(in alphabetical order)


















































































Daboecia cantabrica (incl. polifolia) Aphis multiflora, [nasturtii]; Ericaphis ericae;
[Illinoia lambersi]

Use key to apterae on Erica

Dacrydium sp.[Cinara fresai, juniperi (see Brumley 2020)]
Dactylicapnos see DicentraPapaveraceae
Dactylicapnos scandens see Dicentra thalictrifolia
D. glomerata[Acyrthosiphon ignotum];
Anoecia corni, haupti, krizusi, vagans; Aphis craccivora;
Aploneura lentisci; Atheroides serrulatus;
Aulacorthum solani; Baizongia pistaceae;
Carolinaia howardii; Diuraphis mexicana, noxia;
Forda formicaria, marginata, pawlowae;
Geoica setulosa, utricularia; Hyalopteroides humilis;
Jacksonia papillata; Laingia psammae;
Melanaphis pyraria;
Metopolophium albidum, dirhodum, festucae;
Myzus ornatus, persicae; Paracletus cimiciformis;
Rhopalomyzus lonicerae, poae; Rhopalosiphoninus solani;
Rhopalosiphum maidis, [musae], oxyacanthae, padi;
Schizaphis graminum;
Sipha elegans, flava, glyceriae, maydis;
Sitobion avenae, fragariae, miscanthi;
[Takecallis arundinariae];
Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?), ulmi,
Utamphorophora humboldti

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Dactyloctenium aegyptium Aphis gossypii; Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;
[Micromyzodium dasi]; [Micromyzus niger];
Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;
Schizaphis hypersiphonata; Sitobion miscanthi;
Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?)
D. scindicumPseudoregma panicola

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Dactylorhiza aristata Aulacorthum solani
D. majalisAphis fabae
D. sambucinaAphis solanella; Aulacorthum solani
D. viridis Aphis fabae

Use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium.

Daemea Apocynaceae
Daemea cordataAphis nerii
D. tomentosaAphis nerii
Daemonorops geniculatus Astegopteryx nipae

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

Dahlia hybrida = D. pinnata
D. jaureziiAphis fabae
D. pinnataAphis craccivora, fabae, gossypi, solanella, spiraecola;
Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;
Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;
Uroleucon ambrosiae, [jaceae]
D. rosea = D. pinnata
D. variabilis = D. pinnata
Dahlia spp. (cult., hybrids) Aphis [exsors], nasturtii, spiraecola;
[Illinoia goldmaryae]; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus;
Protaphis knowltoni

Key to apterae on Dahlia:-

R IV+V similar in length to the black, bluntly triangular cauda. Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotic areas. ANT III and IV, or III-V, with secondary rhinaria. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.5 × BD III…..Protaphis knowltoni
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

No aphids are recorded from commercially important rosewoods such as D. nigra and D. stevensonii.

Dalbergia candenatensis Anomalosiphum tiomanense
D. ferruginea = D. stipulacea
D. hanceiTinocallis (Orientinocallis) dalbergicola
D. hupeanaAnomalosiphum scleroticum; Chuansicallis chengtuensis;
Quednaucallis nigropunctata; Uroleucon compositae
D. millettiiAnomalosiphum takahashii
D. sissooAcyrthosiphon pisum;
Aphis aurantii, craccivora, spiraecola;
Aulacorthum solani; [Greenidea sp.];
[Lachnus similis]; Myzus persicae
D. stipulaceaAnomalosiphum philippinense
D. torta = D. candenatensis

Key to aphids on Dalbergia:-

1 SIPH with a subapical ring of hairs. Aptera (where known) with long thin hair-bearing processes on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and alata with processes at least on ABD TERG 8 ….2
SIPH without hairs. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with or without processes…..5
2 Apterae and/or alatae with R IV+V 1.20-1.44 × HT II…..3
Alatae (the only morph known in the case of A. scleroticum), but probably applicable also to apterae) with R IV+V 1.05-1.15 × HT II…..4
3 Apterae with paired processes on ABD TERG 7 (not including apical hairs) c.0.9 × as long as those on ABD TERG 8. Frontal hairs c.34 μm long. Dorsal hairs of embryos c.15 μm long…..Anomalosiphum philippinense
Apterae with paired processes on ABD TERG 7 0.6-0.78 × as long as those on ABD TERG 8. Frontal hairs not more than c.23 μm long. Dorsal hairs of embryos only 4-6 μm long…..Anomalosiphum takahasii*
4 Alata with ANT V lacking secondary rhinaria. ABD TERG 7 with a pair of short conical marginal processes bearing long hairs, these processes about one third of length of the paired spinal processes on ABD TERG 8, which are about 57 μm long. Sclerite on ABD TERG 7 encompassing bases of marginal processes and joined anteriorly across ABD TERG 7 to the central brown patch on ABD TERG 3-5…..Anomalosiphum scleroticum
Alatae with 1-3 secondary rhinaria on ANT V. ABD TERG 7 without paired processes or long hairs, and spinal processes on ABD TERG 8 are 28-32 μm long. Sclerite on ABD TERG 7 separate from the central brown patch on ABD TERG 3-5…..Anomalosiphon tiomanense
5 All adult viviparae alate. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. SIPH as small truncate cones. ANT PT/BASE less than 2 …..6
Adult viviparae apterous and alate. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire. SIPH tubular. ANT PT/BASE more than 2…..8
6 ABD TERG 2 with a pair of very large black finger-like spinal processes united at base by a large sclerotic cross-bar that extends laterally into pleural regions, and ABD TERG 1 with a pair of similar but smaller processes. ANT PT/BASE c.1.7…..Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) dalbergicola
ABD TERG 1 and 2 with or without small pale spinal processes. ANT PT/BASE slightly less than 1…..7
7 ABD TERG 1 and 2, and 7 and 8, bearing small pale conical spinal processes, with traces of such processes also on ABD TERG 3-6. Forewing veins pale. Legs mainly pale. Secondary rhinaria on thickened dark basal two-thirds of ANT III ….. Quednaucallisnigropunctata
Abdominal spinal processes not developed; ABD TERG 1 and 2 with dusky slightly raised spinal sclerites with wax pores. Forewing veins narrowly dark-bordered. Legs mainly dark. Rhinaria distributed along entire length of wholly dark ANT III…..Chuansicallis chengtuensis
8 SIPH pale except at tips, tapering from a broad base, thin on distal part, without any subapical reticulation. Antennal tubercles well developed, smooth, with inner faces divergent in dorsal view. Cauda long and pale…..Acyrthosiphon pisum
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Dalea carthagenensis Aphis craccivora
D. dominguensis = D. carthagenensis
Damnacanthus indicus Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus;
[Cinara paxilla, subapicula (presumed vagrants from
Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Danae racemosaMyzus persicae
Danhatchia australis Aulacorthum sp. (New Zealand, BMNH collection,
leg. R. Sunde)
Danthonia carphoides = Rytidosperma carphoides
D. decumbensAnoecia furcata; Forda formicaria; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Sitobion avenae
D. spicataGeoica utricularia; Prociphilus erigeronensis
Danthonia spp.Geoica lucifuga; Schizaphis graminum; Sipha flava

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Daphne (including Eriosolena)Thymelaeaceae
Daphne alpina Acyrthosiphon daphnidis
D. ×burkwoodii Macrosiphum daphnidis
(incl. var. “Somerset”)
D. cannabina = D. papyracea
D. cneorum (var. eximia) Macrosiphum daphnidis, euphorbiae
D. gnidiumAcyrthosiphon daphnidis, [Acyrthosiphon sp. (Lampel 2001)];
[Siphonophora gnidii Lichtenstein 1884 nomen dubium]
D. indicaMacrosiphum daphnidis, euphorbiae
D. involucrataAphis nasturtii
D. laureolaAulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum daphnidis, euphorbiae
D. ×mantensiana Macrosiphum daphnidis
D. mezereumMacrosiphum daphnidis, euphorbiae
D. odoraAcyrthosiphon argus; Myzus persicae;
Pseudomegoura magnoliae
D. papyraceaAphis craccivora
D. striataMacrosiphum daphinidis
D. tanguticaMyzus persicae
Daphne spp. [Aphis kurosawai], [Aphis (Pergandeida) spp. (BMNH
collection; China, Kashmir)]

Key to apterae on Daphne:-

1SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.1-0.2 of length…..2
SIPH without a distal zone of polygonal reticulation…..3
2Longest hair on ABD TERG 3 is 43-71 μm, and on vertex 61-92 μm. Cauda with 10-19 hairs…..Macrosiphum daphinidis
Longest hair on ABD TERG 3 is 21-37 μm, and on vertex 28-48 μm. Cauda with 8-13 hairs…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
3ANT tubercles well developed, with smooth, divergent inner faces. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). ANT III with 1-47 rhinaria…..4
Either ANT tubercles well developed, but with inner faces scabrous or spiculose and parallel or apically convergent, or ANT tubercles weakly developed, and ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. ANT III with 0-2 (-4) rhinaria (but note that specimens running to Aphis craccivora may be one of the undescribed Aphis (Pergandeida) species collected on Daphne in China and Kashmir)……go to key to polyphagous aphids
4 ANT III (of apt.) with 25-47 secondary rhinaria extending over most of its length. ANT PT/BASE 5.3-7.1. R IV+V 0.67-0.80 × HT II. (Al. with 43-55 secondary rhinaria on ANT III)…..Acyrthosiphon argus
ANT III with 1-5 rhinaria near base. ANT PT/BASE 3.3-4.4. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 × HT II. (Al. with 13-17 secondary rhinaria on ANT III)…..Acyrthosiphon daphnidis
Darlingtonia californica Macrosiphum sp. near jeanae (California, BMNH
collection, leg. D.W. Nielsen)
Dasiophora see PotentillaRosaceae
Dasypyrum villosum Sitobion avenae
D. aegyptiaca = D. metel
D. alba = D. metel
D. arborea = Brugmansia arborea
D. ×candida = Brugmansia ×candida
D. fastuosa = D. metel
D. feroxMyzus persicae
D. innoxiaAphis gossypii; Myzus persicae
D. metelAphis fabae, gossypii, odinae, solanella;
Brachycaudus [cardui], helichrysi;
[Hyperomyzus carduellinus]; Myzus ornatus, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale
D. meteloides = D. innoxia
D. sanguinea = Brugmansia sanguinea
D. stramoniumAphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, solanella;
Aulacorthum solani; [Brachycaudus cardui];
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;
[Nasonovia ribisnigri]; Neomyzus circumflexus;
Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae;
Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale
D. suaveolens = Brugmansia suaveolens
D. tatula = D. stramonium
Datura spp.[Acyrthosiphon daturae Rusanova 1942 (nomen nudum)];
Aphis spiraecola; [Hyalopterus pruni];
[Uroleucon orientale]

Key to apterae on Datura:-

ANT 5-segmented, bearing long hairs up to 4-5 × BD III. ANT PT/BASE 4.5-5.9, with PT usually curved…..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale
ANT usually 6-segmented, if 5-segmented then bearing much shorter hairs and with ANT PT/BASE less than 4…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Daubentonia see SesbaniaFabaceae
Daucus carota (incl. maximus, sativus) Aphis asclepiadis, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, lambersi,
spiraecola, [umbelliferarum];
Aulacorthum solani;
Cavariella aegopodii, aspidaphoides, pastinacae,
Dysaphis [affinis], apiifolia, crataegi, foeniculus,
[malidauci], [tulipae];
Hyadaphis coriandri, [foeniculi], passerinii;
[Macrosiphum euphorbiae, stellariae];
Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;
Pemphigus [gairi], [passeki], phenax, [populinigrae];
Protaphis middletonii; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;
[Rhopalosiphum maidis];
Semiaphis [anthrisci], dauci, heraclei
D. muricatusDysaphis apiifolia (?); Semiaphis dauci
D. pusillusAphis fabae; Hyadaphis foeniculi

Key to apterae on Daucus:-

(For an illustrated key to common aphids on D. carota see Blackman & Eastop, 2000.)

1 ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent…..Pemphigus phenax
ANT PT/BASE more than 0.6. SIPH present…..2
2 ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda…..3
Supracaudal process absent…..5
3 Supracaudal process very large, cowl-like, completely covering cauda in dorsal view…..Cavariella aspidaphoides
Supracaudal process smaller, conical or finger-like, not covering cauda in dorsal view…..4
4ANT PT/BASE 0.64-1.25. Supracaudal process 0.75-1.05 × cauda…..Cavariella aegopodii
ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.0. Supracaudal process 0.15-0.33 × cauda …..Cavariella pastinacae
5SIPH very small and flangeless, only about 0.5 × cauda or less, with their apertures slanted towards mid-line…..6
SIPH at least 0.67 × cauda…..7
6 Hairs very short; posterior hair on hind trochanter rarely exceeding 20μm, less than 0.5 × diameter of trochantro-femoral suture…..Semiaphis dauci
Posterior hair on hind femur up to 60 μm long, more than 0.5 × diameter of the trochantro-femoral suture…..Semiaphis heraclei
7Head spiculose. ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces convergent or parallel-sided in dorsal view…..8
Head not spiculose. ANT tubercles weakly developed…..11
8 SIPH black and very strongly clavate…..Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon
SIPH tapering or slightly clavate…..9
9 ANT tubercles with inner faces approximately parallel in dorsal view. ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria near base. Siphunculi tapering and straight …..Aulacorthum solani
Inner faces of ANT tubercles convergent in dorsal view. ANT III without any rhinaria. Siphunculi slightly clavate, or tapering with a slight S-curve …..10
10 SIPH slightly clavate. No dorsal abdominal pigmentation. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5…..Myzus persicae
SIPH tapering, with a slight S-curve. Dorsal abdomen with an intersegmental pattern of dark ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8…..Myzus ornatus
11Cauda helmet-shaped in dorsal view, a little shorter than its basal width, with an angular apex. Spinal tubercles (STu) usually present, at least on head and ABD TERG 8 …..12
Cauda tongue-shaped, at least as long as its basal width in dorsal view, with rounded apex. STu absent…..14
12 Hairs on front of head long and pointed. SIPH 1.6-2.4 × longer than their basal widths …..Dysaphis foeniculus
Hairs on front of head short and blunt. SIPH 2.5-3.5 × longer than their basal widths…..13
13 Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.24-0.56 (rarely more than 0.5) × length of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 11-38 μm, rarely longer than 30 μm. ABD TERG 7 often with a pair of marginal tubercles (MTu) …..Dysaphis apiifolia
Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.42-1.00 (rarely less than 0.5) × length of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 25-80 μm, rarely shorter than 30 μm. ABD TERG 7 rarely with MTu…..Dysaphis crataegi
14 SIPH shorter than or of similar length to cauda, if a little longer then clavate …..15
SIPH tapering, usually longer than cauda…..16
15 SIPH 0.88-1.20 × cauda, 1.7-3.1 × R IV+V and 3.1-5.1 × longer than their minimum diameter on basal half…..Hyadaphis passerinii
SIPH 0.6-0.82 × cauda, 0.9-1.6 × R IV+V and 1.6-2.7 × their smallest diameter on basal half…..Hyadaphis coriandri
16Appendages short, SIPH less than 0.1 × BL, shorter than R IV+V. ANT PT 1.0-1.5 × R IV+V. ANT III often with 1-12 rhinaria…..Protaphis middletonii
Appendages longer, SIPH usually 0.1-0.25 × BL and longer than R IV+V. ANT PT 1.7-3.2 × R IV+V. ANT III without rhinaria (except in alatiform or parasitized specimens) …..17
17Large marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7. Longest femoral hairs only about half as long as trochantro-femoral suture …..Aphis lambersi
MTu usually only on ABD TERG 1 and 7; if any are present on ABD TERG 2-5 then the femoral hairs are as long as the trochantro-femoral suture or longer…..polyphagous Aphis spp.; go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24
Davallia bullataIdiopterus nephrelepidis
D. canariensisIdiopterus nephrelepidis
D. chaerophylloides = D. denticulata
D. denticulataBurundiaphis autriquei;
Micromyzella davalliae, pterisoides
D. platyphylla = Microlepia platyphylla
D. solida = D. subsolida
D. subsolidaMacrosiphum walkeri

Key to apterae on Davallia:-

1SIPH black on basal 0.25-0.33, contrasting with total lack of pigmentation distally (Fig.43i)….. Idiopterus nephrelepidis
SIPH pale or more uniformly pigmented…..2
2 SIPH pale, with subapical polygonal reticulation (at least 3-4 rows of closed cells)…..Macrosiphum walkeri
SIPH dark, without subapical polygonal reticulation…..3
3Head, ANT I and ANT II without nodules or spinules. ANT III a little shorter than IV, with 2-5 rhinaria on distal part. ABD TERG 1-5 membranous …..Burundiaphis autriquei
Head, ANT I and ANT II nodulose or spinulose. ANT III longer than IV, without any rhinaria. ABD TERG 1-5 extensively sclerotised…..4
4ANT III much paler than II. Cauda pale or dusky …..Micromyzella pterisoides
ANT III as dark as II. Cauda dark…..Micromyzella davalliae

(or try key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)

Daviesia divaricata Meringosiphon paradisicum (?)
Davilla rugosaAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
Debregeasia longifolia Neomyzus circumflexus; Myzus debregeasiae, persicae
Debregeasia sp.Aphis fabae, [paraverbasci]

Use key to apterae on Wendlandia.

