(in alphabetical order)








































































































Aster Asteraceae

(In recent years ther have been some major changes in the generic concepts within Asteridae as a result of molecular and phylogenetic revisionary work by North American and European botanists. American asters are now mostly placed in the genus Symphyotrichum, and many Asiatic species are now placed in Galatella.)

Aster adustus = Aster ageratoides
A. ageratoides (incl. vars Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) yomenae;
amplexifolius, ovatus, Uroleucon fuchuense, monticola, vera
A. alpinusBrachycaudus helichrysi; Illinoia subviride
A. amellusBrachycaudus helichrysi, [salicinae];
Uroleucon pachysiphon
A. bakerianusAphis gossypii
A. bellidiastrumBrachycaudus helichrysi
A. biflorus = Galatella sedifolia ssp. biflora
A. bracei = Symphyotrichum tenuifolium
A. canescens (Nees) Fisjun = Kalimeris altaica
A. canescens Pursh = Dietaria canescens
A. chinensis = Callistephus chinensis
A. chromopappus = Galatella chromopappa
A. conspicuus = Eurybia conspicua
A. cordifolius = Symphyotrichum cordifolium
A. dahuricus = Galatella dahurica
A. diplostephioides [Uroleucon raychaudhurii (Bhagat 1981b; nomen nudum)]
A. divaricatus = Eurybia divaricata
A. dracunculoides = Galatella sedifolia ssp. dracunculoides
A. drummondii = Symphyotrichum drummondii
A. dumosus = Symphyotrichum dumosum
A. emellus (= amellus?) Myzus persicae
A. ericoides = Symphyotrichum ericoides
A. exilisAcyrthosiphon bidenticola; Aphis gossypii
A. fastigiatus Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) yomenae
A. foliaceus = Symphyotrichum foliaceum
A. fruticosus = Felicia fruticosa
A. geyeri = Symphyotrichum laeve var. geyeri
A. glehnii[Uroleucon mulgedii]
A. grimmii = Pseudolinosyris grimmii
A. hayataeMacrosiphoniella (Asterobium) yomenae
A. himalaicusUroleucon asterophagum
A. hispidusMacrosiphoniella (Asterobium) davazhamci
A. incisus Aleurodaphis asteris;
Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) yomenae; Myzus asteriae
A.incisus var. australis = Kalimeris incisa
A. indicus = Kalimeris indica
A. integrifolius = Eurybia integrifolia
A. koraiensisMacrosiphoniella (Asterobium) yomenae;
Uroleucon asteriae
A. laevis = Symphyotrichum laeve
A. lateriflorus = Symphyotrichum lateriflorum
A. lautureana = Kalimeris lautureana
A. leucanthemifolius = Dieteria canescens var. leucanthemifolia
A. linosyrisMacrosiphoniella (Asterobium) linariae;
[Uroleucon sonchi]
A. maackiiUroleucon amamianum, cichorii, [gobonis], lactucicola,
monticola, picridis
A. macrophyllus = Eurybia macrophylla
A. modestus = Canadanthus modestus
A. mongolicus = Kalimeris mongolica
A. multiflorus = Symphyotrichum ericoides
A. mutabilisBrachycaudus helichrysi
A. novae-angliae = Symphyotrichum novae-angliae
A. novi-belgii = Symphyotrichum novi-belgii
A. oleifolius = Galatella villosa
A. paniculatus = Symphyotrichum lanceolatum
A. patens = Symphyotrichum patens
A. pilosus = Symphyotrichum pilosum
A. pinnatifidus (= iinumae?) Uroleucon amamianum
A. prenanthoides = Symphyotrichum prenanthoides
A. punctatus = Galatella sedifolia
A. puniceus = Symphyotrichum puniceum
A. pygmaeus = Symphyotrichum pygmaeum
A. sagittifolius = Symphyotrichum cordifolium
A. savatieriAleurodaphis asteris
(incl. var. pygmaeus)
A. scaber = Doellingeria scabra
A. sedifolius = Galatella sedifolia
A. simplex = Symphyotrichum lanceolatum
A. simplex var. ramosissimus = Symphyotrichum lanceolatum
A. sinensisBrachycaudus helichrysi
A. spathulifoliusMyzus asteriae, Myzus sp. (Korea, BMNH collection)
A. squamatus = Symphyotrichum squamatum
A. subutatus (?)Protaphis middletonii
A. tanacetifolius = Machaeranthera tanacetifolia
A. tataricus (incl. var. Aphis spiraecola; [Capitophorus cirsiiphagus];
hortensis) Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) quinifontana, yomenae;
[Metopolophium dirhodum]; Myzus persicae;
Uroleucon asteromyzon
A. tradescantii = Symphyotrichum tradescantii
A. trinerviusAphis gossypii; Myzus persicae
A. tripolium = Tripolium pannonicum ssp. tripolium
A. umbellatus = Doellingeria umbellata
A. undulatus = Symphyotrichum undulatum
A. yomenaAleurodaphis asteris, blumeae;
Aulacorthum asteris, solani;
Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) yomenae, [yomogicola];
Myzus asteriae, persicae
Aster spp.Aphis astericola, aurantii; Aulacorthum asteris;
[Brachycaudus sp. on Galatella sp. (Kadyrbekov 2002d)];
[Hyalomyzus mitchellensis]; [Illinoia grindeliae];
Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) aktaschica, [yangi];
Macrosiphum pallidum; Myzus asterale, siegesbeckicola;
Pemphigus [asteris Lichtenstein; nomen nudum)], [betae];
Pleotrichophorus asterifoliae; Sitobion africanum;
Uroleucon atripes, bradburyi, floricola, kamtshaticum,
ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum, manitobense, nodulum,

