(in alphabetical order)












































































































































Dilomilis (including Octadesmia)Orchidaceae
Dilomilis montana Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;
Cerataphis orchidearum; Neomyzus circumflexus;
Sitobion luteum

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.

Dimeria ornithopoda Geoica lucifuga; Tetraneura fusiformis
(var. tenera)
Dimocarpus longan Aphis gossypii
Dimorphandra Fabaceae
Dimorphandra mollis Aphis gossypii
Dimorphocarpa sp. [Uroleucon erigeronense]
D. aurantiaca = D. sinuata
D. sinuataBrachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbia;
Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Diodella teresAphis gossypii; Protaphis middletonii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Diodia Rubiaceae
Diodia ocymifolia = Spermacoce ocymifolia
D. teres = Diodella teres
Dioscorea Yams Dioscoreaceae
Dioscorea alataAphis gossypii; [Macromyzus manoji];
Macrosiphum euphorbiae
D. bulbiferaAphis gossypii (as minuta)
D. japonicaPseudomegoura magnoliae; Sitobion miscanthi
D. trifidaGeopemphigus floccosus
Dioscorea spp.Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus; [Rhopalosiphum maidis]

Key to apterae on Dioscorea:-

1ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH absent. Anal plate displaced dorsally. Dorsal wax glands present…..Geopemphigus floccosus
ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH present, tubular. Anal plate in normal position. Wax glands not evident…..2
2SIPH dark, 1.4-1.9 × cauda, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 × BD III…..Sitobion miscanthi
Without this combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Diospyros Ebonies Ebenaceae
Diospyros kakiAphis aurantii, citricidus, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;
Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus
D. mespiliformis (= bicolor) Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
Diospyros sp. [Aphis diospyri Thomas 1879];

(See key to polyphagous aphids)

Dipcadi sp.Aphis gossypii
Dipholis see SideroxylonSapotaceae
Diplanthera see DeplancheaBignoniaceae
D. arboreum (var. unilobum) Aphis spiraecola
D. esculentumMacromyzella polypodicola;
Macromyzus maculatus, woodwardiae
D. japonicumMacromyzella polypodicola
D. laffanianumIdiopterus nephrelepidis

Use key to apterae on ferns under Polypodium.

Diplocaulobium chrysotropis Sitobion luteum

(or try key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium)

Diplolophium buchananii Dysaphis sp. (Remaudière & Autrique 1985: 131)
Diplopappus see AsterAsteraceae
Diplopterygium glaucum Macromyzus woodwardiae
Diplorhynchus condylocarpon Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii;
[Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994, 83)]
D. psilopus = D. condylocarpon
Diplotaxis catholica Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;
Myzus persicae
D. erucoidesBrevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;
Myzus persicae; Smynthurodes betae
D. harraAcyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis craccivora;
Brevicoryne brassicae; Myzus persicae
D. muralisBrevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi, [turritella];
Myzus persicae
D. siifoliaAphis fabae; Brevicoryne brassicae;
Lipaphis pseudobrassicae; Myzus persicae
D. tenuifoliaBrevicoryne brassicae; [Lipaphis rossi]; Myzus persicae
D. tenuisiliquaBrevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;
Myzus persicae
D. vimineaMyzus persicae
D. virgataLipaphis pseudobrassicae

Key to apterae on Diplotaxis:-

SIPH very long and thin, 2.5-3.5 × cauda and 0.33-0.5 × BL …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii
SIPH shorter (or absent)…..go to key to apterae on Brassica
Dipogon lignosusAcyrthosiphon pisum
Dipsacus atropurpureus = D. inermis
D. azureus = D. dipsacoides
D. dipsacoidesMacrosiphum rosae
D. fullonum Aphis confusa, [dipsacicola Holman (nomen nudum)],
(incl. var sylvestris) fabae, ochropus, solanella, thomasi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;
Myzus persicae; [Uroleucon rudbeckiae]
D. gmeliniiMacrosiphum rosae
D. inermisAphis eugeniae, [gossypii]; Macrosiphum rosae
D. laciniatusAphis ochropus; Macrosiphum rosae
D. mitis = D. inermis
D. pilosusAphis ochropus; Macrosiphum rosae
D. sativusMacrosiphum rosae
D. strigosusMacrosiphum rosae
D. sylvestris = D. fullonum
Dipsacus sp. Aphis cephalariae

Key to apterae on Dipsacus:-

1ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Cauda pale, dusky or dark…..2
ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 7 without MTu. Cauda pale …..7
2Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation varying from an almost solid carapace to broad cross-bands (the latter in small midsummer specimens). Longest hairs on ANT III 1.8-2.8 × BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 6-12 hairs and cauda with 12-20 hairs …..Aphis cephalariae
Without that combination of characters…..4
3Femoral hairs all much shorter than diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda pale, dusky or dark with 2-9 hairs…..4
Many of femoral hairs long and fine, exceeding diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda black with 10-24 hairs…..6
4SIPH 2.0-2.8 × cauda. R IV+V 1.4-1.8 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.9-3.7…..Aphis ochropus
SIPH 0.8-2.3 × cauda. R IV+V 1.1-1.5 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-3.3 …..5
5 Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.2-0.5 × diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Hairs on anterior half of subgenital plate 0.2-0.5 × ANT BD III…..Aphis thomasi
Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.6-1.1 × diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Hairs on anterior half of subgenital plate 1.0-2.0 × ANT BD III…..Aphis confusa
6Dark cross-bands present on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and often dark markings also on more anterior tergites. Hind tibia without a row of spine-like hairs. HT 1 usually with 2 hairs (no sense peg)…..Aphis fabae group (incl. solanella)
Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Hind tibia with a row of spine-like hairs. HT I with 3 hairs (sense peg present)…..Aphis eugeniae
7 SIPH black, tapering/cylindrical, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. head dark, smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. ANT III with 10-35 rhinaria…..Macrosiphum rosae
SIPH pale, with or without subapical polygonal reticulation, and other characters do not apply…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4
Dipterocarpus Dipterocarpaceae
Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Cervaphis schouteniae
Dipterocarpus sp. Greenidea sutepensis

(Dipterocarpaceae appear almost immune to attack by aphids.)

SIPH with many long stout hairs. Body hairs not on branched processes …..Greenidea sutepensis
SIPH with a subapical ring of small hairs and a few other hairs more basad. Body with long branched hair-bearing processes (as in fig. 92A) …..Cervaphis schouteniae
Disa caulescensAulacorthum solani
D. unifloraAulacorthum solani

(or try key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium)

Discaria americana Aphis conflicta
D. chacayeAphis conflicta
D. crenata = D. chacaye
D. trinervis = Ochetophila trinervis

(See key characters for A. conflicta under Condalia.)

Disocactus (including Heliocereus, Nopalxochia) Cactaceae
Disocactus ackermannii Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae
Disocactus sp.Aphis craccivora

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Disperis sp.Aulacorthum solani
Disporum see ProsartesAsparagaceae
Disporum hookeri = Prosartes hookeri
D. smithii = Prosartes smithii
Dissotis senegambiensis = Antherotoma senegambiensis
D. trothaeAphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Distichlis spicata Aphis craccivora; Pemphigus sp.; Schizaphis graminum

Use key to aphids on temperate grasses.

Distictis gnaphalantha = Amphilophium gnaphalanthum
Distyliopsis Hamamelidaceae
Distyliopsis dunnii Tripartita formosana
Distylium Hamamelidaceae

Distylium spp. are primary hosts for many members of the Nipponaphidini, in the subfamily Hormaphidinae. Takahashi (1962) and Sorin (1987) reviewed the species of this group that form galls on Distylium in Japan; Sorin illustrated the galls of 5 species, and the embryos from emigrant alatae of 12 species, Aoki et al. (2021) provided photographs of the galls of 5 Metanipponaphis species. However there may be numerous other species in east and south-east Asia still undescribed. Determinations using the partial key below should therefore be treated very cautiously.

Host List:-

Distylium racemosum Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Asiphonipponaphis vasigalla;
(incl. var. chinense) Dermaphis autumna, [japonensis]; Metanipponaphis cuspidatae, [rotunda], [shiicola];
Metathoracaphis isensis; Monzenia globuli, ihai, minuta;
Neothoracaphis yanonis; [Pseudomegoura magnoliae];
Nipponaphis distychii, distyliicola, loochooensis,
machilicola, monzeni;
Quadrartus yoshinomiyai; Sinonipponaphis monzeni;
Tripartita formosana; [“Tuberaphis cymigalla]
D. stellareAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Distylaphis foliorum;
Greenidea flacourtiae; Neohormaphis calva;
Reticulaphis distylii;
Schizoneuraphis gallarum, longisetosa

