, convex and wrinkled without wax glands in sistens (spring generation; fig. 55H), but more extensive and with numerous wax gland facets in aestivating (progrediens) generation (fig. 55I). Alata of BL 1.0-1.7 mm, with anterior and posterior cephalic wax gland areas if present usually separate (fig. 55F). ANT IV and V of alata with minimum width of basal articulation of segment usually more than 0.5 of maximum width of rhinaria…..Adelges laricis group
5 SIPH tubular, longer than their basal width. ANT PT/BASE more than 1 …..6
SIPH either absent or on broad, hairy, pigmented cones. ANT PT/BASE less than 1…..7
6Dorsum pale. Cauda pale. SIPH mainly pale, and swollen on distal half. Antennal hairs very short and inconspicuous, of maximal length less than 0.5 × ANT BD III…..Elatobium laricis
Dorsum with dark markings, at least marginally and posterior to SIPH. Cauda dark. SIPH dark, tapering from base to flange. Antennal hairs more than 0.5 × ANT BD III…..Aphis fabae
7 SIPH absent or present only as small pores…..8
SIPH present as large pores on broad hairy cones…..10
8 Alata developing on Larix (sexupara) with only about 6 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 2-4 on ANT IV, about 3 on V, and 2 on VI…..Prociphilus laricis
Alate sexupara with many more secondary rhinaria (e.g. more than 20 on III) …..9
9 Head of alata without distinct wax pore plates (based on spring migrant, but probably also applying to sexupara)…..Prociphilus kuwanai
Head of alata with a pair of wax pore plates (based on spring migrant, but probably also applying to sexupara)…..Prociphilus ushikoroshi
10 (This and subsequent couplets apply only to apterous morphs.) ABD TERG 2-6 with at least some hairs arising from dark sclerites of minimum dimension at least 5 times the diameter of the hair base…..11
ABD TERG 2-6 either without hair-bearing sclerites or with hairs on very small, round scleroites of diameter less than 4 times that of hair base…..15
11 ANT BASE VI with 9-12 hairs. Hair-bearing sclerites on ABD TERG 2-6 numerous rounded, evenly-spaced, and mostly rather uniform-sized (fig. 56A) …..Cinara lyalli
ANT BASE VI with 6-8 hairs. Hair-bearing sclerites on ABD TERG 2-6 of irregular shape and varying size and distribution…..12
12 Hind tibia mainly dark with a short pale section on basal third, of length less than 0.2 of total length of tibia. Hairs on hind tibia maximally 65 µm and hair-bearing sclerites on ABD TERG 2-6 numerous, mostly separate (fig. 56B)…..Cinara laricifoliae
Hind tibia with most of basal half pale, the pale section occupying at least 0.25 of total length of tibia. If the longest hind tibial hairs are less than 65 µm then there are only a few, small sclerites on each of ABD TERG 2-6…..13
13 R IV+V usually less than 0.7 times longer than HT II. ABD TERG 2-6 each with only a few small flat sclerites, bearing variable but often rather finely pointed hairs which are maximally 40 µm long (fig. 56C)…..Cinara laricifex
R IV+V usually more than 0.7 times longer than HT II. ABD TERG 2-6 usually with numerous large sclerites, often confluent between hair bases; the hairs arising from them are often thick and spine-like with raised, conical bases (figs 56D, E) …..14
14 Dorsal abdominal hairs often with enlarged or blunt, bifurcate or multifurcate apices (fig.56D)…..Cinara spiculosa
All dorsal abdominal hairs with acute apices (fig. 56E)…..Cinara laricis
15 BL 4.7-6.1 mm. R IV 0.29-0.42 mm long, bearing 21-34 hairs arranged in 4 longitudinal rows…..Cinara kochiana
BL less than 4.7 mm. R IV 0.15-0.25 mm long, bearing 5-11 hairs in 2 longitudinal rows…..16
16Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 at least 2 × diameter of ANT III at midpoint…..Cinara subterranea*
Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 no more than 1.5 × diameter of ANT III at midpoint…..17
17 ANT IV shorter than or as short as ANT VI (incl. PT). Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove (see fig. 74A) more than total length of antenna. BL usually less than 3 mm…..Cinara chibi
ANT IV clearly longer than ANT VI (incl. PT). Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove less than total length of antenna. BL often more than 3 mm
*only oviparae of C. subterranea have been seen.
…..Cinara cuneomaculata/laricicola
Larrea divaricata[Aphis craccivora]
L. tridentataBrachyunguis sp. (?tetrapteralis)
Laser trilobum (?) Anuraphis pyrilaseri; Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii;
(= Laserpitium marginatum?) Dysaphis laserpitii; Hyadaphis passerinii;
Macrosiphum laseri

Use key to apterae on Laserpitium

Laserpitium alpinum Cavariella aegopodii
L. gallicumDysaphis apiifolia
L. garganicumCavariella aegopodii
L. hispidumAnuraphis pyrilaseri
L. latifoliumAphis fabae, solanella;
Cavariella aegopodii, pastinacae, theobaldi;
Dysaphis laserpitii; Hyadaphis foeniculi;
Macrosiphum [euphorbiae], gei, laseri
L. silerAcyrthosiphon nigripes; Anuraphis pyrilaseri; Aphis fabae;
Dysaphis laserpitii; Hyadaphis passerinii;
Macrosiphum gei
Laserpitium sp.Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Laserpitium:-

1ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly-directed process above cauda…..2
No supracaudal process…..4
2ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.55. R IV without accesory hairs. SIPH clavate…..Cavariella aegopodii
ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.9. R IV with 2 accessory hairs. SIPH clavate or not clavate …..3
3SIPH clavate…..Cavariella pastinacae
SIPH cylindrical/ tapering…..Cavariella theobaldi
4Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Well-developed spinal and marginal tubercles (STu and MTu) present…..5
Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width. STu usually absent, MTu sporadic or only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7…..7
5Head densely spiculose. SIPH shorter than R IV+V, with close-set annular rows of blunt spinules. Cauda with 10-12 hairs. STu on ABD TERG 1-5 …..Anuraphis pyrilaseri
Head not spiculose. SIPH longer than R IV+V, normally imbricated. Cauda with 5 hairs. STu on head and ABD TERG 8 …..6
6Longest hairs on ANT III 37-54 μm, 1.8-2.8 × BD III …..Dysaphis laserpitii
Longest hairs on ANT III 8-17 μm, 0.3-0.8 × BD III…..Dysaphis apiifolia
7SIPH dusky/dark, clavate, 0.85-1.2 × the also dark cauda …..Hyadaphis passerinii
SIPH cylindrical or tapering (or if not then pale and much longer than pale cauda) …..8
8Head smooth with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces broadly divergent. …..9
Head either smooth with ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, or spiculose with steep-sided ANT tubercles…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
9ANT, legs except basal parts of femora, SIPH and cauda all black. SIPH without any distinct subapical zone of polygonal reticulation…..Acyrthosiphon nigripes
ANT, legs, SIPH and cauda pale, or only dark at apices. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation…..10
10R IV+V 0.95-1.14 × HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 7-10 hairs …..Macrosiphum gei
R IV+V 0.63-0.83 × HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 6 hairs…..Macrosiphum laseri

One aphid species, Pseudoregma panicola, is recorded from three Lasiacis spp.; L. divaricata, L. grisebachii and L. sorghoidea (or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria).

Lasiagrostis see StipaPoaceae
Lasianthus chinensis Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus
L. cyanocarpusPseudomegoura nipponica
Lasianthus sp. Sinomegoura citricola

Key to apterae on Lasianthus:-

Head black, spiculose, with well-developed, steep-sided ANT tubercles. SIPH wholly black, cylindrical/tapering. Cauda less than 0.5 × SIPH, with 5-6 hairs….. Pseudomegoura nipponica
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Lastrea see ThelypterisThelypteridaceae
Latania borbonica = L. lontaroides
L. lontaroidesCerataphis brasiliensis, lataniae
L. rubra = L. lontaroides

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

Lathraea squamaria Aphis orobanches
Lathyrus (including Oxypogon)Fabaceae
L. angulatusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Megoura viciae
L. angustifoliusAcyrthosiphon pisum
L. aphacaAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora; Megoura viciae
L. articulatusAcyrthosiphon pisum
L. ciceraAcyrthosiphon pisum
L. cingulatus (?)Megoura viciae
L. clymenumAcyrthosiphon pisum
L. davidiiMegoura crassicauda
L. grandiflorusAcyrthosiphon pisum
L. heterophyllusMegoura viciae
L. hirsutusAcyrthosiphon pisum
L. humilisAphis craccivora
L. japonicus (incl. ssp. glaber, maritimus)Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum; Aphis craccae;
Macrosiphum creelii;
Megoura crassicauda, lathyricola, litoralis, viciae
L. lanszwertiiMacrosiphum creelii
L. latifoliusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora; Megoura viciae
L. linifoliusMegoura viciae
L. littoralisMacrosiphum creelii
L. macropusAphis cinerea
L. magellanicusAphis magellanica; Myzus ornatus
L. maritimus = L. japonicus ssp. maritimus
L. marmoratusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora
L. megalanthus = L. latifolius
L. montanus = L. linifolius
L. nevadensis (incl. ssp. Nearctaphis sclerosa
L. nigerAphis craccivora; Megoura viciae
L. nissoliaAcyrthosiphon pisum; Macrosiphum euphorbiae
L. nudicaulis = L.palustris ssp. nudicaulis
L. nutallii = L. nevadensis ssp. lanceolatus
L. ochroleucusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Macrosiphum creelii
L. ochrusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora
L. odoratusAcyrthosiphon pisum;
Aphis craccivora, [dissita Walker (nomen nudum)],
fabae, gossypii, solanella;
Macrosiphum [centranthi], euphorbiae; Megoura viciae;
Myzus persicae; Nearctaphis crataegifoliae;
Smynthurodes betae
L. oroboides (?)Megoura viciae
L. pagloi (?)Aphis craccivora
L. palustris (incl. ssp. nudicaulis, pilosus)Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;
Megoura crassicauda, viciae
L. pilosus = L. palustris ssp. pilosus
L. pisiformisAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora
L. pratensisAcyrthosiphon pisum;
Aphis comosa, craccivora, [medicaginis], pseudocomosa;
Aulacorthum solani; Megoura viciae;
Megourella purpurea; Pemphigus populi
L. roseusAcyrthosiphon pisum
L. sativusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Megoura viciae;
[Uroleucon compositae]
L. subandinusAcyrthosiphon pisum
L. sylvestrisAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis fabae; Megoura viciae
L. tuberosusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis pseudocomosa;
Megoura viciae
L. venetusAphis craccivora
L. vernusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis pseudocomosa;
Megoura viciae
Lathyrus sp.Acyrthosiphon [ilka], loti; [Aphis coronillae];
[Myzus cerasi]