Decaspermum fruticosum Greenidea decaspermi; Taiwanaphis decaspermi

Couplet for separating these two species:-

Siphunculi tubular, with numerous long hairs. Cauda rounded, with a median papilla…..Greenidea decaspermi
Siphunculi as very short hairless cones. Cauda knobbed ….. Taiwanaphis decaspermi
Decodon verticillatus Myzus lythri
Deinandra see HemizoniaAsteraceae
Delphinium ajacis = Consolida ajacis
D. barbatumAphis craccivora
D. ×barlowiiDelphiniobium junackianum
D. brachycentrum
ssp. maydellianum Nasonovia wahinkae ssp. robinsoni
D. confusumBrachycaudus aconiti; Nasonovia salebrosa
D. consolida = Consolida regalis
D. ×cultorumBrachycaudus aconiti
D. cuneatumBrachycaudus aconiti
D. denudatumNasonovia jammuensis
D. dictyocarpumBrachycaudus aconiti
D. elatumBrachycaudus aconiti, napelli;
Delphiniobium hanla, junackianum;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Nasonovia heiei, salebrosa
D. grandiflorum[Acyrthosiphon dauricum]
D. iliense[Nasonovia alativica]
D. maackianumAphis craccivora; Delphiniobium hanla
D. occidentaleBrachycaudus rociadae;
Nasonovia wahinkae, wahinkae ssp. robinsoni
D. rotundifoliumBrachycaudus aconiti
D. sapellonisBrachycaudus rociadae
D. tricorneBrachycaudus rociadae; Delphiniobium junackianum
D. trolliifoliumDelphiniobium junackianum
D. vestitumNasonovia jammuensis
Delphinium spp.Aphis fabae, gossypii; Macrosiphum minatii;
Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Delphinium:-

1Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width. Dorsum usually with an extensive dark sclerotic shield (e.g. Fig.6c)…..2
Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width. Dorsum usually without a dark shield…..4
2ANT III usually without rhinaria, and with longest hairs shorter than BD III (Fig.6a)…..Brachycaudus rociadae
ANT III usually with rhinaria, and with longest hairs as long as or longer than BD III (e.g. Fig.6b) …..3
3SIPH 0.31-0.55 × ANT III. ANT VI BASE 0.5-0.7 × HT II. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 × HT II …..Brachycaudus napelli
SIPH 0.57-1.0 × ANT III. ANT VI BASE 0.8-1.1 × HT II. R IV+V 1.2-1.6 × HT II..…Brachycaudus aconiti
4SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of complete, closed cells) …..5
SIPH without polygonal reticulation…..8
5ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria, which are not protruberant. SIPH pale. Cauda pale …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
ANT III with 12-65 protruberant rhinaria. SIPH wholly dark or pale basally and dark over at least distal 0.3. Cauda pale or dark…..6
6SIPH cylindrical, wholly dark. Longest hair on ANT III 1.07-1.72 × BD III, and longest hair on ABD TERG 3 about 2.4-3.0 × BD III. First tarsal segments with 4-4-4 hairs…..Macrosiphum minatii*
SIPH usually somewhat swollen in middle, and pale basally (e.g. Fig.6i). Longest hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 3 about 0.9-1.0 × BD III. First tarsal segment with 3-3-3 hairs …..7
7SIPH 1.1-1.3 × cauda and 0.15-0.19 × BL, and mainly dark except at their bases. Cauda with 6-18 hairs…..Delphiniobium junackianum
SIPH 1.3-1.55 × cauda and 0.20-0.25 × BL, and dark on 0.5-0.75. Cauda with 6-8 (usually 6) hairs……Delphiniobium hanla
8ANT III without rhinaria, or if present they are not strongly protruberant. Spiracular apertures on thorax similar in size to those on abdomen .….go to key to polyphagous aphids
ANT III with 6 or more strongly protruberant rhinaria (e.g. Fig.6d). Spiracular apertures on thorax larger than those on abdomen (Fig.6e)…..9
9Dorsal abdomen with raised, pigmented hair-bearing sclerites. SIPH 0.8-1.3 × cauda…..10
Dorsal abdomen without raised, hair-bearing sclerites; either wholly pale or with extensive sclerotisation. SIPH 2.2-3.4 × cauda…..13
10Spinal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-5 each usually with a single hair (Fig.6f). R IV+V with 8-12 accessory hairs……Nasonovia wahinkae
Spinal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-5 mostly with 2 hairs (as in Fig.6g). R IV+V bearing 13-c.20 accessory hairs…..11
11ANT III with 14-57 rhinaria, usually scattered over most of length of segment, and 6-10 on ANT IV…..Nasonovia wahinkae ssp. robinsoni
ANT III with 6-17 rhinaria, on basal part, and 0 on IV…..12
12 SIPH shorter than cauda, which bears 9-10 hairs…..Nasonovia salebrosa*
SIPH longer than cauda, which bears 7-8 hairs…..Nasonovia alatavica*
13 Dorsum extensively sclerotised and pigmented. Longest hair on ANT III only c. 0.5 × BD III or less. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 × HT II, with 18-20 accessory hairs. SIPH 2.5-3.4 × cauda, which is helmet-shaped, hardly longer than its basal width …..Nasonovia heiei*
Dorsum membranous. Longest hair on ANT III is 0.7-1.0 × BD III. R IV+V 1.05-1.15 × HT II, with 8-10 accessory hairs. SIPH 2.2-2.4 × cauda., which is finger-like, much longer than its basal width…..Nasonovia jammuensis*
Dendranthema arcticum = Arctanthemum arcticum
D. indicum = Chrysanthemum indicum
D. japonense =D. occidentali-japonense
D. lavandulifolium Macrosiphoniella sanborni
D. morifolium = Chrysanthemum morifolium
D. occidentali-japonense Macrosiphoniella sanborni
D. ornatumMacrosiphoniella sanborni
D. sinense = Chrysanthemum morifolium
D. yezoense = D. zawadskii
D. zawadskii[Aleurodaphis blumeae]; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Macrosiphoniella absinthii, sanborni
Dendranthema spp. Macrosiphoniella yomogifoliae;
[Myzus pileae, siegesbeckicola (exules of a
Uroleucon formosanum

See under Chrysanthemum for a key to apterae on both Chrysanthemum and Dendranthema.

Dendriopterium see SanguisorbaRosaceae
Dendrobium aemulum Sitobion luteum
D. bigibbum Sitobion luteum
D. chrysotoxumAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
D. densiflorumAphis (Toxoptera) citricidus; Sitobion luteum
D. gracilicauleCerataphis orchidearum
D. heterocarpumSitobion luteum
D. jonesiiSitobion luteum
D. kingianumCerataphis orchidearum; Sitobion indicum, luteum
D. longicornuMyzus ornatus; Sitobion luteum
D. moschatumSitobion luteum
D. mutabileSitobion luteum, orchidacearum
D. phalaenopsis = D. bigibbum
D. stratiotesMyzus persicae
D. sulphureum?Micromyzus sp. (New Guinea; BMNH collection, leg. J.
Dendrobium sp. Neomyzus dendrobii

Use key to apterae of orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium.

Dendrocalamus giganteus Astegopteryx bambusae; Pseudoregma bambucicola
D. latiflorusAstegopteryx bambusae, formosana;
Ceratoglyphina bambusae; Chucallis bambusicola;
Glyphinaphis bambusae; Pseudoregma alexanderi
D. pulverulentusPseudoregma bambucicola
D. strictusPseudoregma alexanderi
Dendrocalamus spp. Astegopteryx minuta, singaporensis;
Pseudoregma [albostriata], baenzigeri, carolinensis,
[Schizaphis graminum]; [Takecallis arundinariae]

Use key to apterae on bamboos under Bambusa.

Dendropanax (including Gilibertia)Araliaceae
Dendropanax arboreus Cavariella araliae
D. dentigerCavariella gilibertiae
D. trifidus[Aphis sp. (BMNH collection, Java)];
Cavariella gilibertiae

Couplet for separating the two Cavariella spp.:-

SIPH without a distinct flange. Process on ABD TERG 8 similar in length to cauda…..Cavariella gilibertiae
SIPH with a distinct reflexed flange. Process on ABD TERG 8 distally attenuate, much longer than cauda…..Cavariella araliae
Dendrostellera see DiarthronThymelaeaceae
Dendrophthoë pentandra Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Mesothoracaphis rappardi;
Sinomegoura citricola; Tuberaphis cerina

Key to apterae on Dendrophthoë:-

1Eyes multifaceted. SIPH tubular. Anal plate entire …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Eyes of only three facets (triommatidium). SIPH pore-like. Anal plate bilobed …..2
2Head, thorax and abdominal segment I fused to form pill box-like prosoma. ANT greatly reduced, 3-segmented, 0.07-0.09 × BL…..Mesothoracaphis rappardi
Head fused to prothorax only. ANT 5-segmented, 0.25-0.29 × BL …..Tuberaphis cerina
Dendrotrophe frutescens Tuberaphis dendrotophe
Dennstaedtia Dennstaedtiaceae
Dennstaedtia adiantoides = D. bipinnata
D. appendiculataMyzus filicis
D. bipinnataIdiopterus nephrelepidis
Dentariasee Cardamine
Dentella repensAphis gossypii
Deparia petersenii Macromyzus maculatus
D. pycnosoraAmphorophora ampullata; Micromyzus nikkoensis

Use key to apterae on ferns under Polypodium.

Deplanchea formosana Aulacorthum solani
Deschampsia ambigua = D. cespitosa
D. antarcticaRhopalosiphum padi
D. berteroanaRhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae
D. cespitosaAnoecia furcata, nemoralis;
Atheroides brevicornis, doncasteri, hirtellus, serrulatus;
Baizongia pistaciae; Chaetosiphella berlesei;
Colopha graminis, ulmicola (as Tetraneura graminis);
Forda formicaria; Geoica utricularia; Laingia psammae;
Metopolophium festucae; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Sipha glyceriae, Sitobion avenae, fragariae;
Tetraneura longisetosa, ulmi
D. flexuosaAnoecia furcata, vagans;
Atheroides doncasteri, serrulatus; Baizongia pistaciae;
Chaetosiphella berlesei; Forda formicaria, marginata;
Geoica setulosa; Jacksonia papillata;
Metopolophium albidum, festucae, frisicum, tenerum;
[Myzus cerasi]; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Schizaphis sp. near graminum (Ossiannilsson 1959);
Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae;
Tetraneura longisetosa, ulmi
Deschampsia sp. Sitobion graminearum

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Descurainia (including Sophia Adams nec. L.) Brassicaceae
Descurainia appendiculata Myzus persicae
D. bourgaeanaAphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Brevicoryne brassicae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus persicae
D. filipiae (?)Lipaphis pseudobrassicae
D. incisaAphis nasturtii
D. millefoliaBrachycaudus helichrysi
D. pinnataMacrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae
D. sophiaAcyrthosiphon gossypii, [ilka];
Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, solanella;
Brachycaudus [cardui], helichrysi; Brevicoryne brassicae;
Landisaphis davisi; Lipaphis erysimi; Myzus persicae;
[Sitobion avenae]
Descurainia spp.Protaphis middletonii; [Rhopalosiphum padi]

Key to apterae on Descurainia:-

ABD TERG 6-8 with median rugose conical processes, each bearing a pair of short (c. 20μm) club-shaped hairs. SIPH distinctly clavate, with diameter of swollen part c.1.5 × that of stem…..Landisaphis davisi
ABD TERG 6 and 7 without median processes, and if ABD TERG 8 has a projection then SIPH are only weakly if at all clavate …..go to key to apterae on Brassica
Desmanthus virgatus Aphis craccivora
Desmazeria see CatapodiumPoaceae
Desmazeria marina = Catapodium marinum
Desmodium (including Meibomia)Fabaceae
Desmodium adscendens Microparsus olivei, venezuelensis ssp. meridensis
D. canadenseMicroparsus desmodiorum, variabilis
D. canescensMicroparsus desmodiorum, variabilis
D. canum = D. incanum
D. gangeticumAphis gossypii
D. gyrans = Codariocalyx motorius
D. heterocarponAphis craccivora
D. heterophyllumAphis craccivora
D. incanum Aphis spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani; Microparsus olivei
D. intortumAphis [citricidus], craccivora, glycines;
[Brachycaudus helichrysi, rumexicolens];
Sitobion africanum
D. laburnifolum = Ohwia cordata
D. marilandicumMicroparsus variabilis
D. paniculatumMicroparsus desmodiorum
D. perplexumMicroparsus desmodiorum, olivei
D. scorpiurusMicroparsus olivei
D. sericophyllumAphis craccivora, gossypii;
Microparsus olivei, venezuelensis ssp. meridensis
D. supinum = D. incanum
D. triflorumAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; [Megoura lespedezae]
D. uncinatumMicroparsus venezuelensis
D. viridiflorumMicroparsus desmodiorum, olivei
Desmodium spp.[Capitophorus hippophaes, mitegoni];
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Acyrthosiphon rubi];
[Sitobion rosaeiformis]

Key to apterae on Desmodium:-

1SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation…..2
SIPH without any polygonal reticulation…..3
2SIPH black. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dark markings. Hairs on ANT III all less than 0.5 × BD III…..Sitobion africanum
SIPH pale. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 × BD III …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
3ANT tubercles well developed, divergent. ANT PT/BASE more than 5. ANT III with 1-2 (- 4) rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)…..4
ANT tubercles weakly developed. ANT PT/BASE less than 5. ANT III without rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu…..8
4Head densely spiculose ventrally and over inner faces of ANT tubercles. SIPH slightly swollen on distal 0.7 of length, paler at base, about 2 × the dusky/dark triangular cauda (e.g. Fig 26a, b)…..5
Head smooth or with only a few spicules ventrally. SIPH tapering, sometimes with flared apices, usually wholly dark, similar in length to the pale cauda, which is slightly swollen on basal half and acutely pointed at apex (Fig.26e)…..6
5Dorsal abdomen with paired dark submarginal intersegmental sclerites (Fig.26a) …..Microparsus venezuelensis ssp. meridensis
Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental sclerites….. Microparsus venezuelensis ssp. venezuelensis
6Tibiae and ANT III almost wholly dark…..Microparsus desmodiorum
Tibiae with at least middle section pale, and ANT III with paler basal section …..7
7Large black presiphuncular and postsiphuncular sclerites, joined to form broad rings around bases of SIPH (Fig.26c)…..Microparsus olivei
Only small, dusky presiphuncular sclerites are present …..Microparsus variabilis
8 Stridulatory apparatus present, consisting of cuticular ridges on abdominal sternites 5 and 6 and a row of peg-like hairs on each hind tibia. Cauda with 10-28 hairs….. Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
No stridulatory apparatus. Cauda with 2-9 hairs…..9
9. Cauda as dark as SIPH..…10
Cauda paler than SIPH..…11
10Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield..…Aphis craccivora
Dorsal abdomen without dark markings..…Aphis spiraecola
11 Cauda 0.08-0.135 × BL (only more than 0.12 × BL in very small specimens with BL less than 1 mm), and 0.8-1.25 × ANT V; pale to dusky, without a constriction, less than 3 × longer than its width at midlength, and bearing 4-7 (usually 5-6) hairs …..Aphis gossypii
Cauda 0.12-0.175 × BL, and 1.05-1.7 × ANT V; very pale, usually with a slight mid-way constriction, more than 3 × longer than its narrowest width at midlength, and bearing 5-10 (usually 7-9) hairs..…Aphis glycines
Desmoncus leptoclomus (?) Cerataphis brasiliensis
D. polyacanthosCerataphis brasiliensis
D. pycnacanthos = D. polyacanthos

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

Desmostachya bipinnata Hysteroneura setariae

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)

Deutzia corymbosa [Acyrthosiphon ignotum]; Myzus persicae
D. crenata Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola, utsigicola;
[Cryptomyzus ribis]; [Hyperomyzus lactucae];
Myzus ornatus, philadelphi; Nippodysaphis deutziae;
Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae
D. discolor Myzus persicae
D. gracilisAphis craccivora, fabae, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;
Macromyzus woodwardiae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
[Neotoxoptera abeliae]; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;
Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae, hydrangeae
D. hybrida (?)[Aphis spp. (Davletshina 1964; Leonard 1972a)]
D. ×kalmiifloraMyzus ornatus
D. ×rosea[Illinoia spiraeae]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ornatus
D. scabraAphis fabae; Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae
D. scabra var. sieboldiana Aphis utsigicola
D. vilmorinae = D. discolor
Deutzia spp.[Aphis celastrii]; Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae

Key to apterae on Deutzia:-

(Apterae of Macromyzus woodwardiae, Nippodysaphis deutziae, Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae and Rh. deutzifoliae on Deutzia in spring are all fundatrices, all their progeny being emigrant alatae.)