Key to the aphids on Distylium:-

1 Apterae in free-living colonies on the tree…..2
Alatae emerging from galls (other morphs not keyed)…..4
2 SIPH pore-like. Antennae very short, 3- or 4-segmented. Wax pore plates well developed…..Distylaphis foliorum
SIPH tubular. Antennae 6-segmented. Wax pore plates not developed…..3
3 SIPH broadest at mid-length, with numerous long hairs. Cauda short and broad-based, with an apical papilla. No stridulatory apparatus…..Greenidea flacourtiae
SIPH tapering from base to flange, without hairs. Cauda tongue-shaped, rounded at apex. Stridulatory apparatus present (fig. 122)…..Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
4 Abdominal spiracles present on segments 2-6 (i.e., 5 on each side of abdomen) …..5
Abdominal spiracles only present on segments 2-5 (4 on each side of abdomen) …..6
5Antennae 4-segmented (fig. 45A). SIPH present (as pores). Media of forewing once-branched…..Quadrartus yoshinomiyai
Antennae 5-segmented. SIPH absent. Media of forewing unbranched …..Asiphonipponaphis vasigalla
6Media of forewing distinct for most of length, united with or almost meeting Cu1a at about 0.4 of its length from base, and Cu1a then united with or almost meeting Cu1b at about 0.2-0.3 of its length, so that all three veins share a common stem (e.g. fig. 46A) …..7
Media of forewing usually with basal part indistinct or absent, not united with Cu1a (figs. 46B-H) …..8
7Media of forewing unbranched (fig. 46A). ANT III with 16-21 annular secondary rhinaria, IV with 11-15 and V with 8-11…..Neohormaphis calva
Media of forewing once-branched. ANT III with 12-16 annular secondary rhinaria, IV with 7-9 and V with 5-7…..Metathoracaphis isensis
8 Basal part of ANT III without rhinaria; distance between most proximal rhinarium and base of segment more than 1.5 times × longer than ANT II (fig. 45B) …..Dermaphis autumna
Distance between most proximal rhinarium on ANT III and base of segment equal to or less than length of ANT II…..9
9 Wing membrane heavily infuscated, at least between vein Cu1b and base of forewing ….10
Wing membrane between veins almost hyaline, or slightly but evenly pigmented …..17
10 Antenna more than 2× longer than head width across (and including) eyes, ANT III being as long as or a little longer than fore tibia (e.g. fig.45C) …..11
Antenna less than 2× head width across eyes. ANT III clearly shorter than fore tibia …..13
11Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 54-73, IV 28-37, V 20-31 …..Nipponaphis loochooensis
Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 34-48, IV 16-25, V 10-19 …..12
12Ventral surface of head between eyes with 22-29 hairs …..Nipponaphis distychii
Ventral surface of head between eyes with 6-12 hairs …..Nipponaphis machilicola*
13ABD TERG 8 with 4-8 hairs…..Metanipponaphis cuspidatae
ABD TERG 8 with 10 or more hairs…..14
14Greatest width of ANT II about the same as its greatest length (fig. 45G). Longest tibial hairs about 40 µm, not exceeding width of tibia at mid-point. Forewing vein Cu1b with a distinct shallow “S”-curve (fig. 46C) …..Distylaphis foliorum
Greatest width of ANT II at least 1.1 times more than its greatest length (figs 45H-J). Tibial hairs long and fine, mainly longer than 50 µm and exceeding width of hind tibia at mid-point. Forewing vein Cu1b straight or only slightly curved distally…..15
15 Forewing with a clearly defined hyaline patch at the base of the media, and vein Cu1b slightly curved distally (fig. 46D). Abdominal spiracles with opercular sclerites almost completely surrounding the spiracular pores (fig. 45D) …..Schizoneuraphis longisetosa
Forewing membrane often slightly paler at base of media, but no clearly defined hyaline patch, and vein Cu1b virtually straight (e.g. fig. 46E). Abdominal spiracles with opercular sclerites extending not more than half way around spiracular pores (e.g. fig. 45E) …..16
16 BL more than 2.8 mm. SIPH with a black sclerotic section (fig. 45F), and with basal diameter about equal to middle diameter of ANT III (including rhinaria)…..Nipponaphis monzeni
BL less than 2.8 mm. SIPH pale and inconspicuous, with basal diameter much less than middle diameter of ANT III (including rhinaria)…..Nipponaphis distyliicola
17Forewing veins Cu1a and Cu1b joined at their bases (e.g. fig. 46G)…..18
Forewing veins Cu1a and Cu1b separate at their bases (e.g. fig. 46H) …..21
18 Antennae with 3-4 segments (those of the flagellum not clearly delineated) and a total of more than 61-110 secondary rhinaria…..Tripartita formosana*
Antennae with 5 segments and a total of less than 60 secondary rhinaria …..19
19 (Al. are emigrants, migrating to secondary host) Vein Cu1b in forewing distinctly thicker and darker than Cu1a …..Neothoracaphis yanonis
(Al. are sexuparae, producing sexuales on Distylium leaves.) Vein Cu1b not noticeably thicker and darker than Cu1a…..20
20Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-9, IV 4-6, V 2-3 …..Monzenia minuta*
Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 18-20, IV 8-9, V 4-6 …..Monzenia globuli
Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 21-28, IV 10-15, V 9-12 …..Monzenia ihai
21Forewing rather narrow, more than 2.5 × longer than its greatest width, with veins (except media) dark and pterostigma blackish (fig. 46F) …..Schizoneuraphis gallarum
Forewing broad, less than 2.5 × longer than its greatest width, with veins pale (except sometimes Cu1b), and pterostigma dusky (fig. 46H)…..Reticulaphis distylii
Ditremexa see CassiaFabaceae
D. graveolensCapitophorus inulae; [Macrosiphum weberi]
D. viscosaAphis fabae, frangulae, gossypii; spiraecola;
Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;
Capitophorus inulae, pakansas;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
Ovatus inulae; Uroleucon bifrontis, inulae, pulicariae
Use key to apterae under Inula.
Dizygotheca see Schleffera Araliaceae
Dodartia orientalis Aphis gossypii
Dodecatheon lemoinei = D. meadia
D. meadiaAphis gossypii, spiraecola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus persicae
D. pauciflorum = D. meadia

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

D. angustifolia see D. viscosa
D. boroniifoliaMyzus persicae
D. humifusaMacrosiphum euphorbiae
D. microzygaMyzus persicae
D. truncatialesMyzus persicae
D. viscosa (incl. ssp. Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;
angustifolia) [Hysteroneura setariae];
Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

D. scabraAulacorthum asteriphagum; Chitinosiphum doellingeriae;
Uroleucon asteriae, doellingeriae, [formosana], fuchuense
D. umbellataUroleucon olivei, paucosensoriatum

Use key to apterae on Aster.

Dolichandra unguis-cati Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
Dolicorrhiza renifolia Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Dolichos (including Lablab)Fabaceae
Dolichos biflorus = Vigna unguiculata
D. gululuAphis craccivora
D. kilimandscharicus Aphis craccivora, gossypii
D. lablab (= Lalab purpureus) Acyrthosiphon [caraganae], gossypii, pisum;
Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Megoura crassicauda];
Microparsus brasiliensis; Myzus ornatus, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale
D. lupiniflorus = D. kilimandscharicus
D. malosanus = D. kilimandscharicus
D. monachalis = Vigna unguiculata
D. sesquipedalis = Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis
Dolichos sp.Sitobion nigrinectarium

Key to apterae on Dolichos:-

1SIPH slightly clavate, with proximal half pale and distal half dark. (Forewing veins of alata with broad black borders)…..Microparsus brasiliensis
SIPH tapering/cylindrical, uniformly pale or dark, or dark only at apices. (Forewing veins of alata not black-bordered) …..2
2SIPH black with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation …..Sitobion nigrinectarium
SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without polygonal reticulation…..3
3SIPH pale and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths…..4
SIPH pale or dark, not attenuated distally, not thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
4 SIPH 0.23-0.38 × BL, 1.2-1.9 × cauda…..Acyrthosiphon pisum
SIPH 0.42-0.50 × BL, 2.5-3.5 × cauda…..Acyrthosiphon gossypii
Dombeya Sterculiaceae
Dombeya dregeana = D. tiliacea
D. natalensis = D. tiliacea
D. rotundifoliaAphis aurantii, gossypii; [Sitobion sp.]
D. tiliaceaAulacorthum solani
D. wallichii[Sitobion sp.]
Dombeya sp(p). Myzus persicae; Sitobion africanum

Key to aphids on Dombeya:-

SIPH of aptera long and black with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda long and pale…..Sitobion africanum
Aptera without this combination of characters …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Dorema ammoniacum Aphis fabae; Swirskiaphis polychaeta
D. ammomum (?) Aphis fabae
D. aucheriAphis fabae

Key to apterae on Dorema:-

Dorsal body hairs numerous, long and thick, more than 0.5 × as long as SIPH. SIPH only 0.065-0.09 × BL, about 1 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.3 …..Swirskiaphis polychaeta
Dorsal body hairs fine, less than 0.5 × as long as SIPH. SIPH 0.09-0.19 × BL and 1.3-2.6 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE (2.1-)2.4-3.4…..Aphis fabae
Doronicum austriacum Aphis cacaliasteris, fabae, solanella; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Macrosiphum doronicicola, euphorbiae;
Nasonovia ribisnigri; Uroleucon doronici
D. carpaticumUroleucon doronici
D. carpetanumBrachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;
Macrosiphum doronicicola; Uroleucon doronici
D. caucasicumProtrama longitarsus; Trama troglodytes
D. clusiiNasonovia ribisnigri
D. columnaeAulacothum solani (as doronici Börner 1950);
Uroleucon doronici
D. cruentum see Pericallis cruenta
D. glacialeBrachycaudus helichrysi
D. grandiflorumAphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi
D. orientaleAphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon doronici
D. pardalianchesAphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Uroleucon doronici
D. turkestanicum[Acyrthosiphon ilka]
Doronicum spp.Brachycaudus tragopogonis; [Protrama radicis]

Key to apterae on Doronicum:-

1HT much elongated, more than 0.5 × hind tibia. ANT PT/BASE less than 1. Body and appendages densely clothed in fine hairs…..2
HT of normal length. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. SIPH present. Eyes multifacetted. Body and appendages less hairy…..3
2SIPH absent. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.25. ANT without sec. rhinaria and eyes with only 3 facets (except in rare alatiform apterae).….Trama troglodytes
SIPH present as pores on slightly elevated, pigmented cones. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.25. Apterae typically alatiform, with secondary rhinaria on ANT and multifaceted eyes..….Protrama longitarsus
3SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed polygonal cells) …..4
SIPH without subapical reticulation…..6
4SIPH and cauda dark. ANT III with more than 20 rhinaria …..Uroleucon doronici
SIPH and cauda pale. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria…..5
5R IV+V 1.05-1.38 × HT II, and bearing 12-17 accessory hairs…..Macrosiphum doronicicola
R IV+V 0.8-1.0 × HT II, and bearing 7-10 accessory hairs …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
6 Head spiculose with well-developed, steep-sided ANT tubercles…..7
Head not spiculose and ANT tubercles undeveloped or moderately developed …..8
7Dorsal abdomen with a large, dark, roughly horseshoe-shaped patch. SIPH 0.7-1.0 × head width across (and including) eyes. Hind tibiae of immature fomrs densely spinulose …..Neomyzus circumflexus
Dorsum without any dark markings. SIPH 1.0-1.4 × head width across eyes. Hind tibiae of immature forms smooth…..Aulacorthum solani
8ANT III with 8-42 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 8-11. Cauda much longer than its basal width and bearing 7(-8) hairs…..Nasonovia ribisnigri
ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-5.0. If cauda is much longer than its basal width then it bears 10-24 hairs…..9
9 Cauda dark, tongue-shaped, as long as or longer than its basal width, with 10-24 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Spiracular apertures reniform …..10
Cauda pale or dark, helmet-shaped or semi-circular, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view, with 4-9 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. Spiracular apertures rounded …..11
10 ANT (of apt.) usually with rhinaria on III and IV, those on III being mostly on distal part of segment. Tibiae dark…..Aphis cacaliasteris
ANT without rhinaria on III and IV. Tibiae mostly pale …..Aphis fabae (or A. solanella; see polyphagous aphids key, couplet 35)
11 R IV+V 0.7-0.9 × HT II. Dorsal abdomen usually with extensive dark sclerotisation, but with sclerites showing some division between segments. First tarsal segments each with 2 sense pegs (i.e. first tarsal chaetotaxy 4-4-4)…..Brachycaudus tragopogonis
R IV+V 1.2-2.0 × HT II. Dorsal abdomen either membranous or with a solid dark sclerotic shield, not divided segmentally. First tarsal segments each with (0-)1 sense peg (first tarsal chaetotaxy 3-3-3 or 3-3-2)….. 12
12Dorsum membranous. SIPH pale and smooth, 0.9-1.6 × cauda. Mesosternum without mammariform processes…..Brachycaudus helichrysi
Dorsum with a solid dark shield. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.8-3.4 × cauda. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes…..Brachycaudus cardui
Dorycnium fulgurans Aphis ?loti
D. germanicum = D. pentaphyllum ssp. germanicum
D. graecumAphis loti; Therioaphis loti
D. hirsutum Acyrthosiphon loti; Aphis craccivora, loti;
Therioaphis bonjeaniae, litoralis, obscura
D. pentaphyllum Acyrthosiphon caraganae, loti, pisum;
(incl. sspp. germanicum, Aphis craccivora, loti, [Aphis sp. (Rumania: Holman &
[Macrosiphum rosae];
Therioaphis dorycnii, [hillerislambersi], litoralis, obscura
D. rectumAcyrthosiphon gossypii, loti, pisum; Aphis craccivora;
Therioaphis bonjeaniae, brachytricha
D. sericeum = D. pentaphyllum ssp. germanicum

