The Aphids


(in alphabetical order)










Kaburagia Takagi

Eriosomatinae: Fordini

Three or more oriental species related to Melaphis, Meitanaphis, Nurudea and Schlechtendalia, and likewise (in the one species where the life cycle is known) alternating between galls on Rhus and mosses. However the alatae from galls on Rhus have distinctive antennal sensoriation (Yang et al. 2009).  Only one sexuparous generation matures on mosses, overwintering in an immature stage, as in Schlechtendalia chinensis (q.v.). A.K. Ghosh (1984) reviewed the Indian species, and Xiang (1980/81) and G. Zhang et al. (1999c) reviewed the species in China. Yang et al. (2008) used multivariate morphometrics, and H.C. Zhang & Qiao (2007), Yang et al. (2010) and Ren et al. (2019) used molecular methods, to study phylogenetic relationships of Chinese species with other Fordini.

Kaburagia ailanthi Chowdhuri, Basu, Chakrabarti & Raychaudhuri    Emigrant alatae from galls are rather elongate-bodied, colour in life unrecorded: BL 1.7-1.8 mm.  The host plant given in the original description, and on the paratype slides in the BMNH collection, is Ailanthus sp., without any mention of gall formation (Chowdhuri et al. 1969a).  Chakrabarti et al. (1985) reported that it forms a petiole gall on Ailanthus glandulosa, but no new collection data were given in that paper and the unusual host association requires additional confirmation.  A more probable host plant would be Rhus punjabensis.  In India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh).  The life cycle is unknown.

Kaburagia ovatirhusicola Xiang   Galls on leaflets of Rhus potaninii in China (Shansi) are obovate, green, with prominent net-like veins on surface.  Differences from K. ovigallis (= rhusicola?) in the morphology of the emigrant alata (BL 1.5-2.0 mm) were described by Xiang (1980/81). The secondary host is unknown. It is treated as a subspecies of K. rhusicola by H.C. Zhang & Qiao (2007) and Yang et al. (2008, 2010).

Kaburagia rhusicola Takagi   Galls on leaflets of Rhus (potaninii, punjabensis var. sinica) are elongate pear- or fig-shaped, somewhat pointed at distal end, 3-10 cm long, with some longitudinal striations, yellowish green when mature (Takagi 1937; Xiang 1980/81).  Alate emigrants are dark grey to black (presumably with wax secretion); BL 1.3-1.5 mm.  Emigration from galls in northern China occurs in late summer, and hibernation occurs as immature sexuparae on the secondary host, the moss Erythrodontium leptothallum. Their appearance is undescribed. Alate sexuparae mature the following spring and migrate back to Rhus (Xiang 1980/81). In China and Korea (Chosen).  [Macrorhinarium ensigallis and M. ovogallis Tsai & Tang are closely related and were synonymised with K. rhusicola by Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers (1976). However, Xiang (1980/81) treated both these as distinct taxa, and H.C. Zhang & Qiao (2007) and Yang et al. (2008, 2010) treated them as subspecies. Molecular studies by Ren et al. (2013, 2019) have provided further evidence of synonymy of ovogallis with rhusicola, but indicate that ensigallis although closely related may be a distinct taxon.]

Kaltenbachiella Schouteden

Eriosomatinae: Eriosomatini

Eight species primarily associated with Ulmus and related to Colopha and Tetraneura, but the hind wing has two oblique veins, and the feeding position of the first instar fundatrices is such that the gall arises from the mid-rib of the leaf near its base, rather than from the leaf lamina. The secondary hosts where known are mostly Lamiaceae.  A.K. Ghosh (1981) reviewed and keyed the species, and there are also accounts for east Asia (Akimoto, 1985) and China (Jiang et al., 2004). 

Kaltenbachiella carpinicola A.K. Ghosh, Chakrabarti & Bhattacharya   Reported to form open galls consisting of a swollen cup-shaped pouch or cavity on leaf blades of an unidentified Carpinus sp. (A.K. Ghosh et al. 1981).  However the host was apparently misidentified, because Chakrabarti & Banerjee (1993b) reported that the primary host was an Ulmus sp. Alatae collected from these galls in June have an unbranched forewing media and secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 20-29, IV 7-10, V 10-13 and VI 15-17; BL 2.2-2.6 mm.  The life cycle is unknown.  The host plant, and the position of the gall, which is anomalous, need additional confirmation.  In India (Uttar Pradesh).