Key to apterae on Lathyrus:-

1ANT tubercles well developed, projecting forward much further than the weakly developed median frontal tubercle, with inner faces smooth and broadly divergent …..2
ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, or if well developed then either their inner faces are steep-sided and scabrous or spiculose, or the median frontal tubercle is developed to a similar extent…..11
2SIPH somewhat swollen in middle, either entirely black or dusky/dark with black apices…..3
SIPH pale and cylindrical or tapering for most of length…..7
3Dorsal abdomen with a segmental pattern of dark spinal, pleural and marginal sclerites. Cauda pale. ANT III with 1-6 small rhinaria near base …..Megourella purpurea
Dorsal abdomen without a segmental pattern of dark sclerites. Cauda pale or dark. ANT III with 6-50 somewhat protruberant rhinaria extending onto distal half…..4
4Cauda pale or only darker towards apex. Antesiphuncular sclerites pale or absent …..5
Cauda dark brown or black. Large crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present (as in alata)…..6
5SIPH 0.67–0.95 × cauda. ANT III with 6–21 secondary rhi­naria. ANT PT/BASE 2.7–3.7 …..Megoura litoralis
SIPH 1.00–1.16 × cauda. ANT III with 40–59 secondary rhi­naria, ANT PT/BASE 3.5–4.75…..Megoura lathyricola*
6ANT III with 5-26 (usually 10-18) rhinaria, not in a row, on basal 0.75 of segment (ANT IV of al. with 0-7 rhinaria)…..Megoura viciae
ANT III with (15-) 21-50 rhinaria in a row extending over 0.75-0.90 of segment. (ANT IV of al. with more than 17 rhinaria)…..Megoura crassicauda
7SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells). Hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 × BD III…..8
SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III very short and blunt, much less than 0.5 × BD III…..9
8ANT VI BASE 0.8-1.3 × R IV+V…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
ANT VI BASE 1.4-2.0 × R IV+V…..Macrosiphum creelii
9Articulation between ANT III and IV blackish. ANT VI BASE 0.25-0.4 mm, 1.8-2.3 × R IV+V. SIPH very attenuate distally, with minimum diameter less than 0.25 × width of cauda at midlength in dorsal view…..Acyrthosiphon pisum
Articulation between ANT III and IV pale or dusky. ANT VI BASE 0.13-0.2 mm, 1.0-1.5 × R IV+V. SIPH not attenuate distally, with minimum diameter more than 0.25 × width of cauda at midlength in dorsal view …..10
10ANT PT/BASE 4.3-6.0, and PT usually 1.6-2.5 × cauda. SIPH rarely less than 1.7 × cauda…..Acyrthosiphon kondoi
ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.2, and PT 1.1-1.6 × cauda. SIPH rarely more than 1.7 × cauda…..Acyrthosiphon loti
11Head densely spiculose or nodulose, but ANT tubercles are undeveloped. SIPH with close-set, strongly spiculose imbrication. Cauda helmet-shaped or bluntly triangular, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view…..12
Head smooth or, if densely spinulose or nodulose then with ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH (if present) with normal imbrication. Cauda (if developed at all) tongue- or finger-like, longer than its basal width…..13
12Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerites anterior to SIPH …..Nearctaphis crataegifoliae
Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation anterior to SIPH, including a quadrate patch over ABD TERG 3-5, and smaller sclerites on 1 and 2…..Nearctaphis sclerosa*
13Dorsal abdomen not extensively sclerotised …..14
Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation, divided into polygons by a pale reticulation…..15
14SIPH only 0.6-0.7 × cauda, which is long, pale and finger-like and has a marked subproximal constriction…..Aphis magellanica
SIPH more than 0.7 × cauda….. go to key to polyphagous aphids
15Dorsal abdominal sclerotisation consisting of segmentally separated cross-bands. (R IV+V 0.77-0.93 × HT II. SIPH 0.93-1.24 × cauda)…..Aphis cinerea
Dorsal abdominal sclerotisation usually includng a solid patch. R IV+V 0.87-1.18 × HT II. SIPH 0.7-2.2 × cauda…..16
16Longest hair on ANT III is 0.25-0.75 (usually 0.5-0.6) × BD III. Cauda with 4-9 hairs…..Aphis craccivora
Longest hair on ANT III is 0.67-1.38 × BD III. Cauda with 6-19 hairs …..17
17SIPH 1.6-2.0 × cauda, which bears 6-11 hairs (usually less than 10) …..Aphis comosa
SIPH 0.7-1.6 × cauda, which bears (8-)10-19 hairs…..18
18SIPH 1.1-1.6 × cauda. Dorsal abdomen usually with a solid black shield incorporating all marginal sclerites (sometimes fragmented in small specimens)…..Aphis pseudocomosa
SIPH 0.7-1.0 × cauda. Dorsal abdomen with a variably developed or fragmented black shield that does not extend laterally to unite with marginal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-3…..Aphis craccae
Launaea arborescens Brachycaudus helichrysi; Hyperomyzus lactucae;
Uroleucon sonchi
L. cornutus see Sonchus cornutus
L. intybaceaAcyrthosiphon ilka; Aphis gossypii;
Aulacorthum solani; Neomyzus circumflexus;
Uroleucon ambrosiae, pseudambrosiae
L. nanaMacrosiphum euphorbiae
L. nudicaulisUroleucon hypochoeridis
L. pinnatifida = L. sarmentosa
L. resedifolia = Scorzonera laciniata
L. rotundifolia (?)Aphis spiraecola
L. sarmentosa[Eutrichosiphum alnicola]; Myzus persicae
Launaea spp.[Metopolophium chandrani]; Protaphis pseudocardui

Key to apterae on Launaea:-

1ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.4. SIPH short, black, about as long as cauda which is bluntly triangular and bears 12-20 hairs…..Protaphis pseudocardui
ANT PT/BASE more than 1.8 and other characters not in that combination …..2
2SIPH dark, with reticulation consisting of numerous small cells and extending over distal 0.16-0.43 of length…..3
SIPH pale or if dark then without distal polygonal reticulation…..6
3Dorsal hairs not arising from small dark scleroites…..Uroleucon sonchi
All or most of dorsal hairs arising from small dark scleroites…..4
4Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. R IV+V 0.84-1.08 × HT II…..Uroleucon hypochoeridis
Antesiphuncular sclerites absent or indistinct. R IV+V 0.91-1.43 × HT II …..5
5HT II rather long and thin, 6 or more × longer than its maximum thickness and 0.9-1.1 × R IV+V…..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae
HT II less than 5 × its maximum thickness and 0.70-0.85 × R IV+V…..Uroleucon ambrosiae
6ANT tubercles well developed with smooth, broadly divergent inner faces. ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria near base. ANT III 0.8-1.0 × SIPH, which are long, pale and tapering/cylindrical on distal part, without any polygonal reticulation…..Acyrthosiphon ilka
Aphids without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Laurus Lauraceae
Laurus nobilisAphis frangulae
L. rotundifoliaAphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Lavandula angustifolia Aphis fabae; Eucarazzia elegans; Myzus persicae
L. dentataAphis gossypii
L. latifoliaEucarazzia elegans
L. multifidaAphis gossypii, salviae
L. officinalis = L. angustifolia
L. pedunculataEucarazzia elegans
L. spica = L. angustifolia
L. stoechasEucarazzia elegans
Lavandula sp.Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Lavandula:-

1 SIPH very markedly clavate, so that maximum diameter of swollen part is more than 2 × minimum diameter of stem (Fig. 48a). SIPH 5.3-8.8 × cauda, which bears only 5 hairs…..Eucarazzia elegans
SIPH tapering, cylindrical or only moderately clavate; less than 3 × cauda, and if at all swollen then cauda bears 6 or more hairs…..2
2ABD TERG 1-6 pale or with only small scattered dark sclerites….. go to key to polyphagous aphids
Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation on ABD TERG 1-6, the sclerotic area having a pale polygonal reticulation…..3
3R IV+V 0.87-1.18 × HT II (rarely more than 1.1 ×)…..Aphis craccivora
R IV+V 1.1-1.42 × HT II (usually at least 1.13 ×) …..Aphis salviae
Lavatera acerifolia = Saviniona acerifolia
L. arborea = Malva arborea
L. assurgentiflora = Malva assurgentiflora
L. cretica = Malva linnaei
L. olbia = Althaea olbia
L. phoeniceaAphis gossypii
L. punctataAphis fabae, gossypii
L. thuringiaca = Malva thuringiaca
L. trimestris = Malva trimestris
Lavatera spp.Aphis [epilobii Kittel (invalid name)], [umbrella];
Brachycaudus helichrysi

Use key to polyphagous aphids (or try key to apterae on Malva).

L. albaAphis gossypii; Myzus persicae;
Tinocallis kahawaluokalani (see Blackman & Eastop 1994)
L. inermisAphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii, [punicae]
L. unifloraAphis gossypii

Key to aphids on Lawsonia:-

All adult viviparae alate. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5. SIPH as short, pale truncate cones…..Tinocallis kahawaluokalani (see Blackman & Eastop 1994)
Adult viviparae apterous or alate. Cauda tongue-shaped, anal plate entire. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. SIPH tubular, tapering or swollen on distal half…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, but note the possibility that specimens similar to Aphis gossypii but with SIPH less than 1.5 × cauda may be A. punicae.
Lecythis sp.Aphis gossypii
Ledebouriella see SaposhnikoviaApiaceae
Ledum see Rhododendron Ericaceae
Ledum palustre see Rhododendron palustre
Leea spp.Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, odinae

See key to polyphagous aphids.