See combined key to apterae on Dorycnium and Lotus, under Lotus.

Dovyalis Salicaceae
Dovyalis caffraAphis aurantii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani

(Use key to polyphagous aphids)

Draba alpinaBrevicoryne brassicae
D. borealisMyzus ascalonicus
D. fladnizensisAphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae
D. hispidaMyzus cerasi
D. incanaBrevicoryne brassicae
D. lanceolata[Acyrthosiphon ilka]; Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae;
Neomyzus circumflexus
D. ruaxesMyzus ascalonicus

Use key to apterae on Lepidium.

Dracaena spp.Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Uroleucon compositae

Key to apterae on Dracaena:-

SIPH cylindrical over most of length, slightly swollen distally but with a smooth constricted region just proximal to the well-developed flange. Dorsal cuticle ornamented with spicules arranged in polygons…..Rhopalosiphum padi
SIPH without a smooth constricted region below flange. Dorsal cuticle without spicules arranged in polygons …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Dracocephalum argunense Aphis gossypii
D. austriacumAulacorthum solani
D. bipinnatumBrachycaudus cerasicola
D. foetidumKlimaszewskia dracocephali
D. grandiflorum Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae;
Brachycaudus cerasicola, helichrysi;
Klimaszewskia katonica
D. imberbeBrachycaudus cerasicola
D. latifolium (?) Aphis spiraecola
D. nodulosumAphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae
D. nutansAphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae, gossypii, nepetae;
Brachycaudus cerasicola; Ovatus crataegarius
D. ruyschianaAphis ballotae, [dragocephalus Bozhko (nomen nudum)],
frangulae ssp. beccabungae
D. thymiflorum [Aphis serpylli]
Dracocephalum sp. [Aphis narzikulovi (record based on misidentified host – see
Holman 1988, 43)]

Key to apterae on Dracocephalum:-

1First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. ANT tubercles well-developed, divergent, without spicules…..2
First tarsal segments with 2-3 hairs. ANT tubercles either weakly developed or with inner faces steep-sided and spiculose, or bearing rugose processes…..3
2ANT III with 31-33 rhinaria distributed over most of length. ANT PT/BASE less than 3.0. R IV with about 40 accessory hairs…..Klimaszewskia dracocephali
ANT III with 0-2 rhinaria near base. ANT PT/BASE 4.2-5.2. R IV with 10-14 accessory hairs….. Klimaszewskia katonica*
3Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield. Cauda semi-circular, much shorter than its basal width. Spiracular apertures rounded …..Brachycaudus cerasicola
Without that combination of characters…..4
4Inner faces of ANT tubercles themselves divergent but bearing rounded, rugose processes that project forward, inward and slightly upward…..Ovatus crataegarius
ANT tubercles either weakly developed or with inner faces steep-sided and spiculose but without rounded processes…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

(but note that specimens running to A. gossypii could be a species of the frangulae group, which includes ballotae and nepetae)

Dracophyllum palustre Schizaphis (Euschizaphis) sp. (New Zealand)
D. recurvatumSchizaphis (Euschizaphis) sp. (New Zealand)
D. subulatumSchizaphis (Euschizaphis) sp. (New Zealand)

See Teulon et al. (2013) and Podmore et al. (2019) for further information.

Dregea sinensis Aphis nerii
D. volubilisAphis nerii
Drepanocladus aduncus Muscaphis cuspidata

(or try key to apterae on mosses under Polytrichum)

Drimia maritima Smynthurodes betae
Drimys winteri Aphis nasturtii
Droogmansia megalantha Sitobion africanum
D. vanderystiiSitobion africanum
Droogmansia sp.Aphis craccivora

Couplet for separating these two species:-

Dorsum with variably developed, segmentally divided sclerotisation. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation…..Sitobion africanum
Dorsum with an extensive solid black patch. SIPH without polygonal reticulation…..Aphis craccivora
Drosera anglicaAphis triglochinis; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
D. capillarisHyalomyzus jussiaeae
D. intermediaAphis triglochinis
D. longifoliaAphis triglochinis
D. loureiriiAphis droserae
D. peltata (incl. lanata) Aphis droserae
D. rotundifoliaAphis droserae, nasturtii, triglochinis;
[Cavariella aegopodii]; Myzus lythri
Drosera spp.Aphis frangulae

Key to apterae on Drosera:-

1Head spiculose/nodulose, with rounded ANT tubercles. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH pale, 2.3-3.8 × cauda…..2
Head wthout spicules or nodules, ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. SIPH pale or dark, 0.7-2.1 × cauda…..3
2ANT 0.5-0.6 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.0. SIPH not clavate …..Myzus lythri
ANT 1.1-1.3 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5. SIPH slightly clavate…..Hyalomyzus jussiaeae
3SIPH somewhat swollen on distal half, dark like cauda, ANT and legs. R IV+V 0.135-0.195 mm long, 1.3-1.7 × ANT BASE VI…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
SIPH cylindrical or tapering, pale or dark. Cauda pale or dark, ANT and legs at least partly pale. R IV+V usually shorter…..4
4SIPH pale, sometimes dusky-tipped…..5
SIPH uniformly dark…..6
5ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.8. (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 25-60, IV 9-25, V 7-17)…..Aphis triglochinis
ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.0 (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT iii 8-16, IV 1-6, V 0-2)…..Aphis nasturtii
6 SIPH and cauda both black. SIPH short, 0.11-0.15 × BL and 0.8-1.1 × cauda. ANT dark except for basal part of ANT III…..Aphis droserae
Cauda paler than SIPH, which are usually more than 0.15 × BL (range 0.09-0.26) and usually more than 1.1 × cauda (0.85-2.16). ANT III-IV, and most of V, pale…..Aphis frangulae group
Dryas integrifoliaAcyrthosiphon brevicorne
D. octopetalaAcyrthosiphon brevicorne, malvae, svalbardicum;
[Ericaphis latifrons]
D. octopetala var. asiatica Ericaphis wakibae
D. punctata[Acyrthosiphon dryasae]; [Metopolophium arcticum]
Dryas sp.Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae

Key to apterae on Dryas:-

1SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation…..2
SIPH without a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation…..3
2Head and SIPH black. ANT III with 10-35 rhinaria…..Macrosiphum rosae
Head and SIPH pale or dusky. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
3Head densely spiculose. Dorsal abdomen sclerotic, usually with an ill-defined darker mid-dorsal region of varying extent…..Ericaphis wakibae
Head smooth or only sparsely spiculose. Dorsum without dark sclerotic pigmentation …..4
4ANT 0.9-1.5 × BL, with PT/BASE 4.4-7.5. SIPH 0.20-0.29 × BL…..Acyrthosiphon malvae group
ANT 0.6-0.8 × BL, with PT/BASE 1.2-2.4. SIPH 0.15-0.22 × BL…..5
5ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.5. SIPH 0.16-0.22 × BL …..Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum
ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.4. SIPH 0.15-0.18 × BL…..Acyrthosiphon brevicorne
Drymaria cordataAphis craccivora, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Lipaphis erysimi];
Myzus ornatus, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; [Sitobion pauliani]
D. villosaAphis craccivora; Neomyzus circumflexus
Drymaria sp.Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Drymocallis see PotentillaRosaceae
Drymoglossum see PyrrosiaPolypodiaceae
Drynaria volkensii Micromyzella pterisoides

(or try key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)

Dryopteris abbreviata Idiopteris nephrelepidis
D. argutaMacrosiphum walkeri
D. arida = Cyclosorus aridus
D. austriaca = D. dilatata
D. carthusianaAmphorophora ampullata; Idiopteris nephrelepidis;
Macrosiphum dryopteridis; Taiwanomyzus alpicola
D. chrysocomaAmphorophora ampullata ssp. bengalensis
D. cochleataMicromyzodium filicium
D. crassirhizomaAmphorophora ampullata; [Thomasia shidae Shinji 1922]
D. cristataMacrosiphum dryopteridis
D. dentata = Thelypteris dentata
D. dilatata (incl. austriaca) Amphorophora ampullata; Macrosiphum dryopteridis;
Taiwanomyzus filicis
D. filix-masAmphorophora ampullata; Aulacorthum solani;
Idiopterus nephrelepidis;
Macromyzus maculata, woodwardiae;
Macrosiphum dryopteridis; Neomyzus circumflexus; [Rhopalosiphum dryopterae]
D. fuscipesMacromyzus woodwardiae
D. marginalisMacrosiphum miho
D. molle (?)Macromyzus maculatus
D. monticolaMacromyzus woodwardiae
D. nipponensisIdiopteris nephrelepidis
D. oligocarpa = Thelypteris oligocarpa
D. paleacea = D. wallichiana
D. parasitica = Christella parasitica
D. patagonica = D. filix-mas
D. rigidaIdiopteris nephrelepidis
D. spinulosa = D. carthusiana
D. thelypteris = Thelypteris palustris
D. variaMacrosiphum woodwardiae
D. wallichiana[Eutrichosiphum alnicola]
Dryopteris sp.Shinjia orientalis