1 Dorsal body hairs at apices of long tapering processes that are up to 0.54 mm long (Fig.32b). (BL c. 3.1-3.2 mm) …..Macromyzus woodwardiae*
Dorsal body hairs not arising from long tapering processes. BL often less …..2
2SIPH very markedly inflated, with diameter of balloon-like swollen part 2.0-4.5 × minimum diameter of basal part…..Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae
SIPH tapering, cylindrical, or moderately swollen with diameter of swollen part less than 2 × minimum diameter of basal part…..3
3SIPH pale, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Head smooth, without spicules, and with well-developed ANT tubercles. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria, and longest hairs 0.7-1.0 × BD III…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
SIPH pale or dark, without subapical polygonal reticulation. If ANT tubercles are well developed then at least ventral side of head is spiculose. ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria; if with any rhinaria then hairs are all shorter than 0.5 × BD III…..4
4Head nodulose or spiculose on at least the ventral side. ANT tubercles well developed …..5
Head smooth or somewhat wrinkled, without spicules or nodules. ANT tubercles weakly developed…..10
5R IV+V 1.4-1.6 × HT II, and bearing 7-8 accessory hairs …..Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae
R IV+V 0.9-1.3 × HT II, and bearing 2-7 accessory hairs…..6
6SIPH strongly swollen near midlength where they are maximally c.1.5 × minimum diameter nearer base, and c.3 × width of flange; pale for most of length but dusky near tips (Fig.32c). Legs mainly pale…..Rhopalosiphoninus hydrangeae
SIPH tapering or somewhat swollen; if swollen then either legs are mainly dark, or swelling is greatest on distal 0.7, and is no more than 1.25 × minimum diameter of basal part and little more than width of flange…..7
7Femora dark over at least half of length (ANT and legs usually mainly dark). SIPH somewhat swollen, pale or dark …..8
ANT and legs mainly pale. SIPH tapering or slightly swollen, pale…..9
8SIPH wholly dark. Cauda triangular, only a little longer than its basal width. ANT III without rhinaria…..Myzus philadelphi
SIPH pale with dark apices. Cauda tongue-shaped, about 2 × its basal width. ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base…..Pseudomegoura magnoliae
9 SIPH slightly swollen, moderately imbricated. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5. Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings…..Myzus persicae
SIPH tapering, with a slight S-curve, coarsely imbricated (squamous). ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark intersegmental markings …..Myzus ornatus
10 Cauda triangular or helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width. SIPH cylindrical over most of length or slightly swollen on distal part with a subapical constriction and a well-developed flange (Fig.32d). ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)…..Nippodysaphis deutziae
Cauda longer than its basal width. SIPH tapering, without a subapical constriction. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu…..11
11SIPH about 2 × cauda which is dark, has a midway constriction and bears c.10 hairs. Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 8-10, IV 5-6, V 0-1 …..Aphis utsigicola*
Without this combination of characters …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24
Dianella tasmanica Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Dianella sp.[Rhopalosiphum padi]
Dianthus alpinusMacrosiphum stellariae
D. arenariusAphis sambuci; Myzus certus
D. armeriaAphis craccivora, fabae; Aulacorthum solani;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus
D. asper = D. seguieri Myzus certus
D. barbatusAphidura picta; Aphis sambuci; Aulacorthum solani;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [gei], stellariae;
Myzus certus, persicae
D. brachyanthus = D. pungens ssp. brachyanthus
D. carthusianorum Aphidura pujoli; Aphis fabae; Myzus certus
D. caryophyllusAphidura picta, pujoli; Aphis fabae, gossypii;
Aulacorthum solani;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae, stellariae;
Myzus [antirrhinii], certus, dianthicola, persicae, [polaris];
Smynthurodes betae; [Wahlgreniella nervata]
D. chinensisAphis craccivora, sambuci; [Chucallis bambusicola];
[Melanaphis bambusae];
Myzus ascalonicus, certus, persicae; Neotoxoptera oliveri
D. commutatus = D. carthusianorum ssp. latifolius
D. crinitusAphidura picta; Aphis craccivora
D. deltoidesAulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ascalonicus, certus, ornatus;
Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae
D. gracilisMacrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, certus
D. graniticusAulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus
D. gratianopolitanus Myzus certus
D. hungaricus = D. plumarius ssp. praecox
D. hybridus = D. armeria
D. hyssopifoliusAphidura pujoli
D. kitaibelii = D. petraeus
D. lumnitzeri = D. plumarius ssp. lumnitzeri
D. lusitanusAphis gossypii
D. microlepisMyzus ascalonicus
D. monspessulanus = D. hyssopifolius
D. myrtinerviusMyzus cymbalariae, persicae
D. petraeus[Volutaphis sp. (Holman and Pintera 1981)]
D. plumarius (incl. sspp. [Anuraphis subterranea]; Aphis sambuci;
lumnitzeri, praecox) Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ascalonicus, certus, persicae
D. pungens (ssp. brachyanthus) Myzus cymbalariae
D. repensAphis dianthiphaga
D. rupicolaAphidura pujoli
D. seguieriMyzus certus
D. serotinusMacrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus certus
D. simonkaianus[Volutaphis sp. (Romania: Holman & Pintera 1981)]
D. subacaulisMyzus cymbalariae
D. superbus[Macrosiphum chukotense]
Dianthus spp.Aphidura jimoi, pakistanensis;
Aphis [citricidus], [plantaginis], spiraecola;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Cranaphis formosana];
Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Key to apterae on Dianthus:-

(See Blackman & Eastop 2000 for an illustrated key to common aphids on pinks and carnations.)

1ANT PT/BASE less than 1. Eyes 3-faceted. SIPH absent …..Smynthurodes betae
ANT PT/BASE more than 1. Eyes multifaceted. Tubular SIPH present…..2
2SIPH pale with subapical polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells). ANT tubercles with inner faces smooth and divergent. ANT III with 1-13 rhinaria, and with longest hairs 0.6-1.2 × BD III…..3
SIPH pale or dark, without polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles if well-developed then with inner faces spiculose and steep-sided (parallel or apically convergent). ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria, if with any then longest hairs less than 0.5 × BD III…..4
3Femora usually with a dark spot or patch near apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair 26-56 μm, usually as long as or longer than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2-13 hairs in addition to those on posterior margin…..Macrosiphum stellariae
Femora pale or only slightly dusky at apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair 21-37 μm, usually shorter than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2(-4) hairs on anterior part…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
4Head not spiculose, with ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, or with median tubercle similarly developed, so that ANT tubercles do not project much beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view…..5
Head spiculose, with well-developed, steep-sided ANT tubercles…..13
5 ANT 5-segmented, bearing long hairs up to 4-5 × BD III…..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale
ANT usually 6-segmented, with much shorter hairs…..6
6 Cauda helmet-shaped. SIPH short, pale, conical, almost smooth, with a subapical annular incision below the flange. Spiracular apertures large and rounded…..Brachycaudus helichrysi
Cauda triangular or tongue-shaped. SIPH pale or dark, imbricated, with or without some subapical transverse striae, but without a distinct subapical incision. Spiracular apertures reniform …..7
7ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH subcylindrical or slightly swollen. Anterior part of mesosternum with a pair of closely-spaced, rough-surfaced mammariform processes (sometimes inconspicuous)…..8
ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. SIPH tapering from base to flange, with no trace of swelling. Mesosternum without mammariform processes……11
8Cauda about as long as its basal width or shorter. SIPH not longer than 0.21 mm and no more than 0.6 × ANT III. Mesosternal processes small and pale, sometimes inconspicuous. Abdomen without dorsal pigmentation…..Aphidura pakistanensis
Cauda longer than its basal width. SIPH longer than 0.26 mm and more than 0.60 × ANT III. Mesosternal processes pale or pigmented, always conspicuous. Abdomen pale or variably pigmented……9
9SIPH pale and 0.65-0.95 × ANT III. R IV+V 0.78-0.92 × HT II. Abdomen with little or no dorsal pigmentation…..Aphidura pujoli
SIPH dusky to dark and 1.0-1.2 × ANT III. R IV+V 0.94-1.25 × HT II. Abdomen with a variably developed dorsal black patch, sometimes fragmented or (often in small specimens) absent…..10
10SIPH distinctly swollen distally. Longest hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG II–IV are 6–9 μm, 0.24–0.38 × BD III…..Aphidura jimoi
SIPH are only slightly swollen distally. Longest hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG II–IV are 8–22μm, 0.4–1.0 × BD III…..Aphidura picta
11ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-5 as well as 1 and 7 with large flat MTu…..12
ABD TERG 2-4 without MTu, or occasionally with small papilliform MTu…..polyphagous Aphis spp.; go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24
12SIPH 1.0-1.2 × cauda, which bears 6-9 hairs…..Aphis dianthiphaga*
SIPH more than 2 × cauda, which bears more than 10 hairs …..Aphis sambuci
13SIPH strongly swollen on distal 0.7, with maximum diameter of swelling 1.7-2.9 × minimum diameter nearer base. SIPH about as long as or longer than head width across eyes and 2.2-3.2 × cauda which bears only 5 hairs. ANT III usually with 1-4 rhinaria near base…..Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae
SIPH tapering, cylindrical or with slight, moderate or strong swelling distally, but if strongly swollen then SIPH are relatively shorter, and if swollen at all then ANT III is without rhinaria…..14
14 SIPH tapering gradually from base to flange. ANT III with 1-2 small rhinaria near base…..Aulacorthum solani
SIPH slightly to moderately swollen distally. ANT III without rhinaria …..15
15SIPH 0.54-0.81 × ANT III…..16
SIPH 0.82-1.34 × ANT III…..18
16Inner faces of ANT tubercles approximately parallel in dorsal view. “Stem” of SIPH narrow, its minimum diameter slightly less than diameter of hind tibia at its midpoint …..Myzus ascalonicus
Inner faces of ANT tubercles with convergent apices. “Stem” of SIPH thicker, its minimum diameter exceeding diameter of hind tibia at its midpoint…..17
17SIPH with swollen part only lightly imbricated and with apical flange well developed. Dorsal cuticle not rugose. (Al. with dark-bordered wing veins, and with a black central dorsal abdominal patch)…..Neotoxoptera oliveri
SIPH with swollen part scabrous (coarsely imbricated), and with apical flange only weakly developed. Dorsal cuticle very rugose. (Al. with wing veins not black-bordered, and with separate transverse bars on abdominal tergites)…..Myzus cymbalariae
18 R IV+V in most specimens with only one pair of lateral accessory hairs (plus 0-3 ventral accessory hairs). Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III × PT) in range 0.80-1.52, but rarely more than 1.25 except in small specimens (those with ANT III less than 0.32 mm)…..Myzus persicae
R IV+V in most specimens with two pairs of lateral accessory hairs. Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III × PT) in range 1.2-2.7 (rarely less than 1.25)…..19
19ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.7 (mostly less than 3.25). R IV+V 0.87-1.28 × HT II (rarely less than 0.9 × HT II), or value of function (306 × R IV+V) minus (127 × HT II) is more than 17…..Myzus certus
ANT PT/BASE 2.5-4.0 (mostly more than 3.25). R IV+V 0.78-0.98 × HT II (rarely more than 0.9 × HT II), or value of function (306 × R IV+V) minus (127 × HT II) is less than 17…..Myzus dianthicola
Diarrhena mandshurica Paracletus bykovi ssp. uzbekistanicus
Diarthron arenaria Brachyunguis dendrostellerae, [Brachyunguis sp.
(Kadyrbekov 2014e)]
D. lessertiiBrachyunguis sp. (Iran: BMNH collection)
D. stachyoidesBrachyunguis dendrostellerae

Key to apterae on Diarthron:-

(Both species have ANT PT/BASE c.0.5 and very short siphunculi, less than 0.35 × CAUDA.)

SIPH dark …..Brachyunguis sp. (Iran: BMNH collection, leg. G. Remaudière)
SIPH pale brown…..Brachyunguis dendrostellerae*
Diascia rigescensMyzus ornatus
Dicentra (including Dactylicapnos, Lamprocapnos) Papaveraceae
Dicentra formosaAulacorthum solani;
Macrosiphum dicentrae, euphorbiae;
Myzus ornatus
D. spectabilisAphis fabae
(= Lamprocapnos spectabilis)
D. thalictrifoliaNeomyzus dicentrae
(= Dactylicapnos scandens)

Key to apterae on Dicentra:-

1SIPH and cauda dark, the latter bearing 11-24 hairs. ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu…..Aphis fabae
SIPH and cauda pale (SIPH sometimes dark at apices); cauda with 5-12 hairs. ANT tubercles moderately to well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu…..2
2SIPH clavate, 0.55-0.75 × ANT III, with thin “stem” about as thick as hind tibia at midlength, and swollen part not imbricated…..Myzus ascalonicus
SIPH cylindrical or tapering, if at all swollen on distal half then longer relative to ANT III, stem thicker, and swollen part imbricated …..3
3Inner faces of ANT tubercles smooth and divergent. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells). Hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 × BD III…..4
Inner faces of ANT tubercles spiculose or scabrous, and steep-sided. SIPH with subapical transverse striae, but without polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 × BD III…..5
4R IV+V 0.6-0.8 × HT II. ABD TERG 2-4 often bearing marginal tubercles (MTu) that are as large as or larger than the spiracular apertures…..Macrosiphum dicentrae
R IV+V 0.8-1.0 × HT II. ABD TERG 2-4 sometimes with MTu, but these are usually very small, not much larger than hair bases…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
5 Dorsum with paired dark pleural and marginal (or fused pleuromarginal) sclerites. SIPH as thick as or thicker than cauda, which bears 5 hairs. R IV+V 0.6-0.9 × HT II. ANT tubercles rather low, scabrous…..Neomyzus dicentrae
Dorsum without dark markings. SIPH for most of length thinner than cauda. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 × HT II. ANT tubercles high and spiculose…..Aulacorthum solani
Dichaea glaucaAulacorthum solani

(or try key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium)

Dichanthium (including Eremopogon) Poaceae
Dichanthium annulatum Aphis gossypii; Forda riccobonii; Geoica lucifuga;
Hysteroneura setariae; Myzus persicae; Sipha flava;
Sitobion africanum, avenae, graminis, miscanthi;
Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?)
D. bladhii = Bothriochloa bladhii
D. caricosumHysteroneura setariae; Sipha flava;
Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?)
D. foveolatumSitobion lambersi
D. insculptum = Bothriochloa insculpta
D. ischaemum = Bothriochloa ischaemum
Dichanthium spp. Forda hirsuta; Rhopalosiphum maidis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Dichilus villosus (?) Aphis craccivora, cytisorum
Dichondra repensPemphigus tartareus
var. carolinensis
Dichrocephala bicolor = D. integrifola
D. chrysanthemifolia Aphis gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Hysteroneura setariae};
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;
Uroleucon compositae
D. integrifoliaAphis gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ornatus, , persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus
D. latifolia = D. integrifolia

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Dichromena see RhynchosporaCyperaceae
Dichrostachys cinerea Aphis gossypii
Dicksonia sp.Macrosiphum walkeri
Dicliptera verticillata Aphis gossypii
Dicranella crispaMyzodium modestum

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.


One aphid species, Idiopteris nephrelepidis, is recorded from four Dicranopteris spp.; bifida, cordata, leonina and radicans.