Leersia (including Homalocenchrus)Poaceae
L. hexandraBrachysiphoniella montana; Kugegania ageni
L. japonica[Melanaphis siphonella]
L. oryzoidesColopha graminis; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae;
Sipha glyceriae
L. virginicaColopha graminis; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

Key to apterae on Leersia:-

1 SIPH long (0.14-0.31 × BL), tubular, and swollen on distal part…..2
SIPH as very short cones, or absent…..3
2 Head not spiculose ventrally, and without spinal tubercles (STu). ANT tubercles weakly developed. Dorsal cuticle with a regular pattern of spicules arranged in polygons. SIPH 0.14-0.21 × BL…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Head spiculose on ventral side, dorsally smooth and with a pair of STu. ANT tubercles are well-developed, with inner faces scabrous. Dorsal cuticle without spicules arranged in polygons. SIPH more than 0.25 × BL…..Kugegania ageni
3 Eyes 3-faceted. SIPH absent. ANT and legs greatly reduced, ANT less than 0.1 × BL. Wax glands present on all segments, each comprising a ring of cells surrounding 1-2 smaller central cells…..Colopha graminis
Eyes multifaceted. SIPH as very short cones. ANT and legs of normal length, e.g. ANT at least 0.2 × BL. No discrete wax glands…..4
4 Dorsal body hairs thick and spine-like. Tergum sclerotic, with numerous small denticles between hair bases. Cauda short, pale, with a round knob. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5…..Sipha glyceriae
Dorsal body hairs thin and fine-pointed. Tergum membranous, without denticles. Cauda long, dark, finger-like. ANT PT/BASE more than 2
(or use general keys to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)
…..Brachysiphoniella montana
Lefeburea abyssinica Sitobion africanum, [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]
Legousia (including Specularia)Campanulaceae
Legousia sp.Uroleucon sp. (as sonchi)
Lembotropis nigricans Acyrthosiphon parvum, pisum ssp. spartii;
Aphis craccivora, cytisorum, pseudocytisorum;
Aulacorthum solani; Ctenocallis dobrovljanskyi

Use key to apterae on Cytisus.

Lemna gibbaRhopalosiphum nymphaeae
L. minor[Aphis sambuci]; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
L. perpusillaRhopalosiphum nymphaeae
L. polyrrhiza = Spirodela polyrrhiza
L. trisulcaRhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Lens culinarisAcyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum;
Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae
L. esculenta = L. culinaris
L. nigricansAcyrthosiphon pisum

Use key to apterae on Medicago.

Leonis trineura Aphis spiraecola
Leonotis leonurus Aphis gossypii
L. nepetifoliaAphis fabae, gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Uroleucon compositae
Leonotis sp.Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Leontodon (including Thrincia)Asteraceae
Leontodon alpinus Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae;
Uroleucon cichorii
L. asper = L. crispus
L. autumnalis = Scorzoneroides autumnalis
L. crispusAphis leontodontis; Uroleucon leontodontis
L. danubialus = L. hispidus
L. hastilis = L. hispidus
L. hieracioides = Picris hieracoides
L. hirtusUroleucon leontodontis, sonchi
L. hispidus (incl. danubialis, hastilis)Aphis leontodontis, picridicola, solanella;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Trama [rara], troglodytes;
Uroleucon cichorii, hypochoeridis, leontodontis, picridis,
[pilosellae], taraxaci
L. incanusAphis leontodontis
L. rothii = L. saxatilis ssp. rothii
L. saxatilis ssp. rothii Acyrthosiphon ilka; Aulacorthum solani;
Myzus cymbalariae; Protaphis terricola;
Uroleucon picridis
L. taraxacoidesAphis picridicola
L. taraxacoides ssp. longirostris = L. saxatilis ssp. rothii
L. taraxacum = Taraxacum officinale
L. villarsii = L. hirtus
Leontodon spp.[Aulacorthum rufum]; Myzus ornatus; Protrama flavescens;
Uroleucon pilosellae

Key to apterae on Leontodon (and Scorzoneroides):-

1 Hind tarsi greatly elongated, more than 0.6 × hind tibiae. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4. SIPH absent, or as pores on shallow cones…..2
Hind tarsi normal. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. SIPH tubular…..4
2 SIPH absent. Eyes of only 3 facets…..Trama troglodytes
SIPH present as pores on small or shallow cones. Eyes multifaceted…..3
3 Apterae without secondary rhinaria on ANT III. Dorsum pale and membranous. HT II 0.75-0.85 × hind tibia….. Trama caudata
Apterae all alatiform with secondary rhinaria on ANT III-VI. Dorsum with dark sclerotic markings. HT II 0.6-0.7 × hind tibia…..Protrama flavescens
4 Cauda helmet-shaped or triangular, not longer than its basal width…..5
Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width…..8
5 Cauda helmet-shaped, with 4-6 hairs. SIPH smooth, pale, with a subapical annular incision. ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.2. ANT III without rhinaria. Dorsum without dark markings. Spiracular apertures rounded. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)…..Brachycaudus helichrysi
Cauda bluntly triangular, with 6-19 hairs. SIPH imbricated, dark, without a subapical annular incision. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-2.3. ANT III often with rhinaria. Dorsum usually with dark sclerotisation. Spiracular apertures reniform. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu …..6
6 Cauda with 6-12 hairs. MTu usually present on ABD TERG 2-4 as well as the large ones on 1 and 7…..Aphis picridicola
Cauda with 11-19 hairs. MTu usually only on ABD TERG 1 and 7…..7
7 ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.3. SIPH 1.1-1.6 × cauda…..Protaphis middletonii
ANT PT/BASE (0.8-)1.0-1.2 (-1.4). SIPH 0.8-1.1 × cauda …..Protaphis terricola
8 Abdomen with conspicuous, well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) on ABD TERG 2-4(-5) as well as on 1 and 7, diameter of MTu on 7 being 1.6-2.9 × ANT BD III…..Aphis leontodontis
Abdomen either without MTu, or with MTu regularly present either only on ABD TERG 1 and 7 (that on 7 being less than 1.5 × ANT BD III), or only on 2-4(-5), but not both …..9
9 SIPH dark with an extensive distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT mainly dark …..10
SIPH without polygonal reticulation, or with only a few closed cells subapically. ANT mainly pale…..16
10 Cauda dark like SIPH, and bearing 8-12 hairs…..Uroleucon taraxaci
Cauda much paler than SIPH, and bearing 11-36 hairs…..11
11 Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 not arising from dark scleroites. Antesiphuncular sclerites absent or vestigeal. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 × HT II…..Uroleucon sonchi
Dorsal hairs all or mostly arising from dark scleroites. Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. R IV+V 0.84-1.84 × HT II…..12
12 First tarsal segments bearing only 3 hairs, all subapical. ANT III with 12-30 rhinaria. Cauda with 11-16 hairs. R IV+V 1.15-1.45 × HT II…..Uroleucon pilosellae
First tarsal segments usually with 5 hairs, including a pair of lateral ones. ANT III with 25-97 rhinaria. Cauda with 12-36 hairs. R IV+V 0.84-1.84 × HT II…..13
13 R IV+V 0.84-1.08 × HT II…..Uroleucon hypochoeridis
R IV+V 1.17-1.84 × HT II…..14
14 R IV+V 1.17-1.33 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 6.0-7.9. ANT III with 56-97 rhinaria. Cauda with (16-) 20-36 hairs…..Uroleucon cichorii
R IV+V 1.30-1.84 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 5.1-6.7. ANT III with 25-60 rhinaria. Cauda with 11-24 hairs…..15
15 ABD TERG 2-4(-5) regularly with well-developed MTu, the diameter of which is usually larger than that of adjacent hair bases. Cauda with (12-) 18-24 hairs…..Uroleucon picridis
ABD TERG 2-4 usually lacking MTu, and if present these are rarely larger than hair bases. Cauda with 11-17 (-20) hairs…..Uroleucon leontodontis
16 Head cuticle smooth (sometimes with a few spinules ventrally). ANT tubercles well developed with inner faces divergent or almost parallel, and smooth or only slightly scabrous. ANT III with 1-36 rhinaria…..17
Either head is smooth and ANT tubercles are small or undeveloped, or head is markedly spinulose at least ventrally, and inner faces of ANT tubercles are markedly scabrous and parallel or apically convergent. ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
17 SIPH markedly clavate, with maximum width of swollen part 1.3-2.0 × diameter of stem…..Hyperomyzus lactucae
SIPH cylindrical or tapering…..18
18 Thoracic spiracles enlarged, much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4, usually more than 8.0. ANT III with 3-36 rhinaria. Hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.1 × BD III. Dorsum usually with paired dark intersegmental markings …..Nasonovia ribisnigri
Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-5.2. ANT III bearing 1-4 rhinaria. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.7 × BD III…..19
19 SIPH 0.22-0.25 × BL and 1.8-2.5 × cauda, which has no distinct constriction. R IV+V 1.2-1.3 × HT II…..Aulacorthum palustre
SIPH 0.23-0.31 × BL and 1.5-1.8 × cauda, which has a distinct constriction on basal part. R IV+V 0.77-0.90 × HT II…..Acyrthosiphon ilka
Leontopodium alpinum Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella mutellinae;
Myzus persicae
L. conglobatumAphis fabae
L. coreanumUroleucon leontopodiicola