Use general key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

Drypetes lateriflora Aphis spiraecola
Duabanga Lythraceae
Duabanga sonneratioides Aphis fabae, gossypii, odinae, spiraecola;
Eutrichosiphum sikkimense; Greenidea ficicola;
Greenidea (Trichosiphum) bucktonis, [fici], psidii;
Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) distincta, himalayensis

Key to species:-

1 Apterae or alatae. SIPH tubular, longer than basal width. Cauda tongue-shaped or rounded, anal plate entire…..2
All viviparae are alatae. SIPH as short, truncate cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed …..6
2 SIPH without hairs…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
SIPH with numerous long hairs…..3
3 Antennae 5-segmented. Body elongate, more than 2× its maximum width. Abdominal tergum pale. SIPH without any pale reticulation. Cauda without a medial papilla…..Eutrichosiphum sikkimense
Antennae 6-segmented. Body pear-shaped, less than 2× its maximum width. Abdominal tergum dark. SIPH with pale reticulation, at least on basal part. Cauda with a median papilla…..4
4 Siphunculi with pale reticulation throughout length except for spiculose subapical region…..Greenidea ficicola
Siphunculi with pale reticulation confined to basal region…..5
5ANT PT subequal to or slightly shorter than ANT III, less than 2× longer than R IV+V…..Greenidea (Trichosiphum) bucktonis
ANT PT longer than ANT III, and more than 2× longer than R IV+V…..Greenidea (Trichosiphum) psidii
6 Forewings with veins unbordered. ANT III-VI mainly dark, with III bearing 19-28 secondary rhinaria over c. 0.8 of length, ABD TERG 1-4 with spinal hairs on dark conical processes…..Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) distincta
Forewings with veins dark-bordered. ANT III-VI mainly pale, dark at joints and apically; III with 3-17 secondary rhinaria over 0.4-0.7 of length. ABD TERG 1-2 with spinal hairs on dark finger-like processes, those on ABD TERG 2 being much larger than those on 1…..Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) himalayensis
Duboisia myoporoides Myzus persicae
Duchesnea chrysantha Myzus persicae; [Sitobion akebiae]
D. indicaAcyrthosiphon malvae group (as boreale);
Aphis nasturtii;
Matsumuraja sp. near formosana (as Chaetosiphon
anguifragum Qiao & Zhang 1999);
Myzus ornatus, persicae
D. wallichiana = D. chrysantha

Key to apterae on Duchesnea:-

ANT I with a finger-like process (as in Fig. 47d). Dorsal body and antennal hairs capitate…..Matsumuraja sp. near formosana
ANT I without a finger-like process. Hairs not capitate…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Ducrosia sp.Hyadaphis foeniculi
Duggena see GonzalaguniaRubiaceae
D. brachyantha = Gonzalagunia brachyantha
D. spicata = Gonzalagunia hirsuta
D. ellisiae = D. erecta
D. erectaAphis gossypii, nerii, odinae, punicae, spiraecola;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ornatus, persicae
D. plumieri = D. erecta
D. repens = D. erecta
D. stenostachyaMyzus persicae

Key to apterae on Duranta:-

1 Head spinulose with well-developed, apically convergent ANT tubercles …..2
Head without spicules, ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view…..3
2 SIPH slightly clavate. Dorsum without dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5…..Myzus persicae
SIPH tapering, usually with a slight “S”-curve. Dorsum with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8…..Myzus ornatus
3 Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH smooth, conical, with a subapical annular incision below the large flange. Spiracular apertures rounded. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu) …..Brachycaudus helichrysi
Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width. SIPH imbricated, without a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures reniform. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu …..4
4 SIPH and cauda both black …..5
SIPH pale or dark, cauda pale or dusky (paler than SIPH)…..7
5 SIPH 0.4-0.6 × cauda. Stridulatory apparatus present. ABD TERG 2 usually, and 3 often, with marginal tubercles (MTu)…..Aphis odinae
SIPH 0.9-2.7 × cauda. No stridulatory apparatus. ABD TERG 2 and 3 rarely with MTu…..6
6 SIPH 0.9-1.7 × cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.8…..Aphis spiraecola
SIPH 1.7-2.7 × cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.4-4.1…..Aphis nerii
7 SIPH often paler at base, and usually less than 1.5 × cauda. (Al. often with 1-3 rhinaria on ANT IV)…..Aphis punicae
SIPH uniformly dark, usually more than 1.5 × cauda. (Al. usually without rhinaria on ANT IV, rarely with 1 or 2)…..Aphis gossypii
Dyckia brevifloraHysteroneura setariae
D. floribundaAphis fabae, gossypii
D. rariflora[Aphis sp. – Leonard 1972a: 100]; Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Dyckia:-

Cauda pale, elongate and with only 4 hairs, contrasting with black, calf-shaped SIPH. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-6.7. (Al. with only 1 oblique vein in hind-wing) …..Hysteroneura setariae
Without that combination of characters …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Dypsis lutescensCerataphis brasiliensis
D. madagascariensis Aphis gossypii; Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

Dyschoriste heudelotiana Aphis gossypii
D. ?radicansAphis gossypii
Dysophylla see PogostemonLamiaceae
Dysoxylum Meliaceae
Dysoxylum sp.Aphis odinae

[N.B. Records under Dysoxylum in Tao (1999) are presumably a printer’s error, and possibly all apply to Lithocarpus.]

Dysphania aristata Hayhurstia atriplicis
Dyssodea tagetiflora Geopempigus sp. (blackmani?)
Dyssodia sp.Myzus persicae

Couplet for separating these species:-

ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH absent. Anal plate displaced dorsally. Dorsal wax glands present on head, thorax and abdomen. (On roots) …..Geopemphigus (blackmani?)
ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5. SIPH present, tubular, slightly clavate. Anal plate in normal position. No discrete wax glands. (On aerial parts)…..Myzus persicae
(or use key to polyphagous aphids)
Dystaenia ibukiensis Cavariella japonica
D. takesimana Brachycaudus helichrysi

Couplet for separating these two species:-

ABD TERG 8 with a small process bearing a pair of hairs. SIPH rugose, without a subapical annular incision, and 2.7-3.0 × cauda. Tergum pigmented, and with nodulose ornamentation. Spiracular apertures small and occluded …..Cavariella japonica
ABD TERG 8 without a small hair-bearing process. SIPH short, smooth, with a subapical annular incision. Tergum unpigmented, smooth. Spiracular apertures large and rounded…..Brachycaudus helichrysi


Ecballium elaterium Aphis [ecballii], gossypii;
Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ornatus
Use key to polyphagous aphids.
Eccoilopus see SpodiopogonPoaceae
Echeveria crenulata [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a)]
E. gibbifloraAphis sedi
E. giganteaAphis sedi
Echeveria sp.Macrosiphum centranthi

Couplet for two species on Echeveria:-

Body spindle-shaped, BL 2.0-3.6 mm. ANT 1.3-1.6 × BL. SIPH pale with dark apices, 1.8-2.2 × cauda, with subapical polygonal reticulation. Rostrum (total length measured from base of protractor apodeme) less than 0.25 × BL…..Macrosiphum centranthi
Body oval, BL 1.0-1.7 mm. ANT 0.5-0.8 × BL. SIPH uniformly dark, 0.8-1.4 × cauda, without polygonal reticulation. Rostrum total length 0.30-0.42 × BL …..Aphis sedi
Echinacea angustifolia Protaphis echinaceae
E. purpurea[Macrosiphum sp. (Ossiannilsson 1964a)];
[Uroleucon leonardi]
Echinocarpus see SloaneaElaeocarpaceae
Echinochloa Poaceae
Echinochloa colona Aphis gossypii; Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;
Melanaphis indosacchari, sacchari;
Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;
Sitobion miscanthi; Smynthurodes betae;
Tetraneura basui, caerulescens, fusiformis, javensis
E. crus-galliAnoecia corni, fulviabdominalis, major, [mirae],
setariae, vagans, zirnitsi;
Carolinaia rhois; Diuraphis frequens, noxia;
Forda marginata, pawlowae;
Geoica lucifuga, setulosa, utricularia;
Hysteroneura setariae; Laingia psammae;
Melanaphis sacchari; Metopolophium dirhodum;
Paracletus bykovi, bykovi ssp. uzbekistanicus,
Protaphis middletonii; [Pseudoregma alexanderi];
Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;
Schizaphis graminum, jaroslavi, pyri;
Sipha flava, maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae, miscanthi;
Tetraneura africana, basui, caerulescens, fusiformis,
nigriabdominalis, triangula, radicicola, ulmi, yezoensis
E. frumentaceaAnoecia corni, fulviabdominalis;
Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;
Sipha flava;
Tetraneura fusiformis, nigriabdominalis, yezoensis
E. pyramidalisRhopalosiphum maidis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Echinocystis fabacea = Marah fabaceus
E. lobataAphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae
Echinocystis sp.Macrosiphum echinocysti

Key to apterae on Echinocystis:-

1Body oval. SIPH uniformly dark, shorter than distance between their bases, without polygonal reticulation. Cauda with 4-7 (-8) hairs…..Aphis gossypii
Body spindle-shaped. SIPH pale (or dark-tipped ), longer than the distance between their bases, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda with 8-15 hairs …..2
2ANT PT/BASE about 7. SIPH 0.35-0.4 × BL, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.17-0.25. SIPH 2.1-2.6 × cauda which bears 12-15 hairs …..Macrosiphum echinocysti
ANT PT/BASE 5.3-6.5. SIPH 0.25-0.35 × BL, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.13-0.20. SIPH 1.7-2.2 × cauda which bears 8-12 hairs…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae
Echinodorus berteroi Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
E. ranunculoidesRhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Echinophora platyloba Anuraphis subterranea
E. tenuifolia (incl. ssp. sibthorpiana)Anuraphis cachryos

Use key to apterae on Ferula.