Kaltenbachiella elsholtriae  (Shinji)    Apterae are densely wax-coated; BL 1.1-1.4 mm. On Elsholtzia spp., living in small hollows between leaf veins. The leaves become intensely wrinkled and distorted around the hollows, and turn reddish purple along the midrib. In Japan, Korea and east Siberia. Alate sexuparae emerge from the galls in September-October in Japan, migrating to an unknown primary host (Akimoto 1985). In the past this species has been erroneously regarded as the secondary host generations of K. japonica. 2n=32.

Kaltenbachiella glabra Akimoto   Galls are almost globular, unstalked, smooth, projecting upward from the mid-rib of the leaf.  Only the gall and fundatrix are described (Akimoto 1985a), so this species could not be included in the key to aphids on Ulmus.  On Ulmus uyematsui in Taiwan.  Life cycle is unknown.

Kaltenbachiella japonica (Matsumura)  Galls are globular, covered with fine spine-like projections, green, projecting upward from the mid-rib, which tends to be bent downwards where the gall is attached (fig. 134K).  Monoecious holocyclic on Ulmus spp.  On U. japonica in Japan the galls occur mainly on mature trees, especially on shoots growing directly from the trunk, and may occur 4 or more to a leaf.  Alate sexuparae (BL 1.4-1.7 mm) emerge from galls in July-Aug and produce sexuales in crevices of the trunk, often near their old galls (Akimoto 1985a).  In Japan and east Siberia.  [Alate specimens trapped in Sri Lanka (BMNH collection, leg. E. Judenko) and described as K. japonica by A.K. Ghosh (1984), have embryos with mouthparts and are closer to K. nirecola, except that they lack siphunculi.]   Evolution of the monoecious life cycle of K. japonica was discussed by Akimoto (1985c). Adaptation to the bud-burst time of individual trees was demonstrated by Komatsu & Akimoto (1995), and factors affecting gall distribution were studied by Aoyama et al. (2012).  2n=16.

Kaltenbachiella nirecola (Matsumura)  Galls on Ulmus spp. are oblong, bag-shaped, with a narrower section at the base, projecting upward from the mid-rib of the leaf; green, often with reddish tinge distally, covered in short whitish hairs.  Emigrant alatae have the forewing media usually once-branched but sometimes unbranched; BL 1.3-1.7 mm.  In Japan they emerge in July, and found colonies on the roots of Polygonum orientale (Akimoto 1985a), and in China they have been found on Persicaria hydropiper (G. Qiao, pers. comm.).  Apterous exules presumably secrete abundant wax; BL 1.4-1.7 mm. In Japan, China and east Siberia.

Kaltenbachiella pallida (Haliday)   Galls on Ulmus spp. are globular, pale, densely covered in short fine hairs, projecting from the mid-rib mainly on the upper side of the leaf (fig. 134H).  Emigrant alatae (fig. 117B) have the forewing media usually unbranched, sometimes once-branched; BL 1.8-2.1 mm.  They emerge from galls through a stellate distal opening in June-July, and migrate to found colonies on roots of Lamiaceae (Mentha, Galeopsis, Origanum, Thymus).  Apterous exules are very plump-bodied to almost globular, yellowish‑white, secreting flocculent wax; BL 0.9-1.3 mm. Immature stages are pale orange yellow. Throughout Europe and in north Africa, Middle East, south-west and central Asia, west Siberia, China, and reported also from Argentina (Ortego et al. 2004).  A population on Mentha haplocalyx in China was described as a subspecies, K. pallida ssp. dongtaiensis Zhang (in Zhang & Qiao 1997b), although the reported differences would appear to warrant separate species status.  2n=28.

Kaltenbachiella spinosa Akimoto   Galls on Ulmus japonica are like those of K. japonica (see above), but generally with larger, thicker spines arranged more irregularly (fig. 134J and Akimoto 1985a).  Emigrant alatae (BL 1.0-1.4 mm) (fig. 117C) leave galls in July-Aug for an unknown secondary host.  In Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu), and also found on Ulmus sp. in Pakistan (Naumann-Etienne & Remaudière 1995).  2n=18.

Kaltenbachiella ulmifusa (Walsh & Riley)  Galls on Ulmus rubra are large, spindle-shaped, bag-like, about 2.5 cm long, green when young and becoming straw-coloured when mature, projecting upward from mid-rib of leaf (fig. 134I and Patch 1910b).  Emigrant alatae, BL 1.4-1.5 mm, with media either unbranched or once-branched, leave galls in June-July to found colonies on roots of Lamiaceae; successful transfers were made to Lycopus virginicus (Smith 1985). Apterous exules are yellowish orange with wax-wool (C.F. Smith, pers. comm.); BL unrecorded. Distributed throughout the range of U. rubra in North America, and recently reported (on Ulmus) in China (Jiang et al. 2004).