Dicranum fuscescens [Pachypappa sacculi]
D. scoparium[Jacksonia papillata]; Melaphis rhois;
Muscaphis escherichi; [Pachypappa sacculi];
[Prociphilus xylostei]; Pseudacaudella rubida
Dicranum sp.Myzodium modestum

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

Dictamnus albusAphis gossypii
D. dasycarpus = D. albus
Dictyosperma Arecaceae
Dictyosperma album (var. rubra) Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

Didymocarpus pedicellatus [Micromyzodium filicium]
Didymocarpus sp. Aphis spiraecola
Didymopanax see ScheffleraAraliaceae
Dieffenbachia amoena Aphis gossypii
D. macrophyllaRhopalosiphum nymphaeae
D. maculata = D. seguine
D. magnifica = D. seguine
D. picta = D. seguine
D. seguineAphis gossypii; [Idiopterus nephrelepidis];
Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Pentalonia nigronervosa;
Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale
Dieffenbachia spp. Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Dieffenbachia:-

1 SIPH pale on basal half and dark on distal half, and usually slightly swollen subapically. SIPH and femora covered with irregular, transverse rows of spicules. (Al. with dark-bordered wing veins, with radius and costa fused for part of lengths to form a closed cell behind the pterostigma…..Pentalonia nigronervosa
SIPH either mainly pale or mainly dark; tapering, cylindrical, or clavate. SIPH and femora smooth or imbricated, not markedly spiculose. (Al. with normal wing venation, veins not dark-bordered)…..2
2ANT 5-segmented, with hairs up to 4-5 × BD III. ANT PT/BASE 4.5-5.9, with PT usually curved…..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale
ANT usually 6-segmented, if 5-segmented then with much shorter hairs and with ANT PT/BASE less than 4…..3
3SIPH, cauda and legs all dark. SIPH somewhat swollen on distal half. R IV+V 1.2-1.8 × ANT BASE VI. Dorsum with a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons, with 1 or more spinules in the centre of each polygon…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Cauda pale, ANT and legs at least partially pale, SIPH pale or dark. SIPH cylindrical, tapering or clavate. R IV+V 0.6-1.3 × ANT BASE VI. Dorsum without a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Diervilla japonica see Weigela japonica
D. loniceraAphis gossypii, [Aphis diervillalutea Rafinesque – invalid
Macrosiphum diervillae; [Pemphigus diani Ferrari, 1872]
D. lutea = D. lonicera
D. middendorfiana Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae

Key to apterae on Diervilla:-

1ANT 1.5-1.9 × BL. SIPH long and thin, more than 14 × longer than their width at midlength, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation ….. Macrosiphum diervillae
ANT less than 1.5 × BL. SIPH shorter and thicker, less than 14 × their middle width …..2
2R IV+V 1.4-1.6 × HT II, and bearing 7-8 accessory hairs. (Al. with thick, dark clavate SIPH)…..Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae
R IV + V 1.0-1.4 × HT II, with 2 accessory hairs…..Aphis gossypii

(or try key to polyphagous aphids)

Dieteria Asteraceae
Dieteria canescens (Pursh) Nutt. [Acyrthosiphon malvae]; Atarsos grindeliae;
(incl. var. leucanthemifolia) Uroleucon erigeronense, zymozionense
D. viscosa = D. canescens

Use key to apterae on Aster.

Dietes robinsoniana Dysaphis tulipae
Digitalis amandiana = D. purpurea var. amandiana
D. ambigua = D. grandiflora
D. ferruginea (ssp. schischkinii ) Aphis fabae
D. grandifloraAphis armata, fabae; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum melampyri
D. lanataAphis fabae, kosarovi, nerii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Myzus persicae
D. lutea (incl. ssp. australis) Aphis armata, fabae; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae
D. micrantha = D. lutea ssp. australis
D. obscuraAphis fabae
D. purpurea (incl. var. amandiana) Acyrthosiphon malvae; [Amphorophora rubi];
Aphis armata, fabae, kosarovi, nerii,
[pilosa Walker, 1849)], solanella;
Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae, [dycei];
Neomyzus circumflexus
D. schischkinii = D. ferruginea ssp. schischkinii
Digitalis spp.Aphis gossypii

Key to apterae on Digitalis:-

1ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. SIPH and cauda both black, the latter bearing 9-24 hairs…..2
ANT tubercles well developed, or if not then cauda is not black and bears 4-8 hairs …..5
2Dorsal abdomen without any dark sclerites. ANT PT/BASE 3.4-4.1. SIPH 1.7-2.7 × cauda…..Aphis nerii
Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bars on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and usually with other dark markings. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.5. SIPH 0.7-1.8 × cauda…..3
3Longest hair on ANT III 0.5-0.6 × BD III. Posterior hair on hind trochanter shorter than trochantro-femoral suture…..Aphis kosarovi*
Longest hair on ANT III (0.6-) 0.8-2.65 × BD III. Posterior hair on hind trochanter as long as or longer than trochantro-femoral suture…..4
4Longest hair on ANT III 1.5-2.65 × BD III. R IV+V 1.04-1.25 × HT II …..Aphis armata
Longest hair on ANT III 0.6-2.20 × BD III. R IV+V 0.88-1.10 × HT II …..Aphis fabae
5 SIPH dark on distal part, paler towards bases, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Femora with distal 0.2 of length black. R IV+V 0.65-0.8 × ANT VI BASE…..Macrosiphum melampyri
SIPH pale or only dark at apices, with or without subapical polygonal reticulation; if with, then femora without black apices and R IV+V 0.8-1.1 × ANT VI BASE …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Digitaria (including Syntherisma, Trichachne)Poaceae
Digitaria abyssinica Hysteroneura setariae; Kugegania ageni;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;
Sitobion africanum, graminis, neusi
D. adscendens = D. ciliaris
D. chinensisRhopalosiphum maidis
D. ciliarisAnoecia corni, fulviabdominalis; Aphis gossypii;
Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;
Kaochiaoja arthraxonis; Micromyzodium spinulosum;
Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;
Schizaphis graminum (as mehijiwae), hypersiphonata;
Sipha flava;
Sitobion akebiae, kamtshaticum, lambersi, [rosaeiformis];
Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?), yezoensis
D. compacta Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?)
D. corymbosa = D. compacta
D. costaricensis Hysteroneura setariae
D. decumbens = D. eriantha ssp. pentzii
D. didactylaTetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?)
D. distichumTetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?)
D. ekmaniiHysteroneura setariae
D. erianthaRhopalosiphum maidis; Schizaphis hypersiphonata;
Sipha flava
D. eriantha ssp. pentzii Asiphonella dactylonii; Rhopalosiphum maidis;
Sipha flava; Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?)
D. filiformisForda marginata
D. horizontalis see D. sanguinalis
D. humifusa = D. ischaemum
D. insularisHysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum maidis
D. ischaemumAnoecia corni, cornicola, vagans; Forda marginata;
Metopolophium dirhodum; Sipha maydis; Sitobion akebiae;
[Tychea panici Thomas – an Anoecia?]
D. leptorachisHysteroneura setariae
D. longifloraAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii Hysteroneura setariae
D. marginata = D. ciliaris
D. microbachne = D. setigera
D. nudaHysteroneura setariae
D. paspalodes = D. distichum
D. polybotria = D. leptorachis
D. pruriens = D. setigera
D. radicosaHysteroneura setariae; Kaochiaoja arthraxonis;
Sitobion lambersi
D. sanguinalisAnoecia corni, cornicola, vagans;
(incl. D. horizontalis) Aphis craccivora, gossypii;
Ceratovacuna nekoashi; Diuraphis noxia;
Hysteroneura setariae; Myzus ornatus;
Paracletus cimiciformis; Protaphis middletonii;
Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;
Schizaphis graminum, hypersiphonata;
Sipha flava, maydis;
Sitobion africanum, akebiae, avenae, graminis,
Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?), ulmi,
D. scalarum = D. abyssinica
D. setigeraAphis gossypii; Hysteroneura setariae;
Rhopalosiphum maidis
D. smutsii = D. eriantha
D. timorensis = D. radicosa
D. velutinaHysteroneura setariae; [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)];
Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?)
D. violascensHysteroneura setariae; Sitobion akebiae
Digitaria spp.Sitobion miscanthi

Key to apterae on Digitaria and other genera of herbaceous Poaceae:-

More than 250 aphid species feed on grasses. Some are found only on grasses living in certain habitats, but very few are specific to a particular grass genus or species. The key is subdivided to make it less cumbersome; the main key enables direct identification of individual species and those in small genera, and also leads to a series of subsidiary keys separating species with particular morphological features. Aphids on Miscanthus are treated in a separate key, as there are nine Melanaphis spp. that appear to be specific to that genus.

Numerous other aphid species are found on bamboos, and are treated under the genus names Bambusa and Arundinaria. For simplified, illustrated keys to the aphids most commonly found on cereal crops, and on the grasses of temperate and tropical pastures, consult Blackman & Eastop (2000).

Main key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids

1ANT PT/BASE more than 0.4 (but if less than 0.65 then body markedly elongate) …..2
ANT PT/BASE 0.2-0.5. Body globose, broadly oval or spindle-shaped …..29
2ABD TERG 8 with a pair of very large, densely nodulose, backwardly-directed conical processes, and with or without similar but thinner spinal and marginal processes on other tergites…..3
ABD TERG 8 without large paired conical processes (sometimes with a median process)…..6
3Conical processes only on ABD TERG 8. SIPH with swollen part bent towards midline, nearly at a right angle to the pedunculate basal part…..Israelaphis lambersi
A greater number of conical processes present, both spinal and marginal. SIPH straight …..4
4Spinal processes present on all segments from head to ABD TERG 8, and marginal processes on meso- and metathorax, ABD TERG 1-4 and 6-7 (40-42 in total)…..Israelaphis ilharcoi
Spinal amd marginal processes usually limited to ABD TERG 5-8 or 6-8, only occasionally with small processes on more anteror tergites…..5
5ANT PT 4.6-8.2 × R IV+V, which is 0.43-0.50 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.04-3.32…..Israelaphis carmini
ANT PT 4.4-4.5 × R IV+V, which is 0.50-0.53 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.33-2.57…..Israelaphis alistana
6Cauda either very broadly rounded (less than 0.5 × longer than its basal width) or with a conical base and a midway constriction delimiting the apical part as a rounded knob. SIPH either stump-shaped, conical or poriform. ANT 4- or 5-segmented, often very short. Dorsal cuticle often sclerotic, and dorsal hairs usually thick and spine-like or with expanded apices …..Siphini: go to KEY A
Cauda triangular, helmet-shaped, lanceolate, tongue- or finger-shaped, much more than 0.5 × its basal width, sometimes with a midway constriction but the apical part is not a rounded knob. SIPH tubular, flask-shaped, conical, mammariform or poriform. ANT 5- or 6-segmented, short or long. Dorsal cuticle with or without sclerotisation, dorsal hairs not thick and spine-like; blunt or pointed, or with expanded apices…..7
7 SIPH mammariform, or poriform, or as very short tubes or broad-based cones, as short as or shorter than their basal widths and usually less than 0.35 × cauda …..go to KEY B (mainly Diuraphis spp.)
SIPH tubular; flask-shaped, conical, cylindrical or swollen, long or short but if less than 0.4 × cauda, then longer than their basal widths…..8
8SIPH with a subapical zone of reticulation, comprising one or more complete rows (rings) of clearly-defined closed cells (if with only 1-3 rows then tergum sclerotic)…..go to KEY C (mainly Sitobion spp.)
SIPH without any clearly-defined subapical reticulation; in some species there is some ill-defined subapical reticulation that may include 1-3 rows of almost complete cells, or interconnected transverse striae, in which cases the tergum is not sclerotic …..9
9ANT 5-segmented with PT/BASE less than 2. SIPH slightly to distinctly clavate …..10
ANT 5- or 6-segmented, but if 5-segmented then PT/BASE is rarely less than 2. SIPH tapering, cylindrical or clavate…..13
10 Body markedly elongate. Front of head between ANT bases markedly convex. Dorsum with polygonal glandular facets on pigmented sclerites. ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.8…..Pentamyzus tenuis
Body oval. Front of head sinuate in dorsal view, with ANT tubercles and median frontal tubercle weakly to moderately developed. Dorsal sclerites pale and without any distinct glandular facets. ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.9…..11
11ANT III 1.25-1.60 × ANT IV. R IV+V 0.6-0.8 × HT II, and without accessory hairs. Cauda tapering, c.2 × its basal width in dorsal view…..Pentamyzus graminis
ANT III 1.8-2.6 × ANT IV. R IV+V 0.8-1.2 × HT II, and bearing (1-) 2-6 accessory hairs. Cauda thick, parallel-sided basally and convex-sided distally, about 1.5 × its basal width in dorsal view…..12
12ANT PT/BASE 1.5-1.9. R IV+V less than 1.5 × its basal width, 0.5-0.8 × ANT PT. SIPH markedly clavate, with maximum width of swollen part c. 2 × width at flange…..Pentamyzus falklandicus
ANT PT/BASE 0.69-1.48. R IV+V 1.9-2.5 × its basal width, 1.0-1.33 × ANT PT. SIPH less strongly clavate, maximum width of swelling less than 1.5 × width at flange…..Pentamyzus fueginus
13Head densely spiculose or nodulose, or with rows of small spicules, either both dorsally and ventrally, or at least ventrally…..go to KEY D
Head cuticle smooth or rugose, without spicules or nodules, or with only very few spicules on ventral surface, not forming rows…..14
14Dorsal hairs very long with expanded apices, and arising from tuberculate bases. Tergum sclerotic and dark-pigmented…..15
Dorsal hairs if long then with pointed apices and without tuberculate bases. Tergum membranous or sclerotic…..16
15Hairs on ANT III 1.6-2.1 × BD III. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 × HT II, and 0.85-0.95 × ANT BASE VI…..Cryptaphis bromi
Hairs on ANT III shorter and more variable in length, 0.3-1.3 × BD III. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 × HT II and 0.55-0.65 × ANT BASE VI…..Cryptaphis poae
16SIPH clavate, i.e. with swollen distal part and narrower basal part…..17
SIPH tapering or cylindrical, or somewhat swollen proximal to a subapical constriction, but without any narrowing of basal part…..25
17ABD TERG 8 with a bluntly conical very rugose medial process (Fig.35b). ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.3. SIPH flangeless, rounded at apex, with a small terminal aperture (Fig.35a). Dorsal cuticle very rugose…..Cavariella aquatica
No medial process on ABD TERG 8. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.3. SIPH with a flange and large terminal aperture. Dorsal cuticle smooth, spiculose or rugose…..18
18Dorsal cuticle with a pattern of spicules arranged in polygons, each polygon surrounding one or two additional spicules. R IV+V 1.0-1.5 × HT II …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Dorsal cuticle without spicules, smooth or wrinkled. R IV+V 0.6-1.0 × HT II …..19
19SIPH smooth and swollen on distal half to 1.5-1.9 × their minimum width basad. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 × HT II. Head with smooth divergent ANT tubercles. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 35-65, IV 16-28, V 0-5)…..Rhopalomyzus lonicerae
SIPH swollen to 1.2-1.6 × their minimum width basad (if swollen to more than 1.4 × minimum width then R IV+V 0.8-1.0 × HT II). ANT tubercles variably developed, smooth or somewhat scabrous. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 4-29, IV 0-5, V 0) …..20
20ANT III usually with 1-3 rhinaria on slight swelling near base. Head usually with some spicules posterioventrally. ANT tubercles rather well developed, steep-sided, somewhat scabrous…..21
ANT III without rhinaria. Head without spicules. ANT tubercles variably developed …..22
21ANT PT/BASE 3.1-3.5. R IV+V.0.67-0.70 × HT II. Tergum coarsely corrugated. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 4-9, V 0-1)…..Utamphorophora vibei
ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.5. R IV+V 0.78-0.88 × HT II. Tergum not coarsely corrugated. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 15-29, IV 0-5)…..Utamphorophora humboldti
22ANT tubercles rather well developed, projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ANT PT/BASE 5.0-7.5 (Al. with 8-27 sec. rhin. on ANT III) …..Utamphorophora bromicola
ANT tubercles very weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ANT PT/BASE 0.9-5.0 (Al. with 4-12 sec. rhin. on ANT III) …..23
23ANT 1.1-1.3 × BL. SIPH 0.26-0.29 × BL. ANT PT/BASE 4-5. RV+V heart-shaped…..Carolinaia howardii
ANT shorter than BL. SIPH less than 0.25 × BL. ANT PT/BASE less than 4. R IV+V not heart-shaped…..24
24Dorsal abdomen dark. Tibiae pale. SIPH 1.4-1.8 × cauda. ANT PT 1.15-1.75 × ANT III…..Carolinaia setariae
Dorsal abdomen pale. Tibiae dark. SIPH 2.0-2.5 × cauda. ANT PT 0.90-1.17 × ANT III…..Carolinaia rhois
25Cauda helmet-shaped, somewhat constricted at base, not longer than its basal width, with 4-6 hairs. SIPH short, pale, smooth, conical, with an annular incision proximal to the well-developed flange. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. ANT tubercles undeveloped…..Brachycaudus helichrysi
Cauda tongue-or finger-shaped or bluntly triangular, with 4-24 hairs. SIPH various, usually imbricated. Spiracular apertures not large and rounded. ANT tubercles variably developed…..26
26SIPH very small, thin and almost flangeless, 0.3-0.55 × cauda (if more than 0.4 × cauda then 2-3 × longer than their basal widths)…..27
SIPH 0.5-2.5 × cauda (if less than 0.55 × cauda then less than 2 × longer than their basal widths) …..28
27ANT III with 1-7 rhinaria. SIPH and cauda pale, SIPH broad-based. Cauda with 5-12 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu) …..Hyalopteroides humilis
ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH (at least distally) and cauda dusky/dark. SIPH not broad-based. Cauda with 5-6 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with (small) MTu…..Hyalopterus sp. (amygdali, pruni or arundiniformis – see text)
28ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, with inner faces divergent; sometimes low, but always better developed than (more than twice as high as) middle part of front of head or median frontal tubercle, so that there is a frontal sinus. SIPH uniformly pale or dusky or becoming darker towards apices cauda pale/dusky. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)…..go to KEY E (mainly Metopolophium spp.)
ANT tubercles weakly developed or, if rather well developed then widely separated and with middle part of front of head convex, or with median frontal tubercle projecting to a similar extent. SIPH sometimes pale but more often entirely dark or with dark apices, cauda pale or dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 almost always with MTu (in some species these are very small, and they are absent in 2 spp.)…..go to KEY F (mostly Melanaphis, Rhopalosiphum and Schizaphis spp.)
29 Front of head with a pair of short conical horns between antennal bases. Head and prothorax fused…..30
Front of head without horns. Head and prothorax not fused…..38
30Sclerotised areas of cuticle warty, with especially warty areas at posterior margin of prothorax. SIPH pores slightly raised on dusky or dark-pigmented cones, with a few surrounding hairs…..31
Sclerotised areas of cuticle smooth or wrinkled, not warty. SIPH pores not placed on raised cones and without any surrounding hairs…..32
31Body oval. Horns broadly rounded at apices. Spinal and marginal wax glands often present on all or most tergites…..Pseudoregma panicola
Body elongate oval. Horns not broadly rounded at apices. Wax glands usually only present on ABD TERG 6-8…..Pseudoregma alexandrae
32 Meso- and metathorax and ABD TERG 1-6 with paired or single groups of spinal wax glands as well as marginal ones…..33
Thorax and ABD TERG 1-6 without spinal wax glands, only marginal ones …..34
33 Wax glands on at least ABD TERG 5 and 6 fused across midline, forming transverse bands consisting of 22-24 rounded cells. Dorsal cephalic hairs maximally 2-3 × ANT BD III, and longest hair on ANT III about equal to BD III ….. Ceratovacuna perglandulosa
Wax glands on ABD TERG 5 and 6 with paired separate pleurospinal wax glands as on ABD TERG 1-4, each with 6-8 cells. Dorsal cephalic hairs 0.8-1.4 × ANT BD III, and longest hair on ANT III 1.5-2.1 × BD III….. Ceratovacuna cynodonti*
34 ANT 4-segmented (but this based on only 3 specimens) with distinctly spinulose imbrication extending over whole of ANT III and IV. ABD TERG 8 with a group of c.12 wax glands …..Ceratovacuna spinulosa*
ANT 4- or 5-segmented, with ANT III very weakly imbricated and with at most a few minute spinules on the imbrication of distal part of ANT III (if 4-segmented) or on IV (if 5-segmented). ABD TERG 8 with a group of 5-40 wax glands…..35
35 ABD TERG 1-3 each with 8-19 spinopleural hairs. ANT entirely dusky/dark …..Ceratovacuna graminum .
ABD TERG 1-3 each with 3-8 spinopleural hairs. ANT pale, or dark only distally …..36
36 Head with longest anterior dorsal hairs 55-81 μm long, usually as long as or longer than frontal horns which are 48-68 μm long. ABD TERG 8 with a group of 5-20 wax glands. Each lobe of anal plate with 6-8 (-9) hairs…..Ceratovacuna panici
Head with longest anterior dorsal hairs 46-71 μm long, often shorter than frontal horns which are 55-136 μm long. ABD TERG 8 with a group of 15-40 wax glands. Each lobe of anal plate with (8-) 9-12 hairs…..37
37 Frontal horns symmetrical, straight-sided, 55-100 μm long, broad-based, 1.5-2.2 × their basal widths. First instars with siphuncular pores…..Ceratovacuna lanigera
Frontal horns with apices somewhat curved distally, 96-140 μm long, slightly constricted at base and 2.5-3.5 × their basal widths. First instars without siphuncular pores…..Ceratovacuna nekoashi group (nekoashi, oplismeni, orientalis, subtropicana)