Echinops albicaulis Paczoskia paczoskii ssp. turanica, paczoskii ssp. ruthenica;
Protaphis echinopis, echinopsicola;
Turanoleucon jashenkoi
E. bannaticusAulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus;
Paczoskia longipes
E. chantavicusPaczoskia paczoskii ssp. turanica
E. commutatus = E. exaltatus
E. cornigerusUroleucon budhium
E. dahuricus = E. latifolius
E. dissectusAphis fabae
E. echinatusMyzus persicae; Uroleucon echinatum
E. exaltatusAphis fabae; Paczoskia longipes
E. galalensisPaczoskia meridionalis
E. galaticus = E. ossicus
E. humilisAphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui
E. karatavicusPaczoskia paczoskii ssp. turanica
E. latifolius[Aphis (Protaphis) sp. (Holman 1991, 48)]
E. longifoliusAphis gossypii
E. maracandicusPaczoskia paczoskii
E. microcephalusPaczoskia brevipilosa, major ssp. bulgarica
E. ossicusPaczoskia colchica
E. ritroAphis craccivora, fabae;
Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;
Paczoskia brevipilosa, major, paczoskii,
paczoskii ssp. ruthenica;
Protaphis middletonii; Turanoleucon jashenkoi
E. ritro ssp. ruthenicus Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui;
Paczoskia paczoskii, paczoskii ssp. ruthenica
E. ritro ssp. tenuifolius = E. ritro s. str.
E. ruthenicum = E. ritro ssp. ruthenicus
E. sphaerocephalus Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;
Paczoskia major, paczoskii ssp. turanica;
Protaphis terricola
E. spinosissimusPaczoskia meridionalis;
Protaphis echinopis, [pseudocardui];
E. spinosus = E. spinosissimus
E. tschimganicusPaczoskia paczoskii, paczoskii ssp. turanica
E. viscosus = E. spinosissimus
Echinops spp.Paczoskia wagneri; [Protaphis anuraphoides]

Key to apterae on Echinops:-

Couplets 8-16 are based largely on Holman (1981).

1Cauda short, bluntly triangular, semi-circular or helmet-shaped, shorter than or not clearly longer than (less than 1.3 ×) its basal width in dorsal view…..2
Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped or acutely triangular, clearly longer than (more than 1.4 ×) its basal width in dorsal view…..6
2ANT PT/BASE 0.8-2.1. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with (and 2-5 without) marginal tubercles (MTu). Spiracular apertures reniform. SIPH dark. Cauda with 8-22 hairs …..3
ANT/BASE 2.4-5.1. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. SIPH pale or dark. Cauda with 4-8 hairs…..5
3ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.1. R IV+V 0.8-1.2 × SIPH. Cauda with 8-16 hairs …..Protaphis middletonii
ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.1. R IV+V long, 1.5-2.5 × SIPH. Cauda with 16-22 hairs …..4
4Hairs on ANT III 12-20 μm long, 0.9-1.2 × BD III. Longest hairs on hind femur 18-35 μm long. R IV+V 1.8-2.6 × SIPH. SIPH 4-6 × longer than longest hair on ANT III …..Protaphis echinopis
Hairs on ANT III 5-11 μm long, 0.4-0.8 × BD III. Longest hairs on hind femur 12-15 μm long. R IV+V 1.16-1.75 × SIPH. SIPH 8-16 × longer than longest hair on ANT III…..Protaphis terricola or echinopsicola
5Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. SIPH pale, smooth, abot 1.1-1.3 × cauda …..Brachycaudus helichrysi
Dorsal abdomen with a solid dark shield. SIPH dark, imbricated, 2.1-3.4 × cauda …..Brachycaudus cardui (incl. ssp. turanica)
6SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 3-4 rows of closed cells) …..7
SIPH without polygonal reticulation…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
7Conspicuous dark, crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. SIPH long and thin , somewhat flared apically, with polygonal cells relatively large and few in number …..8
Antesiphuncular sclerites absent. SIPH thicker, not flared apically, with polygonal cells small and very numerous…..17
8Hairs on ANT III only 0.2-0.3 × BD III. ANT I 0.30-0.35 × width of head across (and including) eyes…..Paczoskia brevipilosa
Hairs on ANT III 0.5 or more × BD III. ANT I 0.35-0.53 × head width across eyes …..9
9First tarsal segments always with 3 hairs. R IV+V with 6-9 (mostly 6-7) accessory hairs …..10
First tarsal segments with 4-6 hairs (exceptionally 3 hairs on one or more tarsi). R IV+V with 8-28 accessory hairs…..14
10R IV+V 0.35-0.39 × head width, and 1.35-c.1.5 × HT II…..11
R IV+V 0.41-0.51 (rarely less than 0.44) × head width, and 1.6-2.0 × HT II …..12
11Reticulation of SIPH consisting of 20-25 transverse rows of closed cells covering distal 0.35-0.4 of its length. ANT BASE VI 0.27-0.29 × head width. SIPH 1.3-1.4 × cauda …..Paczoskia wagneri
Reticulation of SIPH consisting of 3-4 transverse rows of rather indistinct cells occupying less than 0.1 of length. ANT BASE VI 0.37-0.45 × head width. SIPH 1.7-1.9 × cauda …..Paczoskia longipes
12ANT BASE VI and ANT I are respectively 0.35-0.41 and 0.43-0.46 × head width. ABD TERG 3 with 9-15 hairs. ANT with base of IV (as well as III) paler…..Paczoskia paczoskii ssp. ruthenica
ANT BASE VI and ANT I are respectively 0.25-0.35 and 0.35-0.43 × head width or, if longer, then ABD TERG 3 has 15-24 hairs, or ANT III-VI are uniformly dark pigmented except for base of III…..13
13ANT III-VI uniformly dark pigmented, except for pale/dusky base of III. ABD TERG 3 with 11-17 hairs (rarely more than 15)…..Paczoskia paczoskii s. str.
ANT III and basal half of IV pale or dusky. clearly paler than apex of IV and V-VI. ABD TERG 3 wirh 15-24 hairs (rarely less than 17)…..Paczoskia paczoskii ssp. turanica
14 ANT PT/BASE 5.8-7.3. First tarsal segments mostly with 4 hairs (more rarely 3 or 5). R IV+V with 8-12 accessory hairs…..Paczoskia colchica
ANT PT/BASE 3.9-5.6. First tarsal segments usually with 5-6 hairs (rarely one or more tarsi with 4). R IV+V with 11-28 accessory hairs…..15
15ANT VI BASE 0.24-0.30 × head width…..Paczoskia meridionalis
ANT VI BASE 0.31-0.44 × head width…..16
16R IV+V 0.48-0.57 × head width, with 16-22 accessory hairs. Hind femur 2.35-2.60 × head width…..Paczoskia major s. str.
R IV+V 0.39-0.49 × head width, with 11-15 accessory hairs. Hind femur 1.95-2.35 × head width……Paczoskia major ssp. bulgarica
17 R IV+V 1.1-1.2 × HT II…..Uroleucon echinatum
R IV+V long and slender, 1.7-2.3 × HT II…..18
18Cauda pale. ANT tubercles well developed, median frontal tubercle undeveloped. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.14-0.17 of length…..Uroleucon budhium
Cauda dark. ANT tubercles low, median tubercle developed. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.33-0.45 of length…..Turanoleucon jashenkoi
Echinopsilon see BassiaAmaranthaceae
Echinopsis chiloensis Aphis danielae
Echinospartium barnadesii = E. lusitanicum ssp. barnadesii
E. horridumAphis craccivora
E. lusitanicum (incl. sspp. Acyrthosiphum echinospartii, pisum; Aphis cytisorum
barnadesii, dorsisericeum)

Key to apterae on Echinospartum:-

1Oval aphid with ANT tubercles weakly developed, and ANT 0.5-0.8 × BL. Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation. SIPH and cauda dark…..2
Broadly spindle-shaped aphid with ANT tubercles very well developed, and ANT 0.9-1.6 × BL. Dorsum membranous. SIPH and cauda pale or dusky…..3
2R IV+V 0.88-1.16 × HT II (mostly 0.9-1.05 ×). Anterior half of genital plate with 2 (-3) hairs…..Aphis craccivora
– R IV+V 0.97-1.3 × HT II (mostly 1.06-1.2 ×). Anterior half of genital plate with 2-8 hairs (mode 4, mean 5.2)…..Aphis cytisorum
3 ANT I with 9-23 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.8. Cauda with 8-14 hairs …..Acyrthosiphon pisum
ANT I with 5-8 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-2.72. Cauda with 5-8 hairs (the distal ones being very short and blunt)…..Acyrthosiphon echinospartii
Echinospermum see LappulaBoraginaceae
Echites agglutinatus Aphis spiraecola
E. arguta (?)Brachycaudus helichrysi
E. rubrovenosusAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
E. umbellatusAphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Echium amoenum Aphis fabae
E. angustifoliumBrachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae
E. auberianumBrachycaudus helichrysi
E. bifronsBrachycaudus cardui
E. candicansBrachycaudus cardui
E. decaisneiAphis gossypii
E. giganteumMyzus persicae
E. hierrenseBrachycaudus cardui
E. italicumBrachycaudus cardui, mordvilkoi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae
E. judaeumMyzus persicae
E. lycopsis = E. plantagineum
E. maculatumBrachycaudus cardui
E. nervosumBrachycaudus bicolor; Myzus ornatus, persicae
E. plantagineumMacrosiphum euphorbiae; Brachycaudus helichrysi
E. rubrumBrachycaudus ?cardui (Bozhko 1976a, as B. symphyti
E. vulgareAphis fabae, solanella, symphyti; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus bicolor, cardui, helichrysi, mordvilkoi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
Ovatomyzus boraginacearum; [Uroleucon jaceae]
E. wildpretiiAphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi
Echium sp.Nasonovia ribisnigri