Key to apterae on Leontopodium:-

1 SIPH dark with an extensive zone of polygonal reticulation extending over at least 0.25 of length. ANT III with 15-67 rhinaria distributed over much of its length …..2
SIPH pale or dark, without extensive polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 0 (-10) rhinaria…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
2 BL 2.9-3.6 mm. SIPH 0.71-0.91 mm long, 1.4-1.5 × cauda and reticulated over distal c.0.25 of length…..Uroleucon leontopodiicola*
BL 1.5-1.7 mm. SIPH 0.20-0.25 mm, 0.65-0.85 × cauda, reticulated over more than 0.5 of length…..Macrosiphoniella mutellinae
Leonurus Lamiaceae
Leonurus cardiacaAphis ballotae, fabae, frangulae, gossypii, [Aphis sp.
(plantaginis of Wilson & Vickery 1918];
Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Cryptomyzus ballotae, [galeopsidis], [korschelti],
leonuri, ribis;
Myzus ornatus
L. glaucescensAphis sp. near gossypii
L. heterophyllus = L. japonicus
L. japonicusAphis frangulae, gossypii
L. macranthusAphis gossypii; Cryptomyzus ballotae, ribis
L. panzerioides[Brachycaudus cerasicola]
L. quinquelobatus Aphis frangulae; Cryptomyzus [alboapicalis], leonuri
L. sibiricusAphis gossypii; Cryptomyzus ribis, taoi;
Macrosiphum salviae; Myzus [kalimpongensis], persicae;
[Ovatus minutus]; [Semiaphis heraclei]
L. turkestanicusCryptomyzus multipilosus
Leonurus sp.Acyrthosiphon leonurae; Aulacorthum solani

Key to apterae on Leonurus:-

1 Dorsal body hairs long and thick, much longer than ANT BD III, and many or all of them with knobbed or expanded apices, and arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH swollen on distal part…..2
Dorsal body hairs mostly shorter than BD III; pointed or blunt, or if with somewhat expanded apices then without tuberculate bases. SIPH swollen, tapering or cylindrical…..6
2 Longest hairs on ANT III shorter than or about equal to (0.5-1.1 ×) BD III, clearly shorter than hairs on ANT I. R IV+V 1.3-1.6 × HT II, with 6-14 accessory hairs. SIPH 0.20-0.25 × BL, and 3.6-5 × cauda…..3
Longest hairs on ANT III longer than (1.2-2.1 ×) BD III, similar in length to those on ANT I. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 × HT II, with 2-4 accessory hairs. SIPH less than 0.2 × BL, and less than 2.5 × cauda…..5
3 ANT PT 1.2-1.6 × ANT III, and ANT PT/BASE 6.4-8.8. Longest hair on ANT III 0.9-1.1 × BD III. R IV+V 1.5-1.6 × HT II…..Cryptomyzus ballotae
ANT PT more than 1.6 × ANT III and ANT PT/BASE 9.0-10.5. Longest hair on ANT III 0.5-0.8 × BD III. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 × HT II…..4
4 ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria. SIPH more-or-less cylindrical, with hardly any trace of swelling; thinner than hind tibia for most of length. SIPH 2.2-3.1 × cauda …..Cryptomyzus ribis
ANT III with 5-19 rhinaria. SIPH with distinctly swollen section on distal part, with maximum diameter 1.2-1.6 × minimum diameter on proximal half, the swollen part distinctly thicker than the hind tibia. SIPH 3.6-5.0 × cauda…..Cryptomyzus taoi
5 Hairs on ANT III all pointed. ANT III with rhinaria distributed over almost its entire length. SIPH a little more than 2 × cauda…..Cryptomyzus multipilosus
Hairs on ANT III markedly capitate. ANT III with rhinaria restricted to basal 0.5-0.7. SIPH usually less than 2 × cauda…..Cryptomyzus leonuri
6 SIPH black with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.17-0.20 of length. ANT and tibiae entirely dark…..Macrosiphum salviae
SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without polygonal reticulation. ANT and tibiae not entirely dark…..7
7 SIPH pale and 2.1-2.2 × cauda which bears only 3 or 4 hairs. ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base…..Acyrthosiphon leonurae
Without this combination of characters
(but note that specimens keying to A. gossypii might be some other member of the A. frangulae group specific to Lamiaceae)
…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Lepanthes fulvaAphis aurantii, spiraecola; Sitobion luteum
L. lindmaniana = L. fulva

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.

Lepargyrea see ShepherdiaElaeagnaceae
Lepidagathis anobrya Aphis gossypii
Lepidaploa sagraeana Aphis spiraecola
L. segregataUroleucon ambrosiae

Use key to apterae on Vernonia.

Lepidium (including Cardaria)Brassicaceae
Lepidium amplexicaule Brevicoryne brassicae
L. apetalumLipaphis ruderalis; Myzus cerasi; Protaphis middletonii
L. armoraciaBrevicoryne brassicae
L. campestreLipaphis lepidii ssp. lepidiicardiariae, pseudobrassicae;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Pemphigus sp.
L. cartilagineumDysaphis [emicis], vandenboschi ssp. lepidii
L. coronopus Myzus cerasi, ornatus, persicae
L. crassifolium = L. cartilagineum
L. densiflorumLipaphis ruderalis
L. didymumAphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi; Lipaphis erysimi;
Myzus ascalonicus, cerasi, ornatus, persicae;
Pemphigus populitransversus
L. draba (= Cardaria draba) Aphis craccivora, fabae, frangulae, gossypii, nasturtii;
Aulacorthum solani; Brevicoryne brassicae;
Dysaphis vandenboschi;
Lipaphis erysimi, lepidii ssp. lepidiicardariae, ruderalis;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus certus, ornatus, persicae
L. draba ssp. chalepense Aphis gossypiii, [Aphis sp. (Davletshina 1964)];
Lipaphis lepidii
L. graminifoliumBrevicoryne brassicae
L. heterophyllumBrevicoryne brassicae
L. latifoliumAcyrthosiphon [ilka], gossypii;
Aphis craccivora, gossypii;
Dysaphis vandenboschi ssp. lepidii;
Lepidaphis deformans, terricola; Lipaphis lepidii;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
Smynthurodes betae
L. obtusumAcyrthosiphon gossypii; Lepidaphis deformans, terricola
L. perfoliatumAcyrthosiphon gossypii; Brevicoryne brassicae;
Dysaphis [capsellae], vandenboschi ssp. lepidii;
Landisaphis davisi; Lipaphis lepidii; Myzus persicae
L. repens = L. draba ssp. chalepense
L. ruderaleAphis craccivora, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;
Brevicoryne brassicae; Lepidaphis deformans;
Lipaphis erysimi, lepidii, ruderalis;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus cerasi, persicae
L. sativumAphis fabae, gossypii; Brevicoryne brassicae;
Lipaphis erysimi, ruderalis; Myzus cerasi, persicae
L. subulatumAphis craccivora
L. virginicumAphis [acaroides Rafinesque (invalid name)], craccivora,
fabae, gossypii;
Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Pemphigus populitransversus;
Protaphis middletonii

Key to apterae on Lepidium:-

1 Head with ANT tubercles well-developed, and median frontal tubercle undeveloped …..2
Head with ANT tubercles low or absent, or if developed then the median frontal tubercle is also well developed, so front of head has a straight, convex or sinuate outline in dorsal view…..10
2 Head cuticle smooth, ANT tubercles with inner faces divergent…..3
Head cuticle spiculose or nodulose, at least ventrally, ANT tubercles with inner faces almost parallel or apically convergent…..4
3 SIPH very long and thin, about 3 × cauda, without any subapical reticulation…..Acyrthosiphon gossypii
SIPH about 2 × cauda, with subapical polygonal reticulation …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
4 Dorsum with extensive dark pigmentation…..5
Dorsum pale or with small dark intersegmental markings…..6
5 SIPH black, 2.3-2.8 × cauda, which is also dark. Dorsal cuticle almost entirely pigmented, and with a maze-like pattern of wrinkles. ANT 0.5-0.7 × BL…..Myzus cerasi
SIPH pale/dusky, darker at apices, 1.8-2.3 × pale/dusky cauda. Dorsal cuticle not wrinkled, with a distinctive U-shaped mark on abdomen. ANT 0.9-1.3 × BL…..Neomyzus circumflexus
6 Dorsum with a pattern of dark intersegmental ornamentation …..Myzus ornatus
Dorsum without any dark markings…..7
7 SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half. ANT III usually with 1-2 small rhinaria near base. ANT 1.1-1.5 × BL…..Aulacorthum solani
SIPH slightly to moderately clavate. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT 0.6-1.2 × BL …..8
8 SIPH 0.54-0.82 × ANT III. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 × HT II and bearing 7-15 accessory hairs…..Myzus ascalonicus
SIPH 0.83-1.34 × ANT III. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 × HT II and bearing 2-5 accessory hairs …..9
9R IV+V in most specimens with only one pair of lateral accessory hairs (plus 0-3 ventral accessory hairs). ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5 (rarely less than 3.25). Value of function cauda/(ANT III × PT) in range 0.80-1.52, but rarely more than 1.25 except in small specimens (those with ANT III less than 0.32 mm)…..Myzus persicae
R IV+V in most specimens with two pairs of lateral accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.7 (mostly less than 3.25). Value of function cauda/(ANT III × PT) in range 1.2-2.7 (rarely less than 1.25)…..Myzus certus
10ANT 0.25-0.36 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.15. SIPH 0.032-0.054 × BL, shorter than R IV+V. Cauda triangular, about as long as its basal width in dorsal view …..11
Without that combination of characters…..12
11R IV+V 1.0-1.1 × HT II. ANT 0.30-0.36 × BL. ABD TERG 8 with 12-15 hairs, and posterior margin of subgenital plate with 13-17 hairs…..Lepidaphis deformans*
R IV+V 1.20-1.27 × HT II. ANT 0.25-0.28 × BL. ABD TERG 8 bearing 16-19 hairs, and posterior margin of subgenital plate with 19-24 hairs …..Lepidaphis terricola*
12Cauda helmet-shaped (rounded or pentagonal), a little shorter than its basal width in dorsal view, and with 4-6 hairs…..13
Cauda (if present) triangular, tongue- or finger-shaped, shorter or longer than its basal width, but if shorter then with 7 or more hairs…..14
13Head almost always with a pair of spinal tubercles (STu), and STu often present on ABD TERG 7 and 8. Marginal tubercles (MTu) consistently present on ABD TERG 1-5 and often also on 7. Spiracular apertures reniform…..Dysaphis vandenboschi
Head and ABD TERG 7 and 8 usually without STu. MTu of sporadic occurrence. Spiracular apertures large and rounded…..Brachycaudus helichrysi
14 ABD TERG 6-8 with median rugose conical processes, each bearing a pair of short (c. 20μm) club-shaped hairs. SIPH distinctly clavate, with diameter of swollen part c.1.5 × that of stem (Fig.37a)…..Landisaphis davisi
ABD TERG 6 and 7 without median processes, and if ABD TERG 8 has a projection then SIPH are only very weakly if at all clavate…..15
15 ANT 6-segmented with ANT III longer than IV + V measured together. SIPH somewhat swollen, either in middle or subapically…..16
ANT 5- or 6-segmented, if 6-segmented then ANT III shorter than IV + V measured together. SIPH (if present) cylindrical or tapering, without any trace of swelling…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
16 SIPH 0.8-1.0 × cauda, which is short, broad-based and triangular. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark markings…..Brevicoryne brassicae
SIPH longer than cauda, which is elongate triangular or tongue-shaped. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings…..17
17ANT tubercles developed, projecting about as far as median tubercle, so that front of head is sinuate in outline in dorsal view. ANT more than 0.5 × BL. ABD TERG 8 without a rugose swelling or conical process.….18
ANT tubercles undeveloped, front of head convex in dorsal view. ANT less than 0.5 × BL. ABD TERG 8 with a rugose medial swelling or conical process (Fig.37b, c) .….19
18ANT III + PT together 1.95-2.5 × SIPH (90% of specimens less than 2.4 ×)…..Lipaphis erysimi
ANT III + PT together 2.1-3.2 × SIPH (90% of specimens more than 2.4 ×)…..Lipaphis pseudobrassicae
19Cauda 0.8-1.1 × ANT III. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 × HT II…..Lipaphis ruderalis
Cauda 0.65-0.75 × ANT III. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 × HT II…..20
20SIPH 2.0-2.8 × HT II…..Lipaphis lepidii
SIPH 3.0-3.5 × HT II….. Lipaphis lepidii ssp. lepidiicardariae
Lepidolopha karatavica [Macrosiphoniella sp. (Kadyrbekov 2014f)]
Lepidolopha sp. Acyrthosiphon ilka
Lepidolopsis turkestanica [Brachycaudus prunicola]
Lepidotheca see MatricariaAsteraceae
Leptactina sp.Aphis craccivora (?)