(for discrimination see text under these names and Aoki et al. 2013, Table 4)

38 SIPH present as pores placed on shallow cones which are pigmented and/or surrounded by hairs…..KEY G (Anoecia and Tetraneura)
SIPH either completely absent or (rarely) as very small pores, not placed on cones …..KEY H (Colopha, Pemphigini and Fordini)

KEY A – Apterae of Siphini on grasses

1Cauda with a conical base and a rounded, knobbed apex…..2
Cauda broadly rounded…..5
2ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.6…..Sipha flava
ANT PT/BASE 0.65-1.3…..3
3Dorsal cuticle smooth, without denticles…..Sipha agropyronensis
Dorsal cuticle with a densely denticulate ornamentation…..4
4Dorsal cuticle with small pointed denticles between bases of long spine-like hairs, which on ABD TERG 3 are more than 45 μm long. Hairs on ANT III usually longer than (0.6-1.8 ×) BD III…..Sipha glyceriae
Dorsal cuticle with very dense, blunt denticles, and hairs on ABD TERG 3 less than 40 μm long. Hairs on ANT III usually shorter than (0.4-1.0 ×) BD III …..Sipha littoralis
5R IV+V stiletto-shaped with attenuated R V, 0.9-2.0 × HT II…..6
R IV+V short, not stiletto-shaped, without attenuated R V, 0.6-1.0 × HT II …..11
6Hind tibia 4.7-5.5 × R IV+V, which is 0.9-1.1 × HT II. ANT PT 0.90-1.15 × R IV…..Chaetosiphella stipae ssp. setosa
Hind tibia 1.5-3.6 × R IV+V, which is 1.1-2.0 × HT II. ANT PT 0.30-0.65 × R IV …..7
7R IV+V 15-20 × longer than hairs on ABD TERG 3, which are fan-shaped. Hind tibia 1.5-1.7 × R IV+V…..Chaetosiphella tshernavini
R IV+V 1.1-5.0 × longer than longest hairs on ABD TERG 3, which have pointed or expanded apices. Hind tibia 2.3-3.6 × R IV+V…..8
8R IV+V 2.5-5.0 × longer than longest hairs on ABD TERG 3, which are mostly very thick with blunt, bifurcate or serrate apices…..9
R IV+V 1.1-1.7 × longer than longest hairs on ABD TERG 3, which are spine-like, with pointed apices…..10
9R IV+V 0.17-0.22 mm long, 1.1-1.5 × HT II…..Chaetosiphella stipae
R IV+V 0.26-0.30 mm long, 1.4-1.7 × HT II…..Chaetosiphella longirostris
10Dorsal abdomen with 4 long spine-like spinal and pleural hairs per segment forming longitudinal rows, plus numerous much shorter finer hairs…..Chaetosiphella massagetica*
Dorsal abdomen with more numerous long spine-like hairs not forming regular longitudinal rows…..Chaetosiphella berlesei
11Body very elongate, more than 2.5 × longer than its maximum width. SIPH poriform …..12
Body elongate oval, oval or pear-shaped, less than 2.5 × longer than its maximum width. SIPH as small shallow pigmented cones…..18
12SIPH as slightly raised pores with sclerotic rims, of diameter greater than hind tibia at midlength, and placed on ABD TERG 6…..Laingia psammae
SIPH pores of diameter less than midlength diameter of hind tibia, and placed on ABD TERG 5…..13
13Dorsal hairs very short, rod- or club-shaped, mostly less than 0.5 × ANT BASE V (or IV). Long pointed hairs only present on front of head and posterior abdomen …..14
Dorsal hairs of various lengths, the longest with pointed apices and as long as or longer than ANT BASE V (or IV), the shorter hairs with pointed, blunt, furcate or serrate apices…..16
14ANT 5-segmented, 0.20-0.27 × BL, with PT/BASE 0.75-1.3. Mid-dorsal hairs are mostly rod-shaped, with serrate apices…..15
ANT usually 4-segmented, 0.14-0.17 × BL, with PT/BASE c.0.5. Mid-dorsal hairs flabellate or club-shaped, with rounded or serrate apices…..Atheroides brevicornis
15Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 mostly much shorter than midlength width of hind femur, with serrate apices like mid-dorsal hairs. Empodial hairs spatulate, flat, broadened at apices….. Atheroides serrulatus
Many of marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 longer than midlength width of hind femur, with pointed apices. Empodial hairs strap-shaped (base and apex of similar width), not spatulate….. Atheroides vallescaldera
16Tergum black. All dorsal hairs, both long and short, with pointed apices. ANT 0.26-0.29 × BL…..Atheroides hirtellus
Tergum pale or dark, but not black. Some or all of shorter dorsal hairs with blunt or expanded apices. ANT 0.20-0.23 × BL…..17
17ABD TERG 8 with 14-18 long, mostly pointed hairs on posterior and lateral margins, and 12-24 shorter hairs more anteriorly with pointed, bifurcate or expanded apices…..Atheroides karakumi
ABD TERG 8 with only the 14-18 long, pointed hairs on posterior and lateral margins…..Atheroides doncasteri
18 Dorsum with a solid black shield encompassing ABD TERG 2-7, and broad black cross-bands on other tergites…..Sipha maydis
Dorsum pale or dark or with dark markings, but no solid black shield…..19
19ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.22. R IV+V 0.95-1.17 × HT II…..Sipha burakowskii
ANT PT/BASE 1.25-2.30. R IV+V 0.50-0.75 × HT II (?uvarovi)…..20
20ANT PT/BASE 1.25-1.45.….21
ANT PT/BASE 1.48-2.30…..22
21Body less than 2 × longer than its maximum width. ANT IV 0.7-0.8 × ANT V BASE…..Sipha uvarovi*
Body more than 2 × longer than its maximum width. ANT IV 0.8-1.0 × ANT V BASE…..Sipha taurica
22R IV+V 0.65-0.73 × HT II…..Sipha arenarii
R IV+V 0.50-0.62 × HT II…..Sipha elegans (incl. S. aegilopis; see text)

KEY B – Apterae on grasses with poriform or extremely short SIPH (mainly Diuraphis)

1SIPH as small pores with partly sclerotised rims, sometimes surrounded by pigmented sclerite, but hardly raised above the body surface…..2
SIPH short, conical or mammariform, usually pigmented, often very small, but with pore distinctly raised above body surface…..7
2ABD TERG 8 with a large rugose bluntly conical process, broader based than and partly covering cauda…..Aspidaphis porosiphon
ABD TERG 8 without any medial process…..3
3 ANT tubercles bearing long forwardly-directed finger-like processes. Cauda long, lanceolate, with 21-27 hairs…..Davatchiaphis persica
ANT tubercles without finger-like processes. Cauda triangular, elongate triangular or tongue-shaped and bearing 6-9 hairs…..4
4ANT 0.17-0.20 × BL. Cauda about as long as its basal width, with 6-8 hairs on narrower apical part. ANT 5-segmented…..Mordvilkoiella skorkini*
ANT 0.25-0.35 × BL. Cauda elongate triangular or tongue-shaped, distinctly longer than its basal width, without narrower apical part, bearing 6-9 hairs. ANT 5- or 6-segmented …..5
5ANT 5-segmented. R IV+V c.1.1 × HT II…..Mordvilkoiella jacutensis*
ANT usually 6-segmented. R IV +V 0.5-0.75 × HT II…..6
6ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.7 (In al. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-1.7) …..Diuraphis agrostidis
ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.2. (In al. ANT PT/BASE 1.25-1.45) …..Diuraphis bromicola
7Tibial hairs long and finely pointed, the longest more than 1.5 × width of tibia at midlength. ABD TERG 1 and 7, or 1-4 and 7, with marginal tubercles (MTu)…..8
Tibial hairs short, not longer than width of tibia at midlength. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu…..10
8 ABD TERG 1-5 each with 1-2 marginal hairs …..Melanaphis montana or tateyamaensis
ABD TERG 1-5 each with 3-7 marginal hairs…..9
9 Head with 8-10 ventral hairs on each side. ABD TERG 7 with 4 hairs, and ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs…..Melanaphis jamatonica
Head with 5-7 ventral hairs on each side. ABD TERG 7 with 6-8 hairs, and ABD TERG 8 with 4-6 hairs…..Melanaphis japonica
10Cauda long, black and finger-like with a midway constriction, and bearing 12-19 hairs. SIPH as short black broad-based cones, with a distinct apical rim around a large terminal pore …..Brachysiphoniella montana
Cauda tongue-shaped or conical, unconstricted, bearing 4-9 hairs. SIPH mammariform or conical with rim rather indistinct and a small pore…..11
11ABD TERG with a medial finger-like or conical process. ABD TERG 3-5 (sometimes also 2 and 6) with small marginal tubercles (MTu)…..12
ABD TERG 8 without a medial process. ABD TERG 2-6 usually without MTu (except calamagrostis)…..14
12Process on ABD TERG 8 is 0.5-0.75 × cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.6 …..Diuraphis noxia
Process on ABD TERG 8 is 0.25-0.33 × cauda. ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.65 …..13
13Process on ABD TERG 8 broadly triangular. ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.25…..Diuraphis mexicana
Process on ABD TERG 8 finger-like; sometimes broader at base, but with distal part almost parallel-sided. ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.65 (except down to 1.0 in summer dwarfs)…..Diuraphis muehlei
14R IV+V 0.9-1.15 × HT II…..Diuraphis tritici
R IV+V 0.5-0.75 × HT II…..15
15SIPH placed equidistantly from spiracles on abdominal segments 6 and 7. ANT PT/BASE 1.05-1.5`…..Diuraphis frequens
SIPH placed distinctly closer to spiracle on abdominal segment 6 than to that on 7. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.9…..16
16Longest hairs on ANT III less than 10 μm, 0.4-0.7 × BD III. MTu usually absent…..Diuraphis holci (and elymophila)
Longest hairs on ANT III more than 10 μm, 0.7-1.0 × BD III. Small rounded MTu usually present on some or all of ABD TERG 2-5…..Diuraphis calamagrostis

KEY C – Apterae with reticulate SIPH on grasses (mainly Sitobion)

This key includes 20 Sitobion spp., 3 Pseudaphis spp., Micromyzodium spinulosum, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Rhopalosiphoninus indicus, but excludes the species of Sitobion subgenus Metobion, which are included with Metopolophium in KEY D. S. rosaeiformis could not be included because apterae from grasses have not been described.