Key to apterae on Echium:-

1Cauda semi-circular or helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures rounded…..2
Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width…..5
2 Dorsum without any dark markings. SIPH 0.9-1.5 × cauda. Mesosternum without mammariform processes…..Brachycaudus helichrysi
Dorsum with a dark shield or extensive dark markings. SIPH 2.1-3.4 × cauda. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes…..3
3Broad, flat, pale marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 1-7, larger than the spiracles and occupying almost the whole of the sclerites on which they are placed. ABD TERG 7 often, and 6-8 sometimes, with spinal tubercles (STu) …..Brachycaudus bicolor
MTu irregularly present on ABD TERG 2-4, sometimes also on 1 and/or 5, but never on 6 and 7, and generally smaller than the spiracles. No STu…..4
4Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 60-110 μm long. Genital plate with 25-42 hairs, of which 8-17 are on the anterior half. ANT III usually without rhinaria. (Al. with 21-35 rhinaria on ANT III and usually without, rarely with 1-2, on IV) …..Brachycaudus cardui
Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 10-16 μm long. Genital plate with 16-23 hairs of which 2-5 are on anterior half. ANT III usually with 1-12 rhinaria. (Al. with 12-16 rhinaria on ANT III, and 2-3 on IV…..Brachycaudus mordvilkoi
5 ANT tubercles weakly developed. SIPH uniformly dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu …..6
ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH mainly pale. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu …..8
6Cauda black with 11-27 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually with transverse dark bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and often with dark markings on more anterior tergites …..Aphis fabae (or A. solanella; see couplet 35 of polyphagous aphids key)
Cauda paler than SIPH, with 4-11 hairs. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings, or with only narrow bands on ABD TERG (7) – 8…..7
7Total length of rostrum (measured from base of protractor apodeme) 0.43-0.60 mm, 0.27-0.36 × BL. (Al. with 1-4 rhinaria on ANT IV)…..Aphis symphyti
Total length of rostrum 0.34-0.49 mm, 0.22-0.28 × BL. (Al. usually with 0, rarely with 1-2, rhinaria on ANT IV)…..Aphis gossypii
8ANT III with 3-36 rhinaria on swollen basal part. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4. SIPH cylindrical, almost smooth. Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal spiracles …..Nasonovia ribisnigri
ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 1.75-6.2. SIPH cylindrical or slightly clavate, imbricated. Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones…..9
9Cauda rather short, tongue-shaped with a slight basal constriction. ANT II with a large dorsal tubercle. ANT III broad-based, without any secondary rhinaria…..Ovatomyzus boraginacearum
Without that combination of characters …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4
Eclipta alba = E. prostrata
E erecta = E. prostrata
E. prostrataAphis fabae, gossypii; Uroleucon ambrosiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Eclypta see EcliptaAsteraceae
Edgeworthia grandii Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphum padi

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Edraianthus croaticus = E. graminifolius
E. graminifoliusAulacorthum solani;
Uroleucon ?minosmartelli (Serbia: O Petrović,
pers. comm.)
E. jugoslavicus = E. graminifolius
E. kitaibelii = E. graminifolius
E. serpyllifolius Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Edraianthus:-

SIPH and cauda black, SIPH 1.5-1.8 × cauda and with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.30-0.46 of length. Head smooth, and ANT III with 15 or more rhinaria extending over more than 0.5 of length…..Uroleucon ?minosmartelli
SIPH and cauda pale, SIPH 1.8-2.6 × cauda and without polygonal reticulation. Head spiculose, and ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base …..Aulacorthum solani
Egletes viscosaUroleucon ambrosiae
Ehretia (including Carmona) Boraginaceae
E. acuminataRhopalosiphoninus ehretis
E. buxifolia = E. microphylla
E. hottentotica = E. rigida
E. microphyllaAphis aurantii, gossypii
E. rigida Aulacorthum solani

Key to aphids on Ehretia:-

SIPH thick and strongly clavate, with narrower distal section spinulose. Dorsal body and appendages with numerous long hairs……Rhopalosiphoninus ehretis
Without that combination of characters …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Ehrharta calycina Rhopalosiphum maidis; Schizaphis graminum;
Smynthurodes betae
E. erectaRhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion miscanthi

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Eichhornia crassipes Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

Couplet for separating apterae of these two species:-

Head smooth with weakly developed ANT tubercles. SIPH clavate, with a smooth constricted region proximal to the flange. Dorsal cuticle ornamented with spinules arranged in polygons, without dark markings…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Head spinulose with well-developed ANT tubercles. SIPH tapering/cylindrical, without a smooth subapical constriction. Dorsum with dark thoracic cross-bands and a roughly horseshoe-shaped abominal sclerite (or, if neither combination applies, go to key to polyphagous aphids)….. Neomyzus circumflexus
Elaeagnus Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnaceae are the primary hosts of the 10-11 species of Capitophorus known to have host alternation. One species (shepherdiae) seems to have a specific primary host association with Shepherdia (= Lepargyrea) argentea (which is not Elaeagnus argentea), but the other heteroecious species are apparently able to utilise either Elaeagnus or Hippophae, presumably depending on host availability.

Host Plant List

E. angustifoliaOleaster, Russian Olive
[Aphis craccivora];
Capitophorus archangelskii, elaeagni, [formosartemisiae],
hippophaes, shepherdiae, pakansus, similis;
[Cryptomyzus korschelti]; [Protaphis middletonii]
E. argentea = E. commutata
E. canadensis = Shepherdia canadensis
E. commutataCapitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes, pakansus, similis
E. crispa = E. umbellata
E. glabra[Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus];
Capitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes
E. longipes = E. multiflora
E. multifloraCherry Elaeagnus
Capitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes, hippophaes ssp.
[Myzus gumi Shinji 1922b]
E. occidentalis (?)Capitophorus archangelskii, elaeagni, hippophaes
E. oldhamiiCapitophorus elaeagni; Sinolachnus niitakayamensis
E. oxycarpa = E. angustifolia
E. parvifoliaSinolachnus niitakayamensis
E. pungensCapitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes ssp. javanicus,
[Mollitrichosiphum nigrum]
E. rhamnoides[Aphis sibirica]
E. umbellataCapitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes ssp. javanicus, similis;
[Myzus gumi Shinji 1922b]
Elaeagnus spp. Capitophorus [?inulae], meghalayensis;
Sinolachnus elaeagnensis

Key to aphids on Elaeagnus and Hippophae (apterae viviparae unless otherwise stated):-

1 ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH on broad dark hairy cones. Dorsal hairs with pointed apices…..2
ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH long and tubular. Dorsal hairs with expanded apices…..4
2 R IV almost cylindrical, not much narrower distally than at base; R V shorter than its basal width. Alata with c. 10 rather large secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and 2-3 on IV…..Lachnus wichmanni
R IV tapering, only about half as wide at its junction with R V as at its base; R V longer than its basal width. Alata with very numerous, small protruberant secondary rhinaria scattered over ANT III and IV…..3
3 Alata has forewings entirely pigmented and scaly, with media twice-branched and pterostigma without hairs. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 275–280, IV 90–95, V 60–65, VI BASE 15–20…..Sinolachnus elaeagnensis*
Alata has forewings only pigmented anteriorly, media once-branched and pterostigma with c.20 long hairs. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 100+, IV c.40, V c.40, VI BASE 6–8…..Sinolachnus niitakayanensis
4 SIPH distinctly swollen subapically, particularly on inner sides…..5
SIPH cylindrical or tapering, or only very slightly swollen (to less than 1.1 of minimum width) near apex, or (in alata) thinnest in middle and gradually thicker towards base and apex…..9
5 ABD TERG 1-4 usually without submarginal hairs, so that there are only 3 complete longitudinal rows of hairs on each side; these hairs have fan-shaped apices and are usually longer than their maximum widths. SIPH less than 2.7 × cauda…..Capitophorus hippophaes
ABD TERG 1-4 usually with submarginal hairs, so that there are 4 more-or-less complete longitudinal rows of hairs on each side; these hairs are either long and capitate, or have mushroom- or balloon-shaped apices. SIPH more than 2.7 × cauda…..6
6 Hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 long and capitate. Marginal hairs single…..Capitophorus rhamnoides*
Hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 have mushroom- or balloon-shaped apices. Marginal hairs usually duplicated…..7
7 Hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 long, distinctly longer than their maximum widths. Cuticle in the marginal region smooth. Hairs on outer side of hind tibiae long and with fan-shaped apices…..Capitophorus wojiechowskii*
Hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 very short, with fan-shaped apices, shorter than their maximum widths. Cuticle in the marginal region rugose. Hairs on outer side of hind tibiae short and club-shaped…..8
8 ABD TERG 1-4 with pleural hairs usually single. BL probably more than 1.4 mm, and ANT PT/BASE probably more than 2.5 except in fundatrices. (The spring generations of this species on its primary host are not yet recorded)…..Capitophorus xanthii
ABD TERG 1-4 with pleural hairs mostly duplicate. BL less than 1.4 mm, ANT PT/BASE less than 2.0…..Capitophorus shepherdiae
9 ABD TERG 1-4 each with 6-8 hairs (usually only one pair each of spinal, pleural and marginal hairs)…..Capitophorus elaeagni
ABD TERG 1-4 each with 10-26 hairs, due to duplication or multiplication of spinal, pleural and marginal hairs on each tergite…..10
10 SIPH short, tapering continuously from base to apex, less than 11 × longer than width at midpoint……Capitophorus himalayensis
SIPH attenuated, almost cylindrical except at base, or with slight subapical swelling; more than 12 × width at midpoint…..11
11Hairs on ANT III all short, thin and inconspicuous, 0.3-0.5 × basal diameter of segment. R IV+V 2.5-3.1 × HT II…..Capitophorus meghalayensis*
ANT III with 1-5 forwardly-directed thick clavate hairs like those on ANT II or a little shorter, 0.5-1.2 × longer than base of segment. R IV+V 1.5-2.6 × HT II …..12
12 Thick capitate hairs on ANT III all less than 0.8 × basal diameter of segment. (R IV+V 1.5-2.1 × HT II)…..Capitophorus similis
Longest capitate hairs on ANT III more than 0.8 × basal diameter of segment. (R IV+V 1.6-2.6 × HT II)…..13
13ABD TERG 1-4 each with 18-26 capitate hairs. R IV+V 2.1-2.6 × HT II …..Capitophorus pakansus
ABD TERG 1-4 each with 12-19 capitate hairs. R IV+V 1.6-2.1 × HT II …..Capitophorus archangelskii
Elaeis Oil PalmsArecaceae
Elaeis guineensisAstegopteryx nipae, rappardi, rhapidis;
Cerataphis brasiliensis; Hysteroneura setariae;
Schizaphis rotundiventris