(or try key to polyphagous aphids)

Leptadenia hastata = L. lancifolia
L. lancifoliaAphis gossypii
L. reticulataAphis nerii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Leptaleum filifolium Aphis craccivora
Leptandra sibirica Aphis fabae, gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Leptilon see ErigeronAsteraceae
Leptinella plumosa Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ascalonicus

Use key to polyphagous aphids

Leptochloa. filiformis = L. mucronata
L. mucronataHysteroneura setariae; Protaphis middletonii
L. virgataRhopalosiphum maidis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Leptodermis griffithii Aphis gossypii
L. lanceolataAphis gossypii
L. pilosaAphis gossypii

Leptogramma see Gymnogramma

Leptopus cordifolius [Eriosoma phaenax; vagrant sexuparae?];
Hyadaphis parvus (?)
Leptorumohra see RumohraDryopteridaceae
Leptospermum Myrtaceae
Leptospermum laevigatum Myzus ornatus
L. luehmanniiMyzus persicae
L. scopariumAphis gossypii; Anomalaphis casimiri;
Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae
Leptospermum sp. Myzus ornatus
ABD TERG 7 and 8 each bearing a pair of long, backwardly directed processes, those on ABD TERG 7 about as long as SIPH, which have a subapical zone of reticulation and a ring of 4-5 hairs with furcate apices…..Anomalaphis casimiri
ABD TERG 7 and 8 without long processes. SIPH without reticulation and hairs…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Leptosyne see CoreopsisAsteraceae
Leptotaenia see LomatiumApiaceae
Lespedeza (including Kummerowia)Fabaceae
L. bicolor (incl. var. japonica) Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;
Megoura brevipilosa, lespedezae; [Rhodobium porosum]
L. capitataMicroparsus singularis
L. cuneata = L. juncea var. sericea
L. cyrtobotryaAphis spiraecola; Megoura lespedezae
L. cytisoides = Rhynchosia cytisoides
L. hedysaroides = L. juncea
L. juncea (incl. var. sericea) Megoura brevipilosa, lespedezae
L. procumbensMacrosiphum euphorbiae
L. repensMicroparsus singularis
L. stipulacea (in Kummerowia) Microparsus singularis
L. thunbergiiMegoura lespedezae
L. virgataAulacophoroides virgatae
L. virginicaMicroparsus singularis
Lespedeza sp.[Therioaphis ononidis]

Key to apterae on Lespedeza:-

1 SIPH entirely dark…..2
SIPH pale, sometimes dark at apices…..6
2 SIPH not swollen in middle. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24
SIPH swollen in middle. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without Mtu…..3
3 Large, dark marginal sclerites present on all thoracic and abdominal segments, much larger than the spaces between them and including very large ante- and postsiphuncular sclerites…..Aulacophoroides virgatae
Marginal sclerites pale or dusky and smaller than the spaces between them. Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites usually present, postsiphuncular sclerites small or not evident…..4
4 SIPH 0.4-0.5 mm long, 0.20-0.25 × BL. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-6.1…..Microparsus singularis
SIPH 0.57-0.84 mm long, 0.27-0.34 × BL. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.9…..5
5 Head with ANT tubercles rather low, and bearing hairs more than 0.6 × BD III…..Megoura lespedezae
Head with very well-developed ANT tubercles, bearing hairs less than 0.4 × BD III…..Megoura brevipilosa
6 SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells)…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
SIPH without subapical reticulation…..7
7 Head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. SIPH attenuate distally, 1.2-1.9 × cauda…..Acyrthosiphon pisum
Head spiculose, at least on ventral side, with inner faces of ANT tubercles steep-sided, approximately parallel. SIPH not attenuate distally, 2.1-2.5 × cauda…..Aulacorthum solani
Lesquerella arctica Brevicoryne arctica
Leucadendron Proteaceae
Leucadendron argenteum Aphis gossypii
L. sabulosum[Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]
Leucaena Fabaceae
Leucaena glauca = L. leucocephala
L. leucocephalaAphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Leucanthemella serotina Brachycaudus cardui
Leucanthemopsis flaveola Aphis craccivora
Leucanthemum lacustre = L. vulgare
L. maximum see L. × superbum
L. myconis = Coleostephus myconis
L. pallensAphis gossypii
L. rotundifoliumAphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi
L. × superbumAphis fabae, gossypii, vandergooti;
(lacustre × maximum; “Shasta Daisy”)Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, [iranicus], lateralis;
Macrosiphoniella leucanthemi, sanborni, subterranea,
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus;
Pseudomegoura magnoliae;
Rhopalosiphinonus latysiphon; Trama troglodytes
L. rotundifoliumAphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi
L. sylvaticumAphis gossypii; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis
L. vulgareAphis fabae, gossypii, [hieracii], solanella, spiraecola,
(= Chrysanthemum leucanthemum) vandergooti, [Aphis sp. (Holman & Pintera 1981)];
Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;
Coloradoa tanacetina; [Illinoia goldamaryae];
Macrosiphoniella absinthii, artemisiae, [atra],
leucanthemi, millefolii, oblonga, sanborni,
subterranea, tanacetaria, tapuskae, [usquertensis] ;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [Macrosiphum sp. (Leonard
1968)]; Metopeurum fuscoviride;
Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus;
[Pleotrichophorus chrysanthemi, duponti];
Protaphis middletonii;
[Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]; Trama troglodytes;
Uroleucon [chrysanthemi], erigeronense, gravicorne,
ochropus, siculum, [solidaginis], sonchi
L. waldsteinii = L. rotundifolium