1SIPH flask-shaped, dark, 3.2-4.0 × cauda, with the inflated part maximally 2.8-4.8 × wider than the stem…..Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon (or indicus)
SIPH not flask-shaped, pale or dark, 0.8-3.0 × cauda…..2
2Front of head between ANT bases convex or almost straight in dorsal view, lacking ANT tubercles. SIPH 0.80-1.24 × cauda and 0.08-0.13 × BL…..3
ANT tubercles at least slightly developed. SIPH 1.1-3.0 × cauda, 0.12-0.35 × BL …..5
3SIPH 1.00-1.24 × cauda, and 1.55-2.23 × R IV+V , which bears 5-8 accessory hairs…..Pseudaphis abyssinica
SIPH 0.80-1.00 × cauda, and 1.26-1.71 × R IV+V, which bears 4-6 accessory hairs …..4
4BL 1.06-1.55 mm, and SIPH 0.12-0.15 mm. ABD TERG 1-4 with paired dark patches and ABD TERG 5-8 with short dark bars, usually not extending laterally to link with the marginal sclerites…..Pseudaphis sijui
BL 1.70-2.20 mm, SIPH 0.17-0.21 mm. ABD TERG 1-8 usually with broad dark cross-bands extending laterally to include marginal sclerites, often narrowly separated in midline on ABD TERG 1-4…..Pseudaphis arabica
5Head densely spinulose both dorsally and ventrally. Femora also densely spinulose. R IV+V 1.5-1.9 × HT II. SIPH dark, 2.5-3.0 × cauda ……Micromyzodium spinulosum
Head smooth dorsally, smooth or spinulose ventrally. Femora at most sparsely spinulose. R IV+V 0.6-1.4 × HT II. SIPH pale or dark, 1.1-2.7 × cauda…..6
6 Dorsal cuticle of thorax and abdomen densely ornamented with minute spicules, and unreticulated proximal parts of SIPH ornamented with small nodules…..Sitobion microspinulosum
Dorsal cuticle without spicules, and proximal parts of SIPH normally imbricated (often with spinules on the imbrication)…..7
7SIPH 0.12-0.17 × BL. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.3. Abdomen with a rather solid dusky/dark patch extending across ABD TERG 1-6 and linked with or including marginal sclerites…..Sitobion pauliani
SIPH 0.18-0.35 × BL. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-9.2. Abdomen with or without dark sclerotisation but this is either ill-defined or segmentally divided or not linked with marginal sclerites …..8
8Cauda dark, almost as dark as the brown-black SIPH….. Sitobion graminis
Cauda pale or dusky. SIPH pale or dark, but if black then cauda is much paler …..9
9Cauda with only 2 long lateral hairs, plus 1-4 subapical hairs that are much shorter and blunter. Longest hairs on ANT III 7-12 μm…..Sitobion lambersi
Cauda with at least 4 long pointed hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 7-40 μm …..10
10Head and ABD TERG (5-) 6-8 with spinal tubercles (STu). Marginal tubercles (MTu) also consistently present on ABD TERG 1-5 (sometimes also 7) …..Sitobion papillatum
Head without STu and ABD TERG 7-8 rarely with STu. MTu present or absent …..11
11ANT PT/BASE 2.5-6.2. R IV+V 0.65-0.97 × HT II…..12
ANT PT/BASE 6.0-9.2, but if 6.0-6.2 then R IV+V is longer than HT II …..23
12ANT tubercles very well developed, median frontal tubercle undeveloped. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 × BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 5-8 hairs …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
ANT tubercles rather weakly developed, and median frontal tubercle often evident. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.8 × BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 3-6 (usually 4) hairs …..13
13R IV+V with 2-4, or rarely 5, accessory hairs. SIPH commonly with basal part pale …..14
R IV+V with 6, rarely 5 or 7, accessory hairs. SIPH mostly uniformly dark, sometimes paler basally…..17
14BL 3.7-4.3 mm. Cauda with 10-12 rather short hairs. ANT III with 3-9 rhinaria…..Sitobion himalayensis*
BL 1.4-3.3 mm. Cauda with 6-9 hairs with at least the more basal ones quite long. ANT III with 0-4 rhinaria…..15
15Cauda with 4 long basal and 3 short blunt distal hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 only 10-16 μm long. SIPH mainly dark, often paler towards base…..Sitobion yakini
Cauda wth all hairs pointed, the more distal ones only a little shorter than those more basal. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 20-43 μm long. SIPH mainly pale, darker towards apex …..16
16SIPH 1.75-2.0 × cauda, which has a rounded apex. ABD TERG 2-5 usually without marginal tubercles (MTu)…..Sitobion pseudoalupecuri
SIPH 1.1-1.6 × cauda, which has a rather tapered apex. ABD TERG 2-5 mostly have hemi-spherical MTu…..Sitobion alopecuri
17SIPH 1.0-1.4 × cauda (measure several specimens if borderline)…..18
SIPH 1.4-2.7 × cauda (measure several specimens if borderline)…..20
18SIPH with subapical reticulation restricted to 0.09-0.12 of length …..Sitobion javanicum
SIPH with subapical reticulation extending for 0.15-0.35 of length…..19
19R IV+V 0.80-0.95 × HT II. SIPH usually paler towards base, reticulated on distal 0.15-0.17 of length. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 40-55 μm long. ABD TERG 1-4 with variably-developed paired dusky/dark patches…..Sitobion bamendae
R IV+V 0.65-0.82 × HT II. SIPH uniformly dark and reticulated on distal 0.19-0.35 of length. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 25-42 μm long. Dorsal abdomen pale or dusky, without paired dusky/dark patches…..Sitobion avenae
20SIPH 1.8-2.7 × cauda and 0.95-1.30 × ANT III (measure several specimens if borderline)…..Sitobion fragariae
SIPH 1.4-1.9 × cauda and 0.75-1.05 × ANT III (measure several specimens if borderline)…..21
21SIPH reticulated over distal 0.15-0.40 of length. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.45-0.8 × BD III. Dorsal abdomen sclerotic but with any pigmentation rather ill defined. ABD TERG 2-5 with 0-8 marginal tubercles (MTu) in total, but mostly (67%) with 2-6…..Sitobion miscanthi/ akebiae group
SIPH reticulated over 0.10-0.18 of length. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.25-0.6 × BD III. Dorsal abdomen often with variably-developed pattern of clearly delimited dark sclerites, as segmentally-divided transverse bands or an irregular central patch. MTu either absent, mostly confined to ABD TERG 5, or more numerous (totalling 5-8)…..22
22Longest hairs on ANT III 8-20 μm, longest posterior dorsal cephalic hairs 8-30 μm, longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 17-45 μm. Dorsal abdomen with variably-developed dark dorsal cross-bands not fused across tergites. ABD TERG 2-5 with only 0-3 MTu in total, mostly absent, or present only on ABD TERG 5…..Sitobion africanum
Longest hairs on ANT III 16-23 μm, longest posterior dorsal cephalic hairs 26-32 μm, longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 40-50 μm. Dorsal abdomen with a variably-developed dark central patch not or only partially divided between tergites. ABD TERG 2-5 with 5-8 MTu in total…..Sitobion matatum
23Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.6 × BD III. Primary rhinarium on ANT V large, occupying almost entire width of segment. ANT III with 5-8 rhinaria. SIPH black. Tergum usually extensively pigmented, with pigmentation often encompassing marginal sclerites…..Sitobion yasumatsui
Longest hairs on ANT III 0.2-0.5 × BD III. Primary rhinarium on ANT V small, occupying less than half width of segment. ANT III with 0-7 rhinaria. SIPH pale or dark, if black then tergum not so extensively pigmented…..24
24SIPH pale except towards apices. ANT III-V mainly pale with dark articulations. …..Sitobion leelamaniae (incl. chanikiwiti, howlandae)
SIPH entirely dark, or paler only at base. ANT III-V with at least V uniformly dark …..25
25Anterior part of head and ANT including I and II entirely dark. Distal 0.4-0.5 of hind femora dark…..Sitobion kamtshaticum
Anterior part of head and at least ANT I and II pale/dusky. Femora pale …..26
26Abdominal tergum with a variably developed dark central patch, sometimes fragmented or absent. ANT PT/BASE 7-8…..Sitobion neusi
Abdominal tergum pale. ANT PT/BASE 6.2-6.7…..Sitobion raoi*

KEY D – Apterae of grass-feeding aphids with spinulose heads

This key includes all the grass-feeding aphids with spinulose heads, except those with reticulate SIPH that were taken out in KEY C (Pseudaphis spp., Micromyzodium spinulosum and Rhopalosiphoninus indicus). Among these are five very polyphagous species (Aulacorthum solani, Myzus ascalonicus, M. ornatus, M. persicae and Neomyzus circumflexus) that are occasionally found on grasses.

1Head extended forward between ANT bases with three large separate processes, each bearing spine-like hairs. SIPH very large, thick and warty, constricted subapically. ANT PT/BASE 1.37-1.80…..Vesiculaphis theobaldi
Head not produced anteriorly. SIPH various, ANT PT/BASE more than 1.8 …..2
2Head entirely lacking ANT tubercles, almost flat between ANT bases. Cauda short and rounded, about as long as its basal width in dorsal view…..3
Head with ANT tubercles developed. Cauda helmet-shaped, tongue- or finger shaped, usually longer than its basal width in dorsal view…..4
3ANT 5-segmented. R IV+V 1.8-2.2 × HT II…..Hallaphis rhodesiensis
ANT normally 6-segmented, sometimes 5-segmented. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 × HT II (Note: Apterae with 5-segmented ANT and R IV+V 1.2-1.5 × HT II may be one of two other Hallaphis spp. only known from trapped alatae.)…..Hallaphis ilharcoi
4Tergum with extensive dark sclerotised pleurospinal areas…..5
Tergum, membranous or sclerotic but unpigmented, or with only dark intersegmental and/or marginal sclerites…..7
5SIPH entirely black. ABD TERG 1-7 almost completely dark except for clear areas at bases of SIPH. R IV+V 0.7-0.8 × HT II…..Myzus obtusirostris
SIPH with at least middle section pale or dusky. Tergum with at least ABD TERG 5 mostly unpigmented. R IV+V 0.85-1.7 × HT II…..6
6R IV+V 0.85-1.1 × HT II. ANT III without rhinaria. Dorsal dark sclerotisation solid on ABD TERG 1-2 or 1-3, usually with a pale median area on 4 …..Kaochiaoja arthraxonis
R IV+V 1.2-1.7 × HT II. ANT III usually with 1-2 rhinaria near base. Dorsal abdomen with a dark roughly U-shaped patch, pale medially on ABD TERG 1-2(-3)…..Neomyzus circumflexus
7SIPH flangeless, scaly, swollen at base and slightly flared distally, with a small somewhat slanted aperture…..Jacksonia papillata
SIPH with a distinct flange; cylindrical, tapering or clavate…..8
8Dorsal surface of head smooth, black, with a pair of spinal tubercles (STu). Cauda long and dark with 3-5 short curved hairs. R IV+V without accessory hairs. (Al. with forewings usually lacking radius)…..Kugegania ageni
Dorsal surface of head smooth or spiculose, pale or dark, without STu. Cauda pale or dark, if dark then short and triangular, with 4-11 hairs. R IV+V with 2 or more accessory hairs. (Al. with radius in forewing)…..9
9SIPH grossly inflated over distal 0.7, with maximum width of swollen part more than 2 × minimum width of stem and c.3 × width of constricted subapical part, which has a rather indistinct reticulate pattern…..Rhopalosiphoninus solani
SIPH tapering, cylindrical or slightly to moderately swollen, with swollen part less than 2 × minimum width basad or distad…..10
10Femora spinulose over entire length . SIPH very slightly swollen subapically. Cauda swollen at base, with a constriction of distal half, and bearing 4 hairs. (Al. with broadly dark-banded forewing veins and media fused with radius)…..Pentalonia gavarri
Femora not spinulose, or with spinules only on distal half. SIPH tapering/cylindrical or swollen over greater part of length. Cauda triangular or tongue-shaped, unconstricted, with 4-8 hairs. (Al. with normal wing venation)…..11
11SIPH tapering, with a slight S-curve, coarsely imbricated. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8…..Myzus ornatus
SIPH tapering/cylindrical or swollen, not coarsely imbricated. Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-5.5…..12
12Dorsal hairs with expanded apices, short or long. SIPH dusky/dark, swollen over most of length, without a narrow section on basal half. Cauda short, triangular, not longer than its basal width. ANT and legs mainly dark…..13
Dorsal hairs very short and blunt. SIPH pale or dark, cylindrical/tapering, or swollen on the distal half with a narrower section on the basal half. Cauda much longer than its basal width. ANT and legs pale or at least not mainly dark…..14
13Dorsal hairs 40-65 μm long. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 × BD III…..Rhopalomyzus poae
Dorsal hairs 10-28 μm long. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.5 × BD III…..Rhopalomyzus grabhami
14 Head smooth dorsally and anterioventrally, with a few rows of spicules posterioventrally. R IV+V short and blunt, 0.8-0.9 × HT II. ANT III usually with 1-3 rhinaria on slight swelling near base. SIPH swollen over distal 0.7 of length …..Utamphorophora humboldti
Head spiculose dorsally and ventrally. R IV+V 0.7-1.5 × HT II. ANT III with or without rhinaria near base, if with then SIPH tapering/cylindrical…..15
15R IV+V very short and blunt 0.7-0.8 × HT II, with 2 accessory hairs…..Myzus maculocorpus*
R IV+V 0.9-1.5 × HT II, with 2-15 accessory hairs…..16
16SIPH tapering/cylindrical. ANT III usually with 1-2 rhinaria near base…..Aulacorthum solani
SIPH swollen on distal half. ANT III without rhinaria…..17
17SIPH almost smooth, less than 0.82 × ANT III. R IV+V with 7-15 accessory hairs…..Myzus ascalonicus
SIPH normally imbricated, more than 0.83 × ANT III. R IV+V with 2-5 (-7) accessory hairs…..Myzus persicae

KEY E – Apterae of Metopolophium and Sitobion (Metobion) spp. on grasses.