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

Elaeocarpus Elaeocarpaceae
E. japonicusEutrichosiphum pasaniae
E. serratusAcyrthosiphon elaeocarpi
E. sikkimensis[Trichaitophorus recurvispinosus]

Key to aphids on Elaeocarpus:-

SIPH with numerous long hairs. R IV+V long and narrow …..Eutrichosiphum pasaniae
SIPH without hairs. R IV+V short…..Acyrthosiphon elaeocarpi

E. bucharicaDysaphis crataegi, munirae
E. hirtulaHyadaphis passerinii
E. transitoriaAphis craccivora

Key to apterae on Elaeosticta:-

1SIPH swollen distally and about equal in length to the cauda …..Hyadaphis passerinii (or foeniculi)
SIPH tapering/cylindrical and longer than cauda…..2
2Cauda finger-shaped, much longer than wide. Dorsal abdomen with an extensive dark sclerite. Head and ABD TERG 8 without spinal tubercles …..Aphis craccivora
Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than wide. Dorsal abdomen without extensive sclerotisation. Head and ABD TERG 8 each with a pair of spinal tubercles …..3
3HT I with 3 hairs (medial sense peg present, as on fore and mid-tarsi) …..Dysaphis munirae
HT I with 2 hairs (no medial sense peg)…..Dysaphis crataegi
Elatinoides elatine Aphis elatinoidei
Eleocharis (including Heleocharis)Cyperaceae
E. acicularis[Iziphya sp. (Romania – Holman & Pintera 1981)]
E. erythropodaRhopalosiphum cerasifoliae
E. flavescensCarolinaia caricis
E. obtusaRhopalosiphum cerasifoliae
E. palustrisRhopalosiphum oxyacanthae; [Schizaphis wahlgreni];
Sipha glyceriae
Eleocharis sp.Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Use key to apterae on Scirpus.

Elephantopus (including Pseudelephantopus) Asteraceae
Elephantopus carolinianus Uroleucon elephantopicola
E. mollisAphis gossypii
E. scaberSitobion congolense; Uroleucon compositae, vernoniae
E. spicatusAphis gossypii; Uroleucon ambrosiae, vernoniae
Elephantopus sp.Brachycaudus helichrysi

Key to apterae on Elephantopus:-

1SIPH with subapical polygonal reticulation…..2
SIPH without polygonal reticulation…..use key to polyphagous aphids
2 SIPH thin, about as thick as hind tibia at their respective midlengths. reticulation of SIPH consisting of rather few, large cells on distal 0.10-0.17 of length. Hairs on ANT III very short, less than 0.3 × BD III. Cauda pale…..Sitobion congolense
SIPH rather thick, distinctly thicker than hind tibia at midlength, with reticulation consisting of numerous small polygonal cells on more than 0.17 of length. Hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 × BD III. Cauda pale or dark……3
3Cauda black. ANT III with 23-77 rhinaria…..4
Cauda pale. ANT III with 5-31 rhinaria…..5
4 R IV+V 1.5-1.8 × HT II. ANT III with 23-57 rhinaria …..Uroleucon vernoniae
R IV+V 1.1-1.4 × HT II. ANT III with 46-82 rhinaria …..Uroleucon compositae
5R IV+V 0.22-0.24 mm, c.2 × HT II. Cauda with 5-7 hairs …..Uroleucon elephantopicola*
R IV+V 0.16-0.22 mm, 1.2-1.4 × HT II. Cauda with 12-27 hairs …..Uroleucon ambrosiae
Elettaria cardamomum Aphis craccivora; Pentalonia caladii, kalimpongensis;
Pseudoregma nicolaiae

Use key to apterae on Hedychium.

Eleusine aristata = Dactyloctenium scindicum
E. coracanaAnoecia corni; Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Geoica lucifuga;
Hysteroneura setariae; Melanaphis sorghi;
Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi; Schizaphis graminum;
Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, leelamaniae, miscanthi;
Tetraneura basui, fusiformis, javensis, yezoensis
E. indicaAnoecia corni, cornicola;
Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola;
Chaetogeoica graminiphaga;
Geoica lucifuga, utricularia;
Hysteroneura setariae; Melanaphis sorghi;
Metopolophium dirhodum; Paracletus cimiciformis;
Protaphis middletonii;
Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;
Schizaphis graminum, hypersiphonata, [scirpi];
Sipha flava;
Sitobion akebiae, avenae, graminis, leelamaniae,
miscanthi, pauliani, yakini, [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)];
Tetraneura basui, fusiformis
Eleusine sp. [Brachymyzus jasmini]; Brachysiphoniella montana;
Tetraneura ulmi

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Eleutheranthera ruderalis Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Eleutherococcus (including Acanthopanax) Araliaceae
Eleutherococcus aculeatus = E. trifoliatus
E. divaricatusAphis odinae
E. ricinifolius = Kalopanax septemlobus
E. senticosusAphis odinae, ponomarenkoi
E. sessiliflorusAphis odinae
E. spinosusAphis odinae
E. trifoliatusAphis gossypii, odinae
Eleutherococcus sp. Aphis spiraecola

Key to apterae on Eleutherococcus:-

1SIPH 1.2-2.5 × cauda, which bears 4-15 hairs…..2
SIPH 0.4-0.6 × cauda, which bears 13-25 hairs…..3
2 SIPH clearly darker than cauda, which has no constriction and bears 4-8 hairs. Femoral hairs mostly short……Aphis gossypii
SIPH and cauda both very dark. Cauda usually has an evident constriction between basal and distal part, and bears 7-15 hairs. Femora with long fine hairs …..Aphis spiraecola
3 Stridulatory apparatus present, consisting of cuticular ridges on ABD sternites 5 and 6 and a row of peg-like hairs on each hind tibia…..Aphis odinae
No stridulatory apparatus…..Aphis ponomarenkoi*
Eleutherospermum cicutarium Aphis fabae
Elodea canadensis Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Elsholtzia albaMyzus ornatus
(= stauntonii f. albiflora?)
E. blandaMyzus ornatus;
Sitobion aulacorthoides, miscanthi, [rosaeiformis]
E. ciliataAphis gossypii; Kaltenbachiella elsholtriae;
Lehrius papillicaudus;
[Tuberocephalus momonis, sakurae]
E. cristataKaltenbachiella elsholtriae (as japonica)
E. flavaRhopalosiphoninus longisetosus
E. fruticosaAphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus;
Rhopalosiphoninus elsholtze;
Subovatomyzus leucosceptri
E. incisa = E. stachyodes
E. patrini = E. ciliata
E. polystachya = E. fruticosa
E. pseudocristata = E. ciliata
E. stachyodesAphis gossypii
Elsholtzia sp. Cryptomyzus elsholtze; Subovatomyzus leucosceptri

Key to apterae on Elsholtzia:-

1Body globose. ANT very short, 0.10-0.13 × BL. Eyes 3-faceted. Tarsal segments I and II partially fused. Dorsal wax pore plates consisting of rings of rounded cells present on most segments. SIPH absent…..Kaltenbachiella elsholtriae
Body oval or spindle-shaped. ANT usually 6-segmented, 0.5 or more × BL. Eyes multifacetted. Tarsi 2-segmented. No dorsal wax gland plates. Tubular SIPH present …..2
2SIPH with subapical polygonal reticulation…..3
SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation…..6
3SIPH mainly smooth, and markedly inflated on distal part, with maximum width of swollen part more than 2 × minimum diameter of basal part. Cauda short, triangular, semi-circular to helmet-shaped…..4
SIPH imbricated on unreticulated part, tapering or cylindrical. Cauda long and pointed or finger-like…..5
4R IV+V 0.8-c.1.0 × HT II (presumed from data for sexual morphs)….. Rhopalosiphoninus longisetosus
R IV+V 1.3-1.6 × HT II….. Rhopalosiphoninus elsholtze
5SIPH paler at base, 2.0-2.5 × cauda. R IV+V with acute apex, 1.25-1.41 × HT II. Head with rows of minute spinules ventrally…..Sitobion aulacorthoides
SIPH wholly dark, 1.4-1.9 × cauda. R IV+V with bulbous sides and blunt apex, 0.77-1.0 × HT II. Head without spicules…..Sitobion miscanthi
6 Head smooth with well-developed, divergent ANT tubercles. Antennal and body hairs short, with somewhat capitate apices. SIPH pale, almost smooth, slightly but distinctly swollen on distal half, with a subapical annular incision. ANT PT/BASE 5.8-7.9 …..Subovatomyzus leucosceptri
Without that combination of characters…..7
7SIPH tapering from broad base, squamous, flangeless, with small terminal aperture, c.4 × . Cauda which is short with swollen basal part bearing 4 hairs and narrower, squamous apical part. ANT tubercles well developed, scabrous, and ANT I with projection on inner side …..Lehrius papillicaudus*
Without that combination of characters…..8
8. Dorsal cephalic hairs thick with expanded apices, the longest ones 1.6-1.8 × BD III. ANT III with protruberant secondary rhinaria distributed over its entire length…..Cryptomyzus elsholtze
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Elymus (including Elytrigia, Roegneria)Poaceae
Elymus angulatus Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Schizaphis graminum; Sitobion avenae
E. arenarius = Leymus arenarius
E. canadensisCarolinaia howardii, rhois; Diuraphis noxia;
Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum;
Sitobion avenae
E. caninusAnoecia krizusi; Diuraphis frequens; Melanaphis pyraria;
Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae, fragariae
E. ciliarisAnoecia corni, fulviabdominalis;
Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale;
Sitobion akebiae, avenae; Tetraneura fusiformis
E. dahuricusAtheroides serrulatus; Diuraphis frequens, noxia;
Forda formicaria, marginata; Melanaphis pyraria;
Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Sipha elegans, maydis; Sitobion avenae; Tetraneura ulmi
E. europaeus = Hordelymus europaeus
E. elongatusDiuraphis noxia
E. excelsus = E. dahuricus
E. farctusForda formicaria, marginata; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Schizaphis graminum, rufula; Sitobion avenae
E. farctusssp. boreali-atlanticusSchizaphis rufula
E. gayanus = Elymus angulatus
E. geniculatusRhopalosiphum padi
E. giganteus = Leymus racemosus
E. glaucusDiuraphis frequens, tritici; Sipha agropyronensis
E. hispidus Anoecia corni, vagans; Diuraphis noxia;
Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Schizaphis graminum, rufula;
Sipha agropyronensis, arenarii, elegans, maydis;
Sitobion avenae, fragariae
E. hispidus ssp. barbulatus Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans, maydis, uvarovi
E. hystrix Carolinaia rhois; Forda orientalis
E. junceiformis Schizaphis rufula
E. kamoji = E. tsukushiensis
E. kronokensis ssp. subalpinus = E. macrourus
E. macrourusMetopolophium dirhodum
E. pendulinusSitobion avenae
E. mollis = Leymus mollis
E. multicaulis = Leymus multicaulis
E. mutabilisAnoecia corni; Forda marginata;
Rhopalosiphum insertum; Schizaphis nigerrima
E. pendulinusSitobion avenae
E. pilosusSchizaphis graminum
E. pungensSchizaphis rufula; Sipha elegans
E. pycnanthusSchizaphis rufula; Sipha elegans
E. repensAnoecia corni, furcata, vagans; [Aphis nasturtii];
Aploneura lentisci; Chaetosiphella berlesei;
Diuraphis frequens, noxia;
Forda formicaria, hirsuta, marginata, pawlowae, riccobonii;
Geoica utricularia; Hyalopteroides humilis;
Laingia psammae;
Metopolophium albidum, dirhodum, festucae;
Myzus ascalonicus; Paracletus cimiciformis;
Pemphigus sp.; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;
Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum, nigerrima;
Sipha arenarii, burakowskii, elegans, glyceriae, maydis;
Sitobion avenae, fragariae, miscanthi; Tetraneura ulmi;
Utamphorophora humboldti
E. sabulosus = Leymus racemosus
E. semicostatusSitobion avenae, miscanthi
E. sibiricusForda marginata; Metopolophium dirhodum;
Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha maydis, uvarovi;
Sitobion avenae; Tetraneura ulmi
E. smithiiDiuraphis tritici; Pemphigus sp.; Schizaphis graminum;
Sipha agropyronensis; Sitobion miscanthi
E. spicatusForda marginata
E. striatus = E. virginicus
E. tianschanicus = Leymus tianschanicus
E. trachycaulusSchizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans; Sitobion avenae
E. tsukushiensisAnoecia fulviabdominalis; Geoica lucifuga, setulosa;
Rhopalosiphum padi, rufiabdominale;
Tetraneura fusiformis
E. virginicusRhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum;
Sitobion avenae
Elymus spp.[Chondrillobium blattnyi]; Metopolophium palmerae;
Schizaphis agrostis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Elytranthe see MacrosolenLoranthaceae
Elytranthe globosa see Macrosolen cochinchinensis
Elytraria imbricata Aphis gossypii
Elytrigia see ElymusPoaceae
Elytrigia desertorum = Agropyron desertorum (?)
E. elongatiforme = Elymus repens
E. kryloviana = Agropyron krylovianum
E. repens = Elymus repens
E. trichophora = Elymus hispidus
Emblica see PhyllanthusPhyllanthaceae
Emelista see SennaFabaceae
Emex australisAphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
Uroleucon compositae
E. pulcher (?)Aphis solanella
E. spinosaAphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii;
Brachycaudus helichrysi, rumexicolens;
Dysaphis emicis, radicola;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Rumex.