Key to apterae on Leucanthemum:-

1 Hind tarsi greatly elongated, more than 0.6 × hind tibiae. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4. SIPH absent…..Trama troglodytes
Hind tarsi normal. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. SIPH tubular…..2
2 SIPH dark, at least on distal half, tapering/cylindrical or with flared apices, and with polygonal reticulation on at least distal 0.16 of length…..3
SIPH pale or dark, but if dusky/dark over half of length or more then either without polygonal reticulation or markedly swollen…..17
3 Cauda tapering from base to apex, triangular, less than 1.7 times longer than its basal width (Fig.5f). ANT tubercles very weakly developed, so that front of head is very shallowly concave in dorsal view…..Metopeurum fuscoviride
Cauda finger-like, more than 2 times its basal width. ANT tubercles variably developed ……4
4 Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 placed on conspicuous dark scleroites (e.g. Fig.5g) …..5
Scleroites at bases of hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 pale or small and inconspicuous …..8
5 SIPH 0.6-1.0 × cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.40-0.63…..6
SIPH 1.6-1.9 × cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.20-0.25…..7
6 ANT III with (14-)29-55 rhinaria. Dorsal sclerites in spinal region partially fused, forming paired patches or short cross-bands…..Macrosiphoniella absinthii
ANT III with 5-28 rhinaria. Dorsal hairs usually all or mostly on separate scleroites…..Macrosiphoniella millefolii
7 Cauda pale. ANT III with 45-62 rhinaria. R IV+V shorter than HT II…..Uroleucon ochropus
Cauda dark. ANT III with 11-25 rhinaria. R IV+V longer than HT II…..Uroleucon siculum
8 SIPH 0.23-0.38 × BL, 1.4-2.3 × cauda…..9
SIPH 0.09-0.20 × BL, 0.6-1.3 × cauda…..13
9 SIPH wholly dark, or paler only in middle. Large, dark postsiphuncular sclerites present…..Uroleucon sonchi
SIPH pale at base. Postsiphuncular sclerites absent or indistinct…..10
10 SIPH 1.5-1.75 × cauda, which has an attenuated apical part without hairs…..Uroleucon gravicorne
SIPH 1.8-2.3 × cauda, which has hairs near apex…..11
11 SIPH with a small apical lip or flange. ANT I and II as pale as head and basal part of ANT III…..Uroleucon erigeronense
SIPH flared at apex but without an apical lip or flange. ANT I and II distinctly darker than head and basal part of ANT III…..12
12 Femora contrastingly black on distal 0.17-0.30 of length…..Macrosiphoniella leucanthemi
Femora pale or only dusky at apices…..Macrosiphoniella tapuskae
13 SIPH pale, at least basally, 1.0-1.3 × cauda, which is pale/dusky. ANT VI BASE 1.9-2.3 × R IV+V…..Macrosiphoniella oblonga
SIPH dark, 0.6-1.0 × the similarly dark cauda. ANT VI BASE 0.7-1.8 × R IV+V …..14
14 Tibiae pale in middle, dark basally and apically. Antesiphuncular sclerites present (although they can be rather pale). Cauda with 12-20 hairs…..15
Tibiae wholly dark. Antesiphuncular sclerites absent. Cauda with 19-32 hairs …..16
15 SIPH 0.15-0.20 × BL, with reticulation on distal 0.26-0.40 of length….. Macrosiphoniella subterranea
SIPH short and thick, 0.11-0.15 × BL, with reticulation on distal 0.63-0.81 of length…..Macrosiphoniella sanborni
16 ANT III wholly black, with 12-32 rhinaria. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 × HT II. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.35-0.51. Cauda with 26-32 hairs…..Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria
ANT III pale at base, with 3-14 rhinaria. R IV+V 0.85-1.11 × HT II. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.45-0.69. Cauda with 19-27 hairs…..Macrosiphoniella artemisiae
17 ABD TERG 1-4(-5) and 7 with large, conspicuous, rather flat marginal tubercles (MTu) (Fig.5j)…..Aphis vandergooti
MTu present or absent on ABD TERG 1 and 7, but only sporadically present (and then small) on ABD TERG 2-4…..18
18 Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width in dorsal view, with 5-8 hairs. Spiracular apertures large and rounded…..19
Cauda tongue-shaped or triangular; if as short as its basal width then with more than 10 hairs. Spiracular apertures small and reniform…..21
19Dorsum without dark markings. Mesosternum without mammariform processes. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm, 1.2-1.3 × HT II. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 × cauda…..Brachycaudus helichrysi
Dorsum with an extensive black shield. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm, 1.4-2.0 × HT II. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 × cauda…..20
20 Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-61 µm long. Longest hairs on hind femur 10-25µm long…..Brachycaudus lateralis
Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are at least 70µm long. Longest hairs on hind femur more than 25µm long…..Brachycaudus cardui
21 Triommatidium merged with compound eye, so that there is no distinct ocular tubercle. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-1.7. Dorsal hairs small, club-shaped, or with somewhat expanded apices. SIPH cylindrical for most of length, slightly swollen subapically. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 × HT II with slightly concave sides. Cauda less than 1.5 × its basal width, with 4-5 hairs…..Coloradoa tanacetina
Triommatidum forming a distinct ocular tubercle at posterior margin of eye, ANT PT/BASE more than 2, and other characters not in above combination…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Leucas asperaAphis gossypii, spiraecola; Cryptomyzus taoi
L. cephalotesAphis gossypii
L. lavandulifoliaAphis gossypii, spiraecola
L. linifolia = L. lavandulifolia
L. martinicensisAphis gossypii
L. zeylanicaAphis gossypii
Leucas spp.[Aphis umbrella]; [Myzus siegesbeckicola];
[Sitobion indicum]

Key to apterae on Leucas:-

Dorsal body hairs long and thick, much longer than ANT BD III, and many or all of them with knobbed or expanded apices, and arising from tuberculate bases. ANT PT/BASE 9.0-10.5. SIPH swollen on distal part, more than 3.5 × cauda…..Cryptomyzus taoi
Without the above combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Leucocrinum montanum Abstrusomyzus leucocrini
Leucolepis acanthoneura Melaphis rhois
(or try key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum)
Leucopogon concurvus Ceriferella leucopogonis
L. parviflorusCeriferella leucopogonis
L. richeiMacrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Leucopogon:-

Wax plates divided into polygonal cells present dorsally on all body segments. Cauda constricted at about midlength so that distal part is an elongate, parallel-sided knob. Anal plate bilobed…..Ceriferella leucopogonis
Without the above combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Leucosceptrum canum [Ericolophium rhododendri];
[Eutrichosiphum sp.(India; A.K. Ghosh & Agarwala 1993];
Subovatomyzus leucosceptri
L. japonicum = Comanthosphace japonica
Leucosidea Rosaceae
Leucosidea sericea Aphis gossypii
Leucospermum cordifolium Aphis gossypii; Protaphis evansi, pseudocardui

Key to apterae on Leucospermum:-

1 SIPH shorter than R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5. Cauda triangular or bluntly conical, about as long as its basal width, with 13-19 hairs…..2
SIPH longer than R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.8. Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width, with 4-8 hairs…..Aphis gossypii

(or try key to polyphagous aphids)

2 ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.4. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 17-19 μm long. Cauda rounded at apex…..Protaphis pseudocardui
ANT PT/BASE 0.7-0.9. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 20-25 μm long. Cauda with a rather pointed apex…..Protaphis evansi
Leucothoe axillaris [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a)]
L. catesbaeiIllinoia azaleae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae
L. fontanesianaAulacorthum solani; Illinoia rhokalaza
L. grayana var. oblongifolia Aulacorthum vaccinii
(= Eubotryoides grayana)

Key to apterae on Leucothoe:-

(Check: all 5 species keyed usually have 1 or more rhinaria on basal part of ANT III.)

1 SIPH with a subapical zone of reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of rather large closed polygonal cells). Inner faces of ANT tubercles smooth and divergent…..2
SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation. Inner faces of ANT tubercles spiculose and almost parallel…..4
2 ANT hairs very short and blunt, maximally only 0.20-0.25 × BD III. SIPH slightly but distinctly swollen on distal half proximal to reticulated part. First tarsal segments with (4-)5 hairs…..Illinoia azaleae
Longest ANT hairs more than 0.5 × BD III. SIPH with or without swelling on distal half. First tarsal sgements with 3-5 hairs…..3
3 SIPH wholly dark. R IV+V c.1.6 × HT II, with 15-20 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs…..Illinoia rhokalaza
SIPH pale, sometimes darker distally. R IV 0.8-1.0 × HT II, with 7-10 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
4 Tergum dark, sclerotic. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.7. Cauda with 5 hairs…..Aulacorthum vaccinii
Tergum pale. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5. Cauda with 7 hairs…..Aulacorthum solani
Leuzea altaica = Rhaponticum serratuloides
L. carthamoides = Rhaponticum carthamoides
Levisticum officinale Aphis fabae, [frangulae], gossypii, spiraecola;
Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Cavariella aegopodii, konoi, pastinacae, [rutila],
salicicola, theobaldi;
Dysaphis apiifolia, apiifolia ssp. petroselini;
Hyadaphis foeniculi, passerinii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ornatus

Use key to apterae on Apium, which includes all these species, but specimens keying to Hyadaphis foeniculi may be H. passerinii; see key to apterae on Foeniculum for discriminants.

Lewisia cantelovii Macrosiphum euphorbiae
L. cotyledon Myzus ascalonicus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Leycesteriaformosa [Forda riccobonii]; Hyadaphis coriandri;
Semiaphis heraclei

Key to apterae on Leycesteria:-

SIPH 0.098-0.21 mm, as long as or longer than R IV+V. ANT PT 0.75-1.3 × SIPH…..Hyadaphis coriandri

SIPH 0.05-0.10 mm, shorter than R IV+V. ANT PT 1.5-4.5 × SIPH…..Semiaphis heraclei
Leymus angustus Anoecia corni; Forda marginata;
Rhopalosiphum insertum; Sipha elegans, maydis
L. arenariusAnoecia vagans; Atheroides hirtellus, serrulatus;
Diuraphis frequens; Forda formicaria; Hyalopterus pruni;
Laingia psammae; Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae;
Rhopalosiphum padi, rufiabdominale;
Schizaphis [muehlenbergiae], nigerrima, priori, rufula;
Sipha arenarii, glyceriae; Sitobion avenae
L. chinensisDiuraphis frequens; Schizaphis graminum;
Sipha burakowskii, elegans
L. condensatusSipha maydis
L. mollisSitobion alopecuri, avenae
L. multicaulis Forda marginata; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae;
Tetraneura africana
L. paboanusDiuraphis frequens
L. pseudagropyron = L. chinensis
L. racemosusHyalopterus pruni; Rhopalomyzus poae;
Sipha glyceriae, maydis, taurica; Sitobion fragariae
L. ramosusForda marginata; Paracletus bykovi; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Sipha maydis, uvarovi; Sitobion avenae
L. sabulosus = L. racemosus
L. secalinusLaingia psammae; Sitobion avenae
L. tianschanicusSipha maydis

Use key to aphids on grasses under Digitaria.

Lhotskya see CalytrixMyrtaceae
Liabum cubenseUroleucon ambrosiae
Liatris (including Lacinaria)Asteraceae
Liatris asperaAphis laciniariae
L. elegansAphis laciniariae
L. gummiferae (?) [Cavariella aegopodii (capreae of Theobald 1927: 8)]
L. punctataAphis laciniariae; [Pleotrichophorus wasatchii]
L. scariosaBrachycaudus cardui
L. squarrosaAphis craccivora, spiraecola

Key to apterae on Liatris:-

1 Dorsum with extensive black sclerotisation…..2
Dorsum without dark markings…..3
2 Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. R IV+V 1.3-1.8 × HT II. SIPH 2.1-3.4 × cauda…..Brachycaudus cardui
Cauda tongue-shaped, tapering, longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures small and reniform. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 × HT II. SIPH 1.2-2.2 × cauda …..Aphis craccivora
3 ABD TERG 1 and 7 with large, domed marginal tubercles (MTu), similar in diameter to SIPH at midlength. SIPH and cauda both pale/dusky. Posterior hair on hind trochanter only 0.2-0.3 × diameter of trochantro-femoral suture…..Aphis laciniariae
ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without MTu; if with MTu then these are much smaller in diameter than SIPH at midlength, SIPH and cauda are not both pale or dusky, and posterior hair on hind trochanter is 0.5 or more × diameter of trochantro-femoral suture……go to key to polyphagous aphids
Libanotis buchtormensis Aphis fabae, umbelliferarum, [Aphis sp. (Kazakhstan;
Juchnevitch 1968)];
Cavariella aegopodii, [angelicae]; Dysaphis foeniculus;
Semiaphis dauci, [sphondylii]
L. condensataAphis podagrariae, [schilderi];
Dysaphis foeniculus ssp. malidauci;
[Semiaphis sphondylii]
L. incanaAphis fabae
L. montana = Seseli libanotis
L. pyrenaica = Seseli libanotis
L. schrenkianaAphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii; Dysaphis foeniculus;
Hyadaphis coriandri; Semiaphis dauci
L. seseloidesDysaphis mordvilkoi; Semiaphis heraclei
L. sibiricum = Seseli sibiricum
L. transcaucasica = Seseli transcaucasicum
Libanotis sp.Aphis grosmannae

Use key to apterae on Seseli.