1SIPH 0.55-0.67 × cauda…..Metopolophium sp. on Poa nemoralis (Switzerland, BMNH colln, leg. Knoppe de Rico)
SIPH 0.85-2.5 × cauda…..2
2SIPH 0.85-0.90 × cauda, which bears 10-17 hairs …..Metopolophium palmerae
SIPH 1.0-2.5 × cauda, which bears 4-21 hairs (if cauda has more than 8 hairs then SIPH more than 1.2 × cauda)…..3
3BL 3.6-4.2 mm. R IV+V 0.5-0.7 × HT II…..4
BL 1.3-3.75 mm, but if more than 3.5 mm then R IV+V is at least 0.85 × HT II …..6
4ANT PT/BASE less than 4. ANT III with 11-13 rhinaria in a row on basal half…..Sitobion brevirostre
ANT PT/BASE 4.2-7.0. ANT III with 2-6 rhinaria near base…..5
5ANT PT/BASE 6.1-7.8…..Sitobion graminearum
ANT PT/BASE 4.3-5.5…..Sitobion beiquei
6ANT PT/BASE 4.6-5.4…..7
ANT PT/BASE 1.8-4.5…..9
7R IV+V 0.90-0.95 × HT II, with 8-11 accessory hairs. SIPH 2.0-2.5 × cauda, which bears 9-14 hairs…..Metopolophium alpinum
R IV+V 0.55-0.87 × HT II, with 4-10 accessory hairs. SIPH 1.1-2.0 × cauda, which bears 5-9 hairs…..8
8R IV+V 0.55-0.60 × HT II, with 4-6 accessory hairs. SIPH 1.1-1.3 × cauda …..Metopolophium longicaudatum
R IV+V 0.67-0.87 × HT II, with 5-10 accessory hairs. SIPH 1.5-2.0 × cauda…..Metopolophium festucae ssp. cerealium (part)
9R IV+V with only 0-2 accessory hairs…..10
R IV+V with (2-) 3-10 accessory hairs…..11
10ANT III with 0-2 rhinaria near base. SIPH 2.1-2.7 × cauda. R UV+V longer than its basal width, 0.75-0.95 × HT II. Tergum sclerotic and usually dark-pigmented, at least marginally…..Metopolophium frisicum
ANT III with 8-17 rhinaria distributed over 0.5-0.7 of length. SIPH 1.3-1.6 × cauda. R IV+V shorter than its basal width, 0.6-0.7 × HT II. Tergum pale not or hardly sclerotic…..Sitobion scoticum
11SIPH 1.09-1.35 × cauda (usually less than 1.3 ×). R IV+V 0.86-1.14 × HT II. Hind tibia less than 0.9 mm long…..Metopolophium sabihae
SIPH 1.3-2.5 × cauda, but if less than 1.4 × cauda then either R IV+V is 0.6-0.7 × HT II (which is 0.128-0.183 mm long), or hind tibia is more than 0.9 mm long …..12
12R IV+V 0.91-1.13 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.8…..13
R IV+V 0.60-0.98 × HT II; if more than 0.9 × HT II (some festucae) then ANT PT/BASE normally in range 2.9-4.0 (although apterae developing in cold conditions may have ANT PT/BASE as low as 2.1)…..14
13SIPH 1.7-2.3 × cauda, and without any subapical reticulation. ANT tubercles well developed…..Metopolophium tenerum
SIPH 1.4-1.6 × cauda, and often with some rather indistinct subapical reticulation. ANT tubercles weakly developed…..Sitobion calvulum
14ANT III with 2-8 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.0. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 × HT II …..Metopolophium chandrani
ANT III with 0-4 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-5.0, but if less than 3.0 (cold temperature festucae) then R IV+V more than 0.7 × HT II…..15
15SIPH 0.25-0.36 × hind tibia. HT II 0.128-0.183 mm (only less than 0.146 mm if BL is less than 2 mm and ANT PT/BASE 3-4)…..16
SIPH 0.34-0.52 × hind tibia, but if less than 0.36 × then HT II is 0.096-0.146 mm long (only more than 0.128 mm if BL is more than 2 mm and/or ANT PT/BASE less than 3) …..17
16SIPH 1.7-2.0 × cauda. ANT PT 3.3-4.4 × HT II. ANT V 1.2-1.7 × cauda. R IV+V 0.65-0.78 × HT II. If still inconclusive, the function (PT × SIPH)/ (cauda × HT II) is in range 6.0-8.6…..Metopolophium fasciatum
SIPH 1.3-1.9 × cauda. ANT PT 2.6-4.1 × HT II. ANT V 0.9-1.4 × cauda. R IV+V 0.61-0.72 × HT II. If still inconclusive, the function (PT × SIPH) / (cauda × HT II) is in range 3.6-6.5…..Metopolophium dirhodum
17Hind tibia 11.3-16.7 × R IV+V (only less than 12 × when BL less than 2.2 mm). ANT BASE VI 1.20-1.62 × HT II (only less than 1.3 × when either BL less than 2 mm or ANT BASE VI is 0.36-0.42 × ANT IV)…..Metopolophium albidum
Hind tibia 7.1-12.0 × R IV+V (only more than 11.3 × when BL is 2.2-2.7 mm). ANT BASE VI 0.95-1.29 × HT II (only more than 1.2 × when BL more than 2 mm and ANT BASE VI is 0.43-0.53 × ANT IV)…..18
18SIPH 2.0-2.7 × cauda, which is 0.09-0.11 × BL …..Metopolophium montanum
SIPH 1.3-2.0 × cauda, which is 0.11-0.17 × BL…..19
19R IV+V 0.092-0.119 mm long, 0.67-0.87 × HT II, and bearing 5-10 accessory hairs. Hind tibia 0.87-1.71 mm long, HT II 0.116-0.164 mm long. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-5.0. If inconclusive then function (A × B × C) / (D × E × F) is 6.5-12.7, where A = length of ANT flagellum (III+IV+V+VI incl. PT), B = length of hind tibia, C = HT II, D = body length (in this case incl. cauda), E = ANT VI BASE, and F = R IV+V…..Metopolophium festucae ssp. cerealium
R IV+V 0.089-0.114 mm long, 0.72-1.0 × HT II, and bearing 3-8 accessory hairs. Hind tibia 0.75-1.22 mm long, HT II 0.096-0.133 mm long. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-4.2. If inconclusive then function (A × B × C) / (D × E × F) is 3.9-8.1 …..Metopolophium festucae s. str.

KEY F – Mostly Melanaphis, Rhopalosiphum and Schizaphis.

This key includes apterae of the rest of the grass-feeding Aphidinae not covered by KEYS B-E. To qualify for this key your aphid should have (a) 5- or 6-segmented ANT with ANT PT/BASE more than 1, (b) a non-spiculose head with low ANT tubercles, (c) SIPH tubular or conical, 0.45-2.5 × cauda, which is tongue- or finger-shaped, and (d) marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 1 and 7 (with 2 exceptions).

1SIPH short and usually thick or rather thick, less than (often much less than) 2.4 × their basal width, 0.45-1.2 × cauda, and usually with a well-developed, rather swollen flange…..2
SIPH tapering, cylindrical or slightly swollen, 0.6-2.5 × cauda, but if less than 1.2 × cauda then they are more than 2.4 × their basal width, and/or have a small flange …..16
2Hairs on ANT III very long and fine, up to 4-7 × longer than BD III…..Melanaphis pahanensis
Hairs on ANT III 0.25-1.5 × longer than BD III…..3
3R IV+V 0.5-0.7 × HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 3-6 hairs…..4
R IV+V 0.8-1.5 × HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 2-5 hairs…..5
4ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.9. Longest hairs on ANT III 19-32 μm, 0.6-1.1 × BD III…..Melanaphis donacis
ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.1. Longest hairs on ANT III 24-40 μm, 1.1-1.5 × BD III…..Melanaphis elizabethae
5Cauda with only 4-6 hairs. Coxae dark…..Melanaphis bambusae
Cauda with 7-17 hairs. Coxae pale…..6
6R IV+V 1.22-1.44 × HT II…..7
R IV+V 0.80-1.16 × HT II…..9
7Hind tibia with scent glands on basal part…..Melanaphis daisenensis
Hind tibia without scent glands…..8
8ABD TERG 1-5 with a large dark sclerite (often segmentally divided or interrupted in mid-line). ANT PT/BASE 2.8-3.8. Cauda with 17-20 hais …..Melanaphis graminisucta
ABD TERG 1-5 without a dark sclerite. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-4.4. Cauda with 12-15 hairs…..Melanaphis miscanthi*
9ABD TERG 1-4 each with 3-8 long fine hairs on each side. ABD TERG 8 with (3-)4(-5) hairs…..Melanaphis koreana
ABD TERG 1-4 each with 1-2 hairs on each side. ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs …..10
10Longest hairs on ANT III c.1.0 × BDIII. Hind tibia with longest hairs 1.3-2.0 × diameter of tibia at midlength. Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 27-47 μm …..Melanaphis yasumatsui
Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.7 × BD III. Hind tibia with longest hairs not more than 1.2 × diameter of tibia at midlength. Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 14-30 μm …..11
11SIPH 0.46-0.68 × cauda…..12
SIPH 0.70-1.05 × cauda…..13
12SIPH pale/dusky, at least 1.5 × longer than their basal widths, and 0.46-0.63 × cauda, both pale or dusky. (Sec. rhin. in al. III 19-45, IV 2-21, V 0-11) …..Melanaphis pyraria
SIPH dark, very broad-based, shorter than their basal width and 0.63-0.68 × cauda. (Sec. rhin. in al. III 6-9, IV 0, V 0) …..Melanaphis arthraxonophaga
13ANT PT 2.6-3.5 × cauda. Head with both ANT and median frontal tubercles rather well developed…..14
ANT PT 1.9-2.5 × cauda. Head with ANT and median frontal tubercles weakly developed…..15
14SIPH 1.3-1.7 (-2.0) × their basal width, and with a large flange, so that diameter at flange is 1.25-1.4 × the minimum subapical diameter…..Melanaphis sorini
SIPH 1.7-2.8 × their basal width and with a small flange, so that diamater at flange is 1.03-1.14 × the minimum subapical diameter…..Melanaphis indosacchari
15Hind tibia 1.8-3.0 × ANT PT (measure several specimens if borderline) …..Melanaphis sorghi (also M. zhanhuaensis? – see text)
Hind tibia 1.5-1.9 × ANT PT…..Melanaphis sacchari
16Tergum of thorax and abdomen with a reticulate pattern of strings of small bead-like spicules arranged in polygons, most polygons enclosing one to many additional similar spicules. SIPH in all except one species almost cylindrical for most of length or with very slight swelling of distal part, constricted subapically and then broadened again to a well-developed flange (as if a noose had been placed around near the apex and tightened slightly). (Alata with media of forewing twice-branched) …..17
Tergum smooth, wrinkled or spiculose, but if spiculose then the spicules are coarser and more angular and not arranged as above. SIPH cylindrical or tapering, sometimes with a slight subapical constriction, but usually with a small flange. (Alata with media once- or twice-branched) …..23
17Body rather elongate. SIPH 0.07-0.08 × BL, tapering from base with only a slight subapical constriction and small flange. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8 …..Rhopalosiphum maidis
Body oval. SIPH 0.08-0.15 × BL, almost cylindrical for most of length, distinctly constricted subapically and with a large flange. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-5.6 …..18
18ANT usually 5-segmented with longest hairs on ANT III 3-5 × BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 4-8 hairs…..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale
ANT 5- or 6-segmented with longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-2.25 × BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 2 (-3) hairs…..19
19Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-1.0 × BD III. R IV+V 0.9-1.15 × HT II…..20
Longest hairs on ANT III 1.1-2.25 × BD III. R IV+V 1.2-1.4 × HT II…..21
20Hind tibia with numerous long hairs with finely-pointed apices, the longest 64-85 μm long…..Rhopalosiphum nigrum
Hind tibia with all hairs more spine-like, the longest 24-40 μm …..Rhopalosiphum padi
21 ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.5…..Rhopalosiphum rufulum
ANT PT/BASE 4.2-5.3…..22
22ANT 5-segmented. Cauda triangular…..Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae
ANT 6-segmented. Cauda tongue-shaped, often with a slight mid-way constriction…..Rhopalosiphum padiformis
23ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu), or rarely only on ABD TERG 7….24
ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with (sometimes small) MTu…..27
24Dorsal cuticle with coarsely rugose, denticulate sculpturing. SIPH short, with subapical constriction and large flange. Cauda dark…..Schizaphis palustris
Dorsal cuticle not coarsely rugose. SIPH without a subapical constriction and with a small flange. Cauda pale or dusky…..25
25SIPH dark except at bases, 0.17-0.20 × BL…..Schizaphis aurea
SIPH dusky, only dark at apices, 0.11-0.18 × BL…..26
26SIPH 0.11-0.13 × BL and 1.1-1.3 × cauda …..Schizaphis graminum ssp. gigjai
SIPH 0.12-0.18 × BL and 1.4-2.0 × cauda…..Schizaphis dubia
27SIPH mainly pale or dusky, usually with dark apices…..28
SIPH uniformly dark…..42
28. R IV+V 1.0-1.33 × HT II. Cauda with 6-12 hairs…..Schizaphis rufula
R IV+V 0.5-1.0 × HT II. Cauda with 4-7 (-14) hairs…..29
29SIPH 0.6-0.8 × cauda which bears 8-14 hairs. R IV+V 0.5-0.7 × HT II…..Schizaphis longicaudata
SIPH 0.8-2.2 × cauda which bears 4-7 hairs. R IV+V 0.6-1.0 × HT II…..30
30SIPH 0.8-1.2 × cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.7…..31
SIPH 1.0-2.2 × cauda, but if 1.0-1.2 × cauda then ANT PT/BASE is 3.6-5.2 …..33
31Cauda with 6-7 hairs. SIPH usually shorter than (0.8-1.0 ×) cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.1-3.7…..Schizaphis priori
Cauda with 4-5 hairs. SIPH usually longer than (0.9-1.2 × ) cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.5 …..32
32Some or all of ABD TERG 2-4 and 6 usually with MTu. R IV+V 0.75-0.85 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.6-3.5…..Schizaphis borealis
ABD TERG 2-4 and 6 without MTu. R IV+V 0.85-0.95 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.1…..Schizaphis weingaertneriae
33 SIPH uniformly pale, without dark apices…..34
SIPH with dark apices…..35
34R IV+V blunt, 0.6-0.8 × HT II. SIPH with a small but evident flange. Cauda with a distinct midway constriction…..Schizaphis thunebergi*
R IV+V pointed, c.0.9 × HT II. SIPH flange very weakly developed. Cauda not constricted at midlength…..Schizaphis muhlenbergiae
35Second tarsal segments mostly with a mid-dorsal hair in addition to the two subapical ones. SIPH 1.5-1.7 × cauda…..Schizaphis werderi*
Second tarsal segments without, or only very rarely with, a mid-dorsal hair. SIPH 1.0-2.25 × cauda…..36
36SIPH 3.1-3.7 × HT II, 0.19-0.25 × BL and 1.67-2.25 × cauda…..Schizaphis hypersiphonata
SIPH 1.6-2.9 × HT II, 0.10-0.19 × BL and 1.0-1.7 × cauda…..37
37SIPH 0.10-0.13 × BL and 1.6-1.8 × HT II. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 21-50 μm long…..Schizaphis jaroslavi
SIPH 0.11-0.19 × BL and 1.8-2.9 × HT II. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 15-40 μm long, but if more than 20 μm then SIPH are more than 0.13 × BL…..38
38SIPH 1.0-1.2 × cauda. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 15-16, IV c.9, V 6-7)…..Schizaphis hierochlorophaga
SIPH 1.3-1.7 × cauda. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 2-10, IV 0-4, V 0)…..39 (Schizaphis graminum group)
39SIPH 0.11-0.16 × BL. Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 2-6 (mostly 4 or 5), IV 0-1…..Schizaphis phlei
SIPH 0.14-0.19 × BL. Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 3-10 (mostly 6-8), IV 0-4…..40
40R IV+V 0.65-0.80 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.7. SIPH 1.3-1.7 × cauda …..Schizaphis graminum
R IV+V 0.75-1.0 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-4.0. SIPH 1.25-1.5 × cauda …..41
41R IV+V 0.80-1.0 × HT II. SIPH 0.14-0.15 × BL and 1.25-1.4 × cauda. Longest hair on ABD TERG 6-7 is 14-18 μm, and on ABD TERG 8 is 30-40 μm …..Schizaphis holci
R IV+V 0.75-0.88 × HT II. SIPH 0.15-0.17 × BL and 1.3-1.5 × cauda. Longest hair on ABD TERG 6-7 is 11-12 μm, and on ABD TERG 8 is 17-25 μm …..Schizaphis agrostis
42R IV+V 0.7-0.9 × HT II. SIPH 0.7-1.1 × cauda. (Alata with forewing media once-branched) …..43
R IV+V 0.9-1.5 × HT II. SIPH 0.8-2.5 × cauda. (Alata with media of forewing once- or twice-branched) …..44
43ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.7. Hairs on ABD TERG 7 and 8 maximally 24-40 μm long …..Schizaphis nigerrima
ANT PT/BASE 4.0-4.7. Hairs on ABD TERG 7 and 8 long and fine-pointed, 45-60 μm long…..Schizaphis cuprea
44Cauda long and very pale, with only 4 hairs. SIPH slightly swollen on basal half (calf-shaped). ANT PT/BASE 5.0-6.3. (Hind wing of al. with only one oblique vein)…..Hysteroneura setariae
Cauda pale, dusky or dark with 4-28 hairs. SIPH cylindrical or tapering, not at all swollen on basal half. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-6.0. (Hind wing of al. with 2 oblique veins) …..45
45SIPH 2.1-3.0 × cauda. ANT entirely dark except for base of III. (Forewing of al. with once-branched media)…..Schizaphis rotundiventris
SIPH 0.8-2.2 (-2.5) × cauda. ANT pale at least on most of III and IV. (Forewing of al. with media once- or twice-branched) …..polyphagous Aphis;
go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

KEY G – Apterae of Anoecia and Tetraneura on grasses

Apterae included in this key all have very short ANT PT, SIPH as slightly elevated cones and a broadly rounded cauda. Two Anoecia spp. described from India, A. himalayensis and A. radiciphaga, could not be included on the basis of their published descriptions; a key to Indian Anoecia is provided by Chakrabarti et al. (1982).