Kaochiaoja Tao

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Two east Asian species similar to Neomyzus, but apterae have no secondary rhinaria. A third species described in this genus, Kaochiaoja pileophaga Zhang (in Zhang et al. 1992), appears to be a synonym of Micromyzodium kuwasukae (q.v.).

Kaochiaoja arthraxonis  (Takahashi)  (= Micromyzus granotiae Ghosh, Ghosh & Raychaudhuri)    Apterae from Arthraxon in Taiwan were described as shining dark brown with yellowish brown head (original description).  Apterae from an unidentified grass in West Bengal (BMNH collection, leg. D.K. Nath) also have a pale/dusky head, and those described as Micromyzus granotiae (from Garnotia sp.?) from West Bengal (A.K. Ghosh et al. 1970a) also have a dusky head and are said to be dark brown in life with a coating of wax. However,  apterae of Japanese populations on various Poaceae (e.g. Microstegium, Digitaria) are described as salmon pink to reddish brown in life, with a black head and dorsal abdominal patch (Miyazaki 1971; as K. pollinae). Further work is needed to establish whether this is all one variable species. BL of apterae 1.0-1.6 mm.  Alatae (according to original description) have blackish head, thorax, antennae and siphunculi, and yellow abdomen with a black patch between siphunculi. In India (West Bengal), Taiwan and Japan.

Kaochiaoja sikkimensis Joshi & Blackman    Apterae are shining black in life with yellowish brown head, siphunculi pale in middle, and yellow cauda; BL 1.3-1.5 mm. Immatures are pale yellow to greenish yellow. Alatae have extensive dark dorsal markings. On leaves of bamboos (Phyllostachys sp.), which were turned yellowish by dense colonies. Described from East Sikkim, India (Joshi & Blackman 2017).

Karamicrosiphum Zhang

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

One species in China related to Macrosiphum or Sitobion, with capitate dorsal hairs, and first tarsal segments with 4 hairs.

Karamicrosiphum humuliosum Zhang & Qiao   Colour in life is unknown; BL c.2.9 mm. On Humulus scandens in Beijing, China (G. Zhang & Qiao 1998c). This species should possibly be in Sitobion, where there are a number of other species with 4 hairs (2 sense pegs) on all first tarsal segments.

Klimaszewskia Szelegiewicz

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

A distinctive genus of five Asian species on Lamiaceae with hairy RIV+V, first tarsal segments with 5 hairs, and often with rows of marginal, or spinal and marginal, tubercles. The known alatae have brown-bordered forewing veins. Kadyrbekov (2015) provided a key to apterae.

Klimaszewskia altaica Kadyrbekov    Apterae are pale green; BL 2.2-3.2 mm. On stems and inflorescences of Nepeta sibirica in East Kazakhstan (south-western Altai) at 1000-1300 m (Kadyrbekov 2015).

Klimaszewskia dracocephali Szelegiewicz    Apterae are whitish yellow; BL c.2.2 mm. On leaves of Dracocephalum foetidum in Mongolia.

Klimaszewskia katonica Kadyrbekov    Apterae are pale green; BL 2.7-3.2 mm. On stems and inflorescences of Dracocephalum grandiflorum in in East Kazakhstan (south-western Altai) at 2000 m (Kadyrbekov 2015).

Klimaszewskia lophanthi Kadyrbekov    Apterae are pale green; BL 2.2-2.5 mm. On flower stalks of Lophanthus schrenki in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 1999b).

Klimaszewskia salviae (Nevsky)  (Fig.48f)   Apterae are pale green; BL 2.5-3.0 mm. On stems and inflorescences of Salvia sclarea in Uzbekistan (Narzikulov & Umarov 1969); also found on Salvia rhytidea in Iran (Remaudière & Remaudière 1997, p.303), and an alata has been trapped in France (Leclant & Remaudière 1986). Narzikulov & Umarov (1969) described a subspecies (hissarica) with longer siphunculi from Tajikistan.

Ktenopteryx Qiao & Zhang

Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini

One very distinctive species free-living on Styrax in China, with curved blunt-ended frontal and marginal processes, and a single long finger-like process arising from the posterior margin of abdominal tergite 8.

Ktenopteryx eosocallis Qiao & Zhang   Apterae are small, oval, yellow or yellowish brown; BL 0.9-1.0 mm. On Styrax odoratissima, feeding on young shoots and undersides of leaves along the main veins, causing stunting of shoots and leaf deformation (Qiao & Zhang 2003b, Qiao et al. 2018).  In Guanxi Autonomous Region and Fujian Province, China.