Licania michauxii Aphis gossypii
Licuala Arecaceae
Licuala spinosaCerataphis brasiliensis
Ligularia altaica Aphis fabae
L. fischeriAleurodaphis ligulariae; Aphis fabae, ligulariae;
Aulacorthum ligularicola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Sorbaphis chaetosiphon
L. glaucaAphis fabae
L. hodgsoniiAphis ligulariae; Brachycaudus cardui
L. narynensisDysaphis ligulariae
L. persicaDysaphis ligulariae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Nasonovia ribisnigri
L. sachalinensisBrachycaudus helichrysi
L. schmidtiiAphis ligulariae
L. sibirica (incl. var. speciosa) Aphis fabae, [jacobeae]; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;
Sorbaphis chaetosiphon
L. stenocephala[Aphis saussurearadicis]; Brachycaudus cardui;
Sorbaphis chaetosiphon
L. talassicaDysaphis ligulariae
L. thyrsoidea Aphis fabae
L. thomsoniiDysaphis ligulariae
L. wilsonianaBrachycaudus cardui
Ligularia spp.Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Ligularia:-

1 Body elongate oval, sclerotic dorsally, with a crenulate margin due to a continuous fringe of wax glands. Eyes as triommatidia. SIPH as pores with raised rims. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed…..Aleurodaphis ligulariae*
Body oval or spindle-shaped, without a marginal fringe of wax glands. Eyes multifaceted. SIPH tubular. Cauda helmet-, tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire …..2
2 SIPH with numerous (20-30) long fine hairs on basal 0.7-0.8 of length, similar to the hairs densely clothing the body and appendages…..Sorbaphis chaetosiphon
SIPH without hairs…..3
3 Well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) consistently present on ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-5 as well as 1 and 7…..4
MTu absent or only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7…..5
4 Hairs on ANT III shorter than BD III. Paired spinal tubercles (STu) usually present on head and ABD TERG 7 and 8. Cauda helmet-shaped with 5-6 hairs…..Dysaphis ligulariae*
Hairs on ANT III very numerous and the longest more than 2 × BD III. STu absent. Cauda finger-shaped with 20-23 hairs…..Aphis ligulariae*
5 ANT III with 5-17 rhinaria in a row on basal half. Head spinulose dorsally and ventrally with well-developed steep-sided ANT tubercles. ANT PT/BASE 4.9-5.6. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 × HT II. SIPH dusky, cylindrical, without or with indistinct subapical reticulation, 2.9-3.3 × cauda…..Aulacorthum ligularicola*
Without that combination of characters …..6
6 Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones. Dorsal abdomen usually with paired dark pleural markings. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4…..Nasonovia ribisnigri
Thoracic and abdominal spiracles all small. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings. ANT PT/BASE less than 7…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Ligusticum acutilobum = Angelica acutiloba
L. alatum (?)[Dysaphis armeniaca]
L. apiifoliumCavariella aegopodii
L. grayiAphis asclepiadis
L. hulteniiSemiaphis heraclei
L. lucidum (incl. pyrenaeum) Anuraphis subterranea; Aphis fabae; Dysaphis apiifolia
L. mutellinaCavariella aegopodii; Pemphigus sp. (Zwölfer 1958)
L. officinaleAulacorthum solani; Cavariella salicicola;
Semiaphis heraclei
L. porteriAphis asclepiadis;
Cavariella aegopodii, [archangelicae], pastinacae
L. pyrenaeum see L. lucidum
L. scoticumAphis fabae; Semiaphis sphondylii
Ligusticum sp.[Uroleucon martini]

Key to apterae on Ligusticum:-

1ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly pointed process above cauda. SIPH clavate …..2
ABD TERG 8 without a supracaudal process. SIPH (if present) not clavate …..4
2 ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.0…..Cavariella pastinacae
ANT PT/BASE 0.64-1.3.….3
3SIPH thick, short and coarsely imbricated, narrowing only near base (Fig.10a). R IV+V 1.05-1.2 × HT II, with a pair of accessory hairs…..Cavariella salicicola
SIPH moderately imbricated, with a narrow basal stem (Fig. 10b). R IV+V 0.7-0.95 × HT II, without accessory hairs…..Cavariella aegopodii
4SIPH very small, less than 0.5 × cauda, flangeless, and usually curved so that aperture is slanted towards midline of body…..5
SIPH (if present) more than 0.8 × cauda, and with a distinct flange…..6
5Cauda triangular in dorsal view. SIPH about twice (1.8-2.2) times as long as their diameter at midlength (Fig.10j)…..Semiaphis sphondylii
Cauda tongue shaped, with rounded apex. SIPH 1.0-1.8 × their diameter at midlength (Fig.10k)…..Semiaphis heraclei
6Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Head and ABD TERG 8 or 7-8 usually with spinal tubercles (STu)…..7
Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, or triangular but longer than or as long as its basal width. Head without, and ABD TERG 7-8 usually without, STu …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
7SIPH less than 2 × their basal diameters, with close-set rows of fine spinules. Cauda with 9-16 hairs. R IV+V longer than SIPH…..Anuraphis subterranea
SIPH more than 2 × longer than their basal diameters, with normal imbrication. Cauda with 4-8 hairs. R IV+V shorter than SIPH …..Dysaphis apiifolia
Ligustrum Privets Oleaceae
Ligustrum foliosum = L. ovalifolium
L. ibotaAulacorthum ibotum
L. japonicumAphis crinosa; Prociphilus ligustrifoliae, osmanthae
L. lucidumProciphilus ligustrifoliae
L. obtusifoliumAphis crinosa, spiraecola; Aulacorthum ibotum;
Prociphilus oriens, osmanthae
L. ovalifoliumAphis fabae; Myzus ligustri; Prociphilus oriens
L. quihouiProciphilus ligustrifoliae
L. robustum ssp. walkeri Ceratopemphigus zehntneri
L. sinenseCeratopemphigus zehntneri
L. tschonoskiiProciphilus oriens
L. vulgareAphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ascalonicus, ligustri, persicae;
Prociphilus bumeliae
Ligustrum sp.[Aiceona sp., Laos (Yoshitomi et al. 2014)];
[Prociphilus cheni]

(Note: some records from the common European privet L. vulgare may be erroneous, due to misidentification of the planted hedge privet L. ovalifolium.)

Key to species:-

1 SIPH absent, ANT PT/BASE less than 0.25. Thorax and abdomen, and sometimes head also, with well-developed wax pore plates…..2
SIPH present, ANT PT/BASE more than 1. No discrete wax pore plates …..5
2 Alata (from gall) with front of head projecting forward well beyond antennal bases, and often with a pair of small processes. Fourth instar (from gall) with a pair of much larger, blunt, conical processes…..Ceratopemphigus zehntneri
Adult and 4th instar alata and (from leaf-nest gall) with front of head shallowly convex, without processes…..3
3 Alata (from leaf-nest gall) with dark-bordered forewing veins and ANT VI BASE bearing 0-7 secondary rhinaria…..Prociphilus ligustrifoliae (or osmanthae)
Alata (from leaf-nest gall) with unbordered forewing veins and ANT VI BASE always without any secondary rhinaria….4
4 ANT V of alata (from leaf-nest gall) with 7-10 secondary rhinaria …..Prociphilus oriens
ANT V of alata (from leaf-nest gall) with 0-2 secondary rhinaria…..Prociphilus bumeliae
5Longest hairs on ANT III more than 3 × basal diameter of segment. SIPH short, truncate, similar in length to the short cauda which bears more than 14 hairs…..Aphis crinosa
Longest hairs on ANT III less than 2 × (and usually shorter than) basal diameter of segment. SIPH usually clearly longer than cauda, which bears less than 14 hairs…..6
6 SIPH conspicuously swollen over about 0.7 of length, and in aptera having basal half pale and distal half dark. Alata with secondary rhinaria on ANT IV and a black dorsal abdominal …..Myzus ligustri
SIPH tapering or slightly swollen on distal half, but if swollen then in aptera only dark at extreme apices. Alata without secondary rhinaria on ANT IV, with or without a black dorsal patch…..7
7 SIPH long, more than 0.2 × BL, and uniformly dark in aptera, much darker than cauda; without any polygonal reticulation…..Aulacorthum ibotum
SIPH either much less than 0.2 × BL or if longer, then not much darker than cauda in aptera, and with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Lilium auratumAphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani; Indomegoura indica;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae
L. buschiamum = L. concolor var . pulchellum
L. canadenseMacrosiphum lilii
L. candidumAphis fabae, gossypii; Dysaphis tulipae; Ericaphis lilii;
Myzus ornatus
L. concolor var. pulchellumAphis gossypii
L. formosum = L. sargentiae
L. harrisii = L. longiflorum
L. henryiMacrosiphum lilii
L. ×hollandicumAulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus
L. lancifolium Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani; Indomegoura indica;
Macrosiphum lilii; Neomyzus circumflexus
L. leichtliniiAulacorthum solani; [Ovatus menthae]
L. longiflorum Aphis fabae, gossypii, ogilviei;
(incl. var. eximium) [Carolinaia cyperi]; Ericaphis scoliopi;
Macrosiphumeuphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; [Neotoxoptera violae];
Protaphis middletonii
L. mackliniaeAulacorthum solani
L. martagonMyzus ascalonicus, persicae
L. medeoloidesAphis gossypii
L. pensylvanicum Aphis gossypii
L. philadelphicum Aphis fabae
L. pumilumAphis liliophaga
L. sargentiae Ericaphis scoliopi; Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae
L. speciosum (incl. var. rubrum)Aphis gossypii; Ericaphis scopioli; Indomegoura indica;
Macrosiphum lilii; Myzus ascalonicus;
Pseudomegoura magnoliae
L. superbumAulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum lilii
L. szovitsianumAulacorthum solani
L. tenuifolium = L. pumilum
L. ×testaceumAphis gossypii
L. tigrinum = L. lancifolium
L. washingtonianum Neomyzus circumflexus
Lilium sp. (“lilies”) Abstrusomyzus phloxae

Key to apterae on Lilium:-

(See Blackman & Eastop 2000 for an illustrated key to common aphids on lilies.)