Emilia caespitosaAphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;
Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Ipuka dispersa; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ornatus, persicae; Uroleucon compositae
E. coccineaAphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola; Ipuka dispersa;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus;
[Sitobion sp. (van Harten 1972a)]
E. humbertii = E. caespitosa
E. javanicaAphis spiraecola; Ipuka dispersa; Myzus persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Uroleucon sonchi
E. sagittata = E. coccinea
E. sonchifoliaAphis aurantii, gossypii, nerii, spiraecola;
Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Hyperomyzus carduellinus, lactucae; Ipuka dispersa;
[Lipaphis erysimi]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;
[Protaphis middletonii];
Uroleucon formosanum, formosanum ssp. crepidis,
sonchi, vernoniae
Emilia sp.Uroleucon ambrosiae

Key to apterae on Emilia:-

1ANT III bearing 4-135 secondary rhinaria (if less than 10 then SIPH are clavate, and are without polygonal reticulation). ANT IV-V may also have secondary rhinaria …..2
ANT III bearing 0-10 secondary rhinaria (if with 4-10 then SIPH have subapical polygonal reticulation). ANT IV and V never with secondary rhinaria …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
2SIPH clavate, pale except at apices, and almost smooth…..3
SIPH tapering, cylindrical or very slightly expanded subapically; dark, with imbrication and subapical polygonal reticulation…..4
3Hairs on ABD TERG 8 only 10-19 μm long, and those on ANT tubercles 6-11 μm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 11-29, IV 0-16, V 0-9. ANT PT/BASE 4.3-5.6 (mostly 4.5-5.2)…..Hyperomyzus carduellinus
Hairs on ABD TERG 8 30-50 μm long, and those on ANT tubercles 18-30 μm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 4-20, IV 0-1, V 0. ANT PT/BASE 4.6-8.0 (mostly 5.8-6.7) …..Hyperomyzus lactucae
4Dorsal and ANT hairs very short, only 5-10 μm long. ANT with secondary rhinaria distributed III 9-32 (on distal part), IV 20-35, V 9-20. SIPH thin, hardly thicker than hind tibia at their respective midlengths, with a few rather ill-defined subapical rows of polygonal reticulation…..Ipuka dispersa
Dorsal and ANT hairs long and conspicuous, 20-90 μm long. ANT III with 10-135 secondary rhinaria (if with few in number then confined to basal part), ANT IV and V with 0. SIPH much thicker than hind tibia at their resepctive midlengths…..5
5ANT III 1.5-2.1 × IV+V together, with 54-135 strongly protruberant rhinaria extending over more than 0.95 of length…..Uroleucon formosanum (incl. ssp. crepidis)
ANT III similar in length to IV+V together, with 10-82 only slightly protruberant rhinaria, extending over 0.34-0.90 of length…..6
6Cauda pale. ANT III with 10-35 rhinaria. Most dorsal hairs not arising from pigmented scleroites. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 × HT II…..Uroleucon sonchi
Cauda dark. ANT III with 23-82 rhinaria. Dorsal hairs all arising from dark scleroites. R IV+V 1.1-1.8 × HT II…..7
7 R IV+V 1.5-1.8 × HT II. ANT III with 23-57 rhinaria …..Uroleucon vernoniae
R IV+V 1.1-1.4 × HT II. ANT III with 46-82 rhinaria …..Uroleucon compositae
Eminia antennulifera Aphis craccivora
Empetrum hermaphroditum Ericaphis latifrons; Wahlgreniella lampeli
E. nigrumAphis gossypii; [Illinoia sp., Maine;]
Ericaphis latifrons, [Ericaphis sp., Maine;]
Wahlgreniella empetri, nervata ssp. arbuti
Empetrum sp.[Aulacorthum rufum, vaccinii]

Key to apterae on Empetrum:-

1 SIPH dark, tapering. ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu) …..Aphis gossypii
SIPH pale, clavate or tapering. ANT tubercles variably developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu…..2
2SIPH tapering, slightly curved, with an oblique aperture turned slightly outwards, and a very large flange. ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.2. ANT tubercles and median frontal tubercle developed to similar extent, so that front of head has sinuous outline in dorsal view…..Ericaphis latifrons
SIPH clavate, with moderate flange. ANT PT/BASE 2.2-6.8. ANT tubercles much better developed than medial frontal tubercle, so that there is a frontal sinus…..3
3ANT PT/BASE 2.2-2.8. R IV+V with 2-4 accessory hairs …..Wahlgreniella empetri
ANT PT/BASE 4.5-6.8. R IV+V with 2-17 accessory hairs…..4
4R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs…..Wahlgreniella lampeli
R IV+V with 10-17 accessory hairs …..Wahlgreniella nervata ssp. arbuti
Encelia farinosaUroleucon ambrosiae
Encephalartos cycadifolius Aphis gossypii
Enchylaena tomentosa Myzus persicae
Encyclia adenocaula Aphis gossypii
E. alataAphis spiraecola
E. fragrans = Prosthechea fragrans
E. phoenicea Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.

Engelhardtia Juglandaceae
Engelhardtia spicata Aiceona himalaica; Aphis aurantii, citricidus, odinae;
[Ceratovacuna lanigera];
Greenidea ficicola, longicornis;
Greenidea (Trichosiphum) heeri;
Kurisakia indica
Engelhardtia spp.[Betacallis querciphaga]; Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Mollitrichosiphum alni, nandii];
[Schoutedenia ralumensis]

(The records of Greenideinae are likely to be casual occurrences or indicate utilisation of Engelhardtia as a “reserve host”.)

Key to aphids on Engelhardtia:-

1 SIPH without hairs…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
SIPH with associated hairs…..2
2 SIPH long, tubular, densely clothed in long hairs…..3
SIPH as shallow cones with sparse or short hairs…..4
3 SIPH of aptera reticulated only at the base, and rather densely spinulose over most of length (fig. 48D) …..Greenidea (Trichosiphum) heeri
SIPH of aptera reticulated over most of length, spinulose only on distal part (fig. 48E) …..Greenidea spp.
4 Antennae 5-segmented, less than 0.5 of BL. SIPH cones bearing less than 10 long hairs …..Kurisakia indica
Antennae 6-segmented, more than 0.5 of BL. SIPH cones bearing numerous short hairs …..Aiceona himalaica
Enhydra see EnydraAsteraceae
Enkianthus campanulatus Akkaia polygoni; Macrosiphum euphorbiae
E. japonicusAkkaia polygoni
E. perulatusAkkaia polygoni; Pseudomegoura magnoliae
E. serrulatusAkkaia [odaiensis], polygoni; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Key to apterae on Enkianthus:-

ANT 4- or 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE c.0.9. SIPH strongly scabrous, and tapering to a narrow apex, without polygonal reticulation. Fundatrices and immatures in spring colonies with strongly spinulose hind tibiae…..Akkaia polygoni
Without that combination of characters …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Ensete superbum Pentalonia nigronervosa
E. ventricosum Dysaphis tulipae; Pentalonia nigronervosa;
Rhopalosiphum musae; Sitobion sp. (Ethiopia, BMNH

Use key to to apterae on Musa.

Entada abyssinica Aphis gossypii
Enteropogon sp. Sitobion miscanthi

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.)

Enydra sessilis Aphis gossypii