Kugegania Eastop

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

One African species characterised by the presence of a pair of spinal tubercles on the head, and alatae with reduced wing venation and without a black dorsal abdominal patch.

Kugegania ageni  (Eastop)    Colour of apterae in life is unknown; BL 1.2-1.6 mm. Alatae have forewings lacking a radius in more than 90% of specimens and a once-branched media, and hindwings without oblique veins. On etiolated parts of grasses (Digitaria, Pennisetum) in Africa south of the Sahara.

Kurisakia Takahashi


About seven species in east Asia, described from Juglandaceae (or from perhaps misidentified trees with similar leaves), and Fagaceae.  Closely related to Glyphina, and in fact although Kurisakia are generally paler and less sclerotised than Glyphina, there are no good morphological distinguishing features between these two genera.  Many of the characters used to distinguish between species and subspecies of Kurisakia are subject to environmental variation, so that the separate identity of most species needs experimental confirmation. Possibly there are only 2-3 valid species in the genus.  There is no information on sexual morphs or life cycles for any species of Kurisakia.  Accounts are available for Japan (Takahashi 1960a) and China (Zhang & Zhong 1979a).

Kurisakia ailanthi Takahashi   Apterae are broadly oval, colour in life not recorded in original description, but probably greenish yellow with green markings, with legs and antennae pale; BL c. 2.7 mm.  Described from Ailanthus altissima in Japan (Takahashi 1960a), but almost certainly this was a misidentification of Juglans ailanthifolia, which has very similar leaves.  Distinction from K. onigurumi, apart from body size and size-related characters, is not clear.  Sorin (1988) gave a detailed description, including dimorphic first instars, of a population described as a subspecies , K. ailanthi sawagarumii, curling leaflets of Pteryocarya rhoifolia in Japan.  The life cycle is unknown.

Kurisakia indica Basu   Apterae are oval, colour in life not recorded, antennae and legs pale; BL 1.6-1.9 mm.  Alatae have paired dark markings on most abdominal tergites.  On undersides of leaves of Engelhardtia spicata in West Bengal, feeding without evident injury to host (A.N. Basu 1968), and also recorded from Pterocarya sp..  Similar aphids were collected in Sikkim (BMNH colln, leg. M.R. Ghosh & S. Chakrabarti), but from an unlikely host, Fluggea macrocarpa (Euphorbiaceae). Another unlikely host record is from Litsea polyantha. The life cycle is unknown.

Kurisakia onigurumii (Shinji)  Plate 4e, f   Apterae are oval, green, with pale legs and antennae; BL 1.2-2.0 mm.  Alatae have black head and thorax and paired green markings on ABD TERG 1-6, often fused to form cross-bands (Moritsu 1983, p.212).  In folded leaflets of Juglans spp. and Pterocarya spp. in Japan, Taiwan and China. Moritsu (1983) recorded it from Platycarya strobilacea in Japan, but there is possible confusion with K. sinoplatycaryae described from this host in China. The life cycle is unknown; according to Shinji (1924), the individuals produced in July are all alatae, and fly away.  2n=18* (for specimens from Pt. stenoptera in China).

Kurisakia querciphila Takahashi   Apterae are yellow, with a pair of longitudinal green dorsal stripes; BL 1.2-2.0 mm. On Q. acutissima in Japan, often forming large populations, and also since recorded from several other Quercus spp.  Paik’s (1965) record of K. onigurumii on Q. acutissima and Castanea crenata in Korea should be referred to this taxon, which was described (Takahashi 1960a) as a subspecies of K. onigurumii, but is here given full species status.

Kurisakia sinocaryae Zhang   Described from Carya cathayensis in Zhejiang, China (Zhang & Zhong 1979a).  Alatae viviparae have more numerous secondary rhinaria than other described Kurisakia species (distributed ANT III 39-51, IV 9-13, V 5-7), and these are not arranged in a row (i.e., the sensoriation is as one would expect to find in a male).  Jin (1982) studied the population ecology of this aphid.

Kurisakia sinoplatycaryae Zhang   Described from Platycarya strobilacea in Zhejiang, China (Zhang & Zhong 1979a).  Apterae have a rugose tergum and hairs on the hind tibia only about as long as the width of the tibia at midlength, and alatae have a cauda with a distinct basal constriction.

Kurisakia yunnanensis Zhang   Alate viviparae only are described, from China, on Senna siamea, which is unlikely to be the true host.  Similar to, or synonymous with, K. onigurumii.