1 Cauda helmet-shaped, as short as or shorter than its basal width in dorsal view, with 4-6 hairs. Head and ABD TERG 8 (or 7 and 8) usually with spinal tubercles (STu), and marginal tubercles (MTu) on ABD TERG 1-5 (rarely also on 7)…..Dysaphis tulipae
Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width, with 4-25 hairs. STu absent from head and only rarely on ABD TERG (7-)8, and MTu only ever consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7…..2
2 ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with paired MTu. Head with ANT tubercles weakly developed, not or hardly projecting forward beyond middle of head in dorsal view …..3
ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. Head with ANT tubercles moderately or well developed, projecting far beyond middle part of head in dorsal view…..6
3 Cauda as dark as SIPH, with 6-25 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with some small dark markings on ABD TERG anterior to SIPH, and dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8 …..4
Cauda paler than SIPH, with 4-9 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings…..5
4 Cauda with 11-25 hairs. Hairs on hind femur long and fine, exceeding diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.7-2.1 × BD III. Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 40-85 μm long…..Aphis fabae
Cauda with 6-9 hairs. Hairs on hind femur all much shorter than diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.5 × BD III. Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 3 are c.12 μm long…..Aphis ogilviei
5 ANT PT/BASE 1.78-2.17. R IV+V 1.06-1.13 × HT II, which is 0.094-0.114 mm long. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with narrow cross-bands…..Aphis liliophaga*
ANT PT/BASE (2.1-)2.2-3.0. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 × HT II, which is 0.078-0.110 mm long. ABD TERG 7 and 8 usually without cross-bands…..Aphis gossypii
6 Head, ANT, legs, SIPH and cauda entirely black. SIPH very stout, cylindrical on basal part, abruptly narrowing to apex, with some subapical polygonal reticulation…..Indomegoura indica
Head, ANT, legs, SIPH and cauda not all entirely black. SIPH either rather thin and tapering or cylindrical, or swollen distally with narrower basal part…..7
7 Head not spinulose. ANT tubercles with inner faces smooth and divergent …..8
Head with spinules or nodules, at least on ventral side. ANT tubercles with inner faces steep-sided, almost parallel or apically convergent…..10
8 SIPH pale, without polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.5 × BD III. Median frontal tubercle well-developed. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 × HT II…..Metopolophium dirhodum
SIPH pale or dark, with subapical reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 × BD III. Median frontal tubercle small or undeveloped. R IV+V 0.8-1.1 × HT II …..9
9 SIPH entirely black, contrasting with pale cauda. ANT III-VI dark, apical parts of femora and basal parts of tibiae black…..Macrosiphum lilii
SIPH pale like cauda, sometimes darker distally. ANT and legs mainly pale…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
10 SIPH 2.7-3.5 × cauda; rather straight-sided, tapering gradually from base to flange, weakly imbricated, usually with some subapical polygonal reticulation. Dorsum without dark markings…..11
SIPH 1.8-3.5 × cauda, but if more than 2.6 × cauda then SIPH are either swollen distally or coarsely imbricated and curved, and dorsum has dark markings…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5
11 ANT PT/BASE 5.8-7.0. R IV+V 0.95-1.14 × HT II. Longest hairs on ANT tubercles 7-10 μm long, less than 0.5 × BD III…..Ericaphis lilii
ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.6. R IV+V 1.27-1.5 × HT II. Longest hairs on ANT tubercles 19-24 μm long, 0.8-1.0 × BD III…..Ericaphis scoliopi
Limnanthemum see NymphoidesMenyanthaceae
Limnanthes douglasii Brevicoryne brassicae
Limnobotrya lacustris Aphis grossulariae, oenotherae;
[Illinoia sp., Washington; A.Jensen,];
Macrosiphum bisensoriatum;
Nasonovia cynosbati, ribisnigri

Use key to apterae on Ribes.

Limnocharis flavaAphis gossypii
Limnophyton sp.Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Limoniastrum monopetalum Staticobium staticis, Staticobium sp. (Portugal: BMNH
collection, leg. F. Ilharco)
Limonium (including Statice)Plumbaginaceae
Limonium angustifolium Staticobium staticis
L. bellidifoliumStaticobium limonii
L. binervosumStaticobium staticis
L. caprariense[Staticobium sp. (Majorca: Seco Fernández & Mier
Durante 1986)]
L. carolinianum[Staticobium sp. (Maine, USA: Eiseman & Jensen 2015)]
L. caspium (?)Staticobium suffruticosum
L. catalaunicum[Staticobium sp. (Spain: Pérez Hidalgo et al. 2001)]
L. chrysocomumStaticobium gmelini
L. cuspidatum (?)Staticobium gmelini
L. gmelinii Aphis craccivora;
Staticobium caspicum, caucasicum, gmelini, insularum,
latifoliae, longisetosum, smailovae
L. humileStaticobium staticis, sp. nr staticis (Wales; BMNH
collection, leg. F.H. Jacob)
L. hungaricumStaticobium gmelini, latifoliae
L. latifolium = L. platyphyllum
L. meyeriStaticobium caspicum
L. minutiflorumStaticobium latifoliae
L. minutumStaticobium limonii
L. myrianthumStaticobium gmelini, latifoliae
L. oleifoliumAphis craccivora;
Staticobium latifoliae, Staticobium sp. (Cyprus: BMNH
collection, leg. V.F.Eastop)
L. otolepisStaticobium latifoliae, [nevskyi], otolepidis
L. ovalifoliumStaticobium staticis
L. perfoliatumStaticobium otolepidis
L. platyphyllumAphis limonicola; Aulacorthum solani;
Staticobium latifoliae, limonii
L. popoviStaticobium latifoliae
L. pubescensStaticobium sp. (France: BMNH collection, leg. R. van
den Bosch)
L. sareptanumStaticobium caucasicum, gmelini, strongilosiphon
L. scopariumStaticobium gmelini
L. serotinum (= L. vulgare ssp. serotinum)
L. sinuatumAphis craccivora
L. suffruticosumStaticobium latifoliae, smailovae, suffruticosum
L. tetragonumAphis spiraecola; Staticobium loochooense
L. vulgare (= Statice limonium) Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
(incl. ssp. serotinum) Staticobium latifoliae, limonii, staticis
L. wrightiiStaticobium loochooense
Limonium sp.Staticobium insularum, [Staticobium sp. (Tashev 1961)]

Key to apterae on Limonium:-

(Couplets 4-10 are tentative and may not provide conclusive identification; there are fundamental problems with the taxonomy of Staticobium spp., as discussed in the introduction to that genus.)
1 SIPH usually dark distally and pale basally, with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.30-0.55 of length. Dorsal hairs often arising from small dark scleroites …..2
SIPH pale or dark, more uniformly pigmented, if with polygonal reticulation then this extends only 0.13-0.20 of length. Dorsal hairs not arising from small dark scleroites…..11
2 Dorsal body hairs very small and inconspicuous. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.2-0.3 × BD III…..Staticobium gmelini (incl. insularum, strongilosiphon)
Dorsal body hairs evident. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-1.5 × BD III…..3
3 Cauda with 4(-5) hairs…..Staticobium loochooense
Cauda with 6-13 hairs…..4
4 Cauda 1.0-1.5 × its basal width in dorsal view, rather rounded at apex…..5
Cauda 1.4-2.4 × its basal width, if less than 1.7 × then with a rather thin, pointed apex …..6
5 SIPH c.1.35 × cauda, c.0.11 × BL. ANT PT/BASE c.3.3 …..Staticobium longisetosum*
SIPH 1.9-2.2 × cauda, 0.14-0.18 × BL. ANT PT/BASE c.4 …..Staticobium caucasicum
6 Dorsal hairs not arising from scleroites. R IV+V 0.73-0.9 × HT II…..7
Dorsal hairs mostly arising from dusky/dark scleroites. R IV+V 0.9-1.3 × HT II …..8
7 ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.2. SIPH reticulated over 0.30-0.33 of length. Cauda with 6-9 hairs…..Staticobium otolepidis
ANT PT/BASE 2.7-3.2 (-3.6). SIPH reticulated over 0.32-0.40 of length. Cauda with 9-12 hairs…..Staticobium suffruticosum*
8 ANT PT/BASE 3.1-3.7. R IV+V 1.0-1.1 × HT II…..Staticobium sp. (BMNH collection: France, Cyprus and former Yugoslavia)
ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.5. R IV+V 0.9-1.3 × HT II…..9
9 SIPH 0.29-0.37 × BL, and 1.0-1.2 × ANT III; reticulated over distal 0.35-0.42 of length…..Staticobium limonii (s.str.)
SIPH 0.14-0.30 × BL, and 0.58-1.15 × ANT III; reticulated over distal 0.35-0.55 …..10
10 SIPH 0.14-0.23 × BL, and 0.9-1.5 × cauda, which bears 6-11 (usually 7-8) hairs…..Staticobium staticis
SIPH (0.20-)0.23-0.30 × BL, and 1.25-2.0 × cauda, which bears 7-14 (usually 8-11) hairs…..Staticobium latifoliae (incl. caspicum, ?smailovae)
11 ABD TERG 1 and 7 with large, hemispherical marginal tubercles (MTu); length of marginal hair on ABD TERG 1 is 0.3-0.4 × basal diameter of adjacent tubercle…..Aphis limonicola*
ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without MTu; if with MTu, then they are small, usually papilliform, and marginal hair on ABD TERG 1 is at least 0.6 × basal diameter of adjacent tubercle…..go to key to polyphagous aphids