1Tarsi 2-segmented. Eyes usually multifaceted. ANT more than 0.25 × BL. ANT III-V often with secondary rhinaria. Flat rounded marginal tubercles (MTu) are usually present …..2
Tarsi 1-segmented. Eyes usually with just a triommatidium. ANT less than 0.25 × BL. ANT without sec. rhin. Wax glands comprising one to many cells usually present …..13
2MTu usually present on all of ABD TERG 1-7; often reduced in size on ABD TERG 5 and 6, and sometimes absent from 6, or occasionally both 5 and 6…..3
MTu on ABD TERG 1-4 and 7, but always absent from 5 and 6…..6
3Compound eyes reduced to 0-10 (-25) facets, usually smaller than triommatidia. ANT III–V without sec. rhin. Dorsal abdomen often unsclerotised. BL 1.2-2.1 mm …..Anoecia zirnitsi
Compound eyes with more than 25 facets. ANT III-V usually with sec. rhin. Dorsal abdomen usually with extensive dusky/dark sclerotisation. BL 1.9-3.0 mm …..4
4ABD TERG 1-5 with short (10-15 μm) blunt or spatulate hairs, which at least on 4 and 5 are placed in single tranverse rows. R IV+V with 5-6 (-8) accessory hairs …..Anoecia vagans
ABD TERG 1-4 (-5) each with numerous fine-pointed hairs; spatulate hairs (41-73 μm long) occur only irregularly if at all on ABD TERG 5-7, and only those on 6 and 7 are arranged in transverse rows. R IV+V with 8-14 accessory hairs…..5
5Rostrum 0.76-0.96 mm long, reaching well past bases of hind coxae to about middle of abdomen. BL (2.2-) 2.5-3.0 mm. Hairs on ABD TERG 6 and 7 usually all fine-pointed …..Anoecia major (and mirae?)
Rostrum 0.52-0.85 mm long, reaching about to bases of hind coxae. BL 1.9-2.4 (-2.8) mm. One or more of hairs on ABD TERG 6 and 7 almost always spatulate …..Anoecia corni
6Dorsal abdomen unsclerotised or only with dusky/dark bands on ABD TERG (5-) 6-7. Compound eyes often reduced to less than 20 facets. ANT III-V without sec. rhin. …..7
Dorsal abdomen extensively sclerotised on ABD TERG 3-7, with either broad dark bands or a solid or perforated dark shield. Compound eyes with more than 25 facets. ANT III-V usually each with 1 or more sec. rhin.…..9
7ANT III only c.0.13 mm long, less than 0.09 × BL. (Al. developing on grasses have a large black dorsal abdominal patch over ABD TERG 3-6)…..Anoecia cornicola
ANT III 0.18-0.24 mm long, at least 0.10 × BL. (Al. with dusky cross-bands or a dark patch limited to ABD TERG 5-6)…..8
8ANT hairs all or mostly spatulate. (Al. with a dark sclerite on ABD TERG 5-6)…..Anoecia stipae*
ANT hairs finely pointed. (Al. with rather indistinct dusky dorsal abdominal cross-bands)…..Anoecia setariae
9Dorsal abdominal hairs numerous and irregularly distributed except on ABD TERG (6-) 7-8, with either fine-pointed or markedly expanded apices…..10
Dorsal abdominal hairs less numerous, tending to be in rows on at least ABD TERG 3-8, and many of those on ABD TERG 1-7 with blunt or spatulate apices…..12
10All or most of hairs on ABD TERG 1-7, and also some of those on ANT and legs, with expanded, bifurcate or multifurcate apices …..Anoecia sp. on Hordeum jubatum (Manitoba; BMNH colln, leg. A.G. Robinson)
All or most hairs with fine-pointed apices…..11
11ABD TERG 7 with 12-25 hairs between the marginal groups, not in a single row. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 0-1 (-4), IV 1 (-3), V 0-2, VI 0…..Anoecia fulviabdominalis (or similiradiciphaga)
ABD TERG 7 with 4-6 hairs between the marginal groups, usually in a single row. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 0-6, IV 0-4, V 0-3, VI 0-2….. Anoecia haupti or A. krizusi*
12ANT III 0.16-0.21 mm long, usually a little shorter than ANT IV+V, and 1.0-1.4 × R IV+V. Spatulate hairs common on ANT and legs…..Anoecia graminis
ANT III 0.24-0.38 mm long, longer than ANT IV+V and 1.9-2.5 × R IV+V Most hairs on ANT and legs fine-pointed, with sometimes a few interspersed spatulate hairs…..Anoecia furcata
13R IV+V 0.10-0.13 mm long, 1.1-2.0 × HT…..14
R IV+V 0.15-0.25 mm long, 1.8-2.7 × HT…..19
14ABD TERG 1-7 each with 2 pairs of long, stout marginal hairs with distinctly capitate apices. (Embryos inside abdomen also have capitate marginal hairs) …..Tetraneura capitata
Marginal hairs of adults and embryos long or short but with fine-pointed, acute or blunt apices (or sometimes dilated apically in adults, but not in embryos)…..15
15ANT flagellum with less than 8 hairs between apex of II and distal rim of penultimate primary rhinarium…..16
ANT flagellum with more than 8 hairs between apex of II and distal rim of penultimate primary rhinarium…..17
16Longest ANT hairs not longer than BD III. Spinal and pleural wax glands on ABD TERG 1-5 each usually comprising a ring of cells (diam. 52-65 μm) around an undivided or partially subdivided central area. ABD TERG 7 with 4-6 hairs. Embryos inside abdomen with hind tarsal claws similar to those of fore and mid tarsi …..Tetraneura caerulescens
Longest ANT hairs longer than BD III. Spinal and pleural wax glands on ABD TERG 1-5 small (diam. 12-25 μm), each comprising a single cell or a group of 2-3 contiguous cells. ABD TERG 7 with 8 hairs. Embryos inside abdomen with hind tarsal claws much longer than those of fore and mid tarsi…..Tetraneura basui
17ANT II with 6-18 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 6-15 similar-sized hairs. Wax glands each usually comprising a group of cells with one large cell 14-77 μm in diameter, of irregular shape and sometimes appearing partially subdivided, with many small cells alongside or partly surrounding it…..Tetraneura javensis group (incl. javensis, kalimpongensis*, lambersi*, multisetosa*, utpali*)
ANT II with 2-5 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2 thick and spine-like hairs of varying length, often very long, sometimes with additional smaller marginal hairs. Wax glands each usually comprising a small group of mostly similar-sized cells 7-24 μm in diameter, with or without an adjacent cluster of very small cells…..18
18ABD TERG 8 commonly with one or more smaller marginal hairs in addition to a pair of very large spinal hairs. Embryos in abdomen (dissect some out when mounting if possible) without spinules on hind tarsi, and with ABD TERG 1-5 each having a transverse row of 6-10 spino-pleural hairs between the 2 larger marginal hairs…..Tetraneura nigriabdominalis
ABD TERG 8 usually only with a pair of very large spinal hairs, rarely with 1-2 additional hairs. Embryos in abdomen with minutely spinulose hind tarsi, and with ABD TERG 1-5 each usually having a transverse row of (5-) 6 spino-pleural hairs …..Tetraneura fusiformis
19ABD TERG 8 with 38-48 hairs. ANT II with 31-58 hairs. R IV+V with more than 30 hairs …..Tetraneura triangula*
ABD TERG 8 with 2-10 hairs. ANT II with 2-26 hairs. R IV+V with 10-30 hairs …..20
20ANT II with (8-) 12-26 hairs`…..21
ANT II with 2-5 hairs…..24
21ANT hairs all very short, less than 0.5 × BD III …..Tetraneura brachytricha*
ANT hairs mostly longer than BD III…..22
22Marginal wax glands comprising groups of 10-35 cells. ABD TERG 8 with c.10 hairs…..Tetraneura polychorema*
Marginal wax glands comprising single cells with surface appearing stippled, maximum diameter 20-40 μm. ABD TERG 8 with 2-8 hairs, including at least 2 long thick spinal hairs…..23
23Penultimate ANT segment with 18-30 hairs. Embryos inside abdomen (dissect some out before mounting if possible) with ABD TERG 1-5 each bearing 12-20 pleuro-spinal hairs between marginal groups of 3-8 hairs. Embryos have 16-23 hairs on penultimate ANT segment (IV) and 10-16 accessory hairs on R IV+V…..Tetraneura yezoensis ( incl. sikkimensis*)
Penultimate ANT segment with 36-60 hairs. Embryos inside abdomen with ABD TERG 1-5 each bearing 20-50 pleuro-spinal hairs between marginal groups of 10-15 hairs. Embryos have 30-55 hairs on penultimate ANT segment (IV) and 18-24 accessory hairs on R IV+V…..Tetraneura radicicola
24Marginal wax glands very well-developed, especially those on ABD TERG 7 which have 30-40 similar-sized cells. ANT hairs less than 0.5 × BD III…..Tetraneura africana
Marginal wax glands variable, often with a ring of cells around an undivided central area. Longest ANT hairs usually more than 0.5 × BD III…..25
25ABD TERG 8 with c.8 hairs…..Tetraneura indica*
ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs, that are long (c. 170 μm) and thick……Tetraneura ulmi group (incl. chui*, longisetosa)

KEY H – Apterae of Colopha, Fordini and Pemphigini on grassses

1Tarsi 1-segmented (sometimes with an incomplete suture). Wax glands each comprising a ring of cells around a round or oval, usually darkly-defined and often undivided central area…..2
Tarsi 2-segmented. If wax glands are present then they are comprised of numerous cells (pores) without a darkly-defined central area…..5
2Antennae 6-segmented. Eyes with about 10 ommatidia. Wax glands with darkly-defined central areas in first instars, but not in adults…..Colopha setaricola
Antennae 4- or 5-segmented. Eyes consisting only of triommatidia. Wax glands of adults as well as immatures with darkly-defined central areas…..3
3Abdominal wax glands always with rather small round or oval darkly bordered central areas (sometimes subdivided into two). R IV+V 1.2-2.2 × HT (I+II) …..Colopha kansugei
At least the larger (marginal) wax glands have narrow elongate (slit-like) central areas. R IV+V 1.0-1.35 × HT (I+II) …..4
4(Al. with media of forewing unbranched)…..Colopha ulmicola
(Al. with media of forewing once-branched)…..Colopha graminis
5Primary rhinarium on last ANT segment with a naked rim…..6
Primary rhinarium on last ANT segment with a fimbriate or ciliate rim…..19
6ANT II elongate, much longer than I and similar in length to III …..Smynthurodes betae
ANT II similar in length to I, much shorter than III…..7
7ANT usually 6-segmented. Legs thick, especially hind tibiae which are more than 0.7 of width of hind femora at their respective midpoints. Dorsal cuticle with fine reticulation …..8
ANT 5-segmented. Hind tibiae less than 0.7 of width of hind femora at their respective midpoints. Cuticle not distinctly reticulated…..9
8Hairs very short, those on ANT III only 4-12 μm long (based on 4th instar)…..Paracletus subnudus
Hairs on ANT III up to 25-36 μm long, with fine apices …..Paracletus cimiciformis (part)
9Multifaceted eyes present in addition to triommatidia …..Paracletus donisthorpei
Eyes represented only by triommatidia…..10
10 Hind tarsi 0.22-0.38 mm long, 1.4-1.8 × longer than mid- tarsi. ANT densely clothed with fine hairs…..11
Hind tarsi less than 0.22 mm long, less than 1.4 × longer than mid-tarsi. ANT not densely clothed with fine hairs…..13
11 Head cuticle finely spinulose. Hind legs elongate, with femora and tibiae curved, and HT II narrow, 7-10 × longer than their maximum width…..Paracletus bykovi
Head cuticle smooth or finely spiculose. Hind legs thick, with femora and tibiae rather straight, and HT II 5.0-6.5 × longer than their maximum width…..12
12Head cuticle finely spiculose. ANT long, 0.65-0.69 × BL, with ANT III c.3.8-4.0 × HT II. R IV+V 1.37-1.46 × HT II…..Forda longicornis
Head cuticle completely smooth. ANT 0.24-0.41 × BL, with ANT III 0.88-1.62 × HT II. R IV+V 0.63-0.98 × HT II…..Paracletus cimiciformis (rotund form – see text)
13Primary rhinarium on ANT BASE V very large, transversely oblong and extending around segment, 4-5 × larger than primary rhinarium on ANT IV …..Forda formicaria
Primary rhinarium on ANT BASE V almost circular and less than 2.5 × larger than that on ANT IV…..14
14Dorsal hairs extremely long (250-350 μm), with very fine apices. R IV+V c.0.37 mm long …..Forda hirsutissima*
Dorsal hairs always less than 130 μm, with pointed, blunt, furcate or expanded apices. R IV+V less than 0.30 mm long…..15
15Head cuticle finely spiculose, with small separate rounded spicules. Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 are 35-55 μm long with fine-pointed apices…..Forda orientalis
Head cuticle rather coarsely spiculose, with angular spicules partially joined to form a reticulum. Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 are 6-28 μm long with acute, blunt or expanded apices…..16
16Tibiae each with a row of short, stout erect peg-like hairs on dorsal side. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 long (more than 50 μm), and in larger specimens often thick and strap-like, with some of them having spatulate or furcate apices…..Forda hirsuta
Tibiae without erect, peg-like hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 short or long, never strap-like, with pointed or blunt, rarely bifurcate, apices…..17
17Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 maximally 16-28 μm long, and often curved. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.2 × BD III…..Forda riccobonii
Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 maximally 6-15 μm long, and usually quite straight. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.2-0.8 × BD III…..18
18R IV+V more than 1.3 × HT II. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III c.40, IV c.6, V BASE 0-2) …..Forda pawlowae
R IV+V 1.0-1.3 × HT II. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 9-27, IV 2-5, V BASE 0-2)…..Forda marginata
19 Anal plate enlarged and extended or displaced dorsally, surrounded on three sides by the U-shaped ABD TERG 8 so as to form a trophobiotic organ (e.g. Plate 1h, i) …..20
Anal plate and anus in normal posterio-ventral position…..27
20Small faceted wax glands present on head (3 pairs), and spinal as well as marginal pairs of small wax glands present on thorax and abdomen. All body hairs pointed…..Baizongia pistaciae
Wax glands not usually evident, or only marginal glands present.. Dorsal body hairs pointed, spatulate or fan-shaped…..21
21Anal plate with scattered, shortish, sometimes spatulate, hairs, not arranged in two longitudinal rows…..22
Anal plate with long and usually pointed hairs arranged in two longitudinal rows (as well as finer, shorter hairs grouped near anus)…..23
22R IV+V with 4-14 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 11-25 hairs, and anal plate with 15-120 hairs. Dorsal hairs as well as those on anal plate very variable, often spatulate or fan-shaped, but not with very finely-attenuated apices…..Geoica utricularia
R IV+V with 16-30 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 50-100 hairs, and anal plate with c.80-200 hairs. Hairs on dorsal body and anal plate rarely spatulate, often with very finely attenuated apices…..Geoica harpazi
23Primary rhinaria are transversely elongated; slit-like, or of irregular shape with narrow diverticula…..Geoica setulosa
Primary rhinaria oval or circular…..24
24Hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 shorter than (0.75-0.80 ×) ANT BD III. ANT PT c.0.05 mm long, ANT PT/BASE 0.40-0.65…..Geoica sikkimensis*
Longest hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 (unless all spatulate) more than 1.5 × ANT BD III. ANT PT 0.015- 0.04 mm long, ANT PT/BASE 0.15-0.52…..25
25Dorsal hairs comprising 1 spinal, 1 pleural and 1-4 marginal pairs per segment. Marginal wax glands usually present on ABD TERG 1-7. R IV+V 1.64-2.10 × HT II. (Al. with secondary rhinaria ciliated)…..Chaetogeoica graminiphaga*
Dorsal hairs much more numerous, in bands across segments, with marginal groups of 3-10 hairs per segment, of which 1-2 are usually much longer. R IV+V 1.2-1.7 × HT II. (Al. with secondary rhinaria with or without cilia)…..26
26Dorsal hairs variable in form, but usually most are spatulate, except for 1-2 long acute marginal ones per segment. R IV+V with 4-8 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 5-9 hairs. (Al. with secondary rhinaria not ciliated)…..Geoica lucifuga
Dorsal hairs not spatulate. R IV+V with 2-4 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 8-18 hairs. (Al. unknown)…..Chaetogeoica polychaeta*
27ANT 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE c.0.5…..Asiphonella spp.
ANT 4- or 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE less than 0.33…..28
28Body broadly spindle-shaped, with extremely short ANT and legs (ANT and tibiae both less than 0.2 × BL)…..Aploneura lentisci
Body broadly oval, ANT and tibiae both more than 0.2 × BL…..29
29Wax pore plates present on head, thorax and abdomen, especially well developed marginally on abdomen. R IV+V 0.13-0.175 mm long, with 4-8 accessory hairs. Cauda and anal plate forming a dark, rounded posterior projection of the abdomen …..Prociphilus erigeronensis
Wax pore plates absent form head and typically also from thorax and margins of abdomen; usually with 4 (2 spinal and 2 pleural) on each of ABD TERG 3-6 and 1 spinal pair on ABD TERG 7. R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm long, with 0(-2) accessory hairs. Cauda and anal plate not produced posteriorly…..Pemphigus spp. (e.g. brevicornis, groenlandicus, similis, vulgaris)
Digraphis see PhalarisPoaceae