Key to aphids on Aster, Eurybia, Dieteria, Doellingeria, Galatella, Kalimeris, Pseudolinosyris and Symphyotrichum:-

1Eyes composed of only 3 facets. ANT less than 0.3 × BL, with PT/BASE less than 1..…2
Eyes with many facets. ANT more than 0.3 × BL, with PT/BASE more than 1 ..…6
2Body elongate oval, small (BL less than 1.3 mm), sclerotic dorsally, with a crenulate margin due to a continuous fringe of wax glands. SIPH as pores with raised rims. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed…..3
Body broadly oval to almost globular, BL more than 1.5 mm, cuticle membranous, wax glands not in a continuous marginal row. SIPH absent. Cauda rounded, anal plate entire …..4
3R IV+V elongate, 0.137-0.194 mm long, more than 3 × its basal width. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs…..Aleurodaphis blumeae
R IV+V 0.074-0.104 mm long, less than 3 × its basal width. First tarsal segments with 2 hairs…..Aleurodaphis asteris
4R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm long. shorter than last antennal segment (BASE + PT), and without any accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of tibiae and first tarsal segments short and thick. Wax glands present on ABD TERG 3-7…..Pemphigus sp.
R IV+V 0.13-0.175 mm long, as long as or longer than last antennal segment (BASE + PT), and bearing 4-12 accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of hind tibiae and first tarsal segments long and fine. Wax glands present on head, thorax and abdomen, or absent ..…5
5ANT II similar in length to ANT III, which bears numerous hairs. Primary rhinaria with sclerotized rims, without fimbriae. Wax glands absent. Anus in dorsal position, abdomen without a posterior projection.….Smynthurodes betae
ANT II much shorter than ANT III, which bears few hairs, mainly on distal part. Primary rhinaria each with a fringe of fimbriae. Wax glands present on head, thorax and abdomen. Anus borne on posterior projection of the abdomen ….. Prociphilus erigeronensis
6SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation, forming at least 10 closed cells, and with a number of incomplete cells at its proximal boundary, which is therefore not clearly demarcated.….7
SIPH without such a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation; sometimes with transverse striae that have some tendency to form a reticulation, but this has less than 10 closed cells, or in one case (Acuticauda) with reticulation in a short membranous section that is clearly demarcated by an annular constriction..…60
7Conspicuous dark, crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present, but no large postsiphuncular sclerites (e.g. Fig.15a)…..8
Antesiphuncular sclerites faint, fragmented or absent; postsiphuncular sclerites present or absent..…18
8ANT III with 20-64 rhinaria distributed over more than half its length…..9
ANT III with 1-21 rhinaria restricted to basal half.….11
9SIPH 0.13-0.14 × BL, 0.46-0.55 × ANT III and 0.7-0.9 × cauda. ANT VI BASE 1.6-1.9 × R IV+V…..Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) elegans*
SIPH 0.15-0.21 × BL, 0.6-0.9 × ANT III and 0.8-1.2 × cauda. ANT VI BASE 1.1-1.55 × R IV+V…..10
10ABD TERG 1-4 with spinal hairs rarely duplicated (Fig.15b) .….Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) linariae
ABD TERG 1-4 with spinal hairs (and their basal scleroites) almost always duplicated (Fig.15c).….Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) yomenae
11R IV+V about 1.4-1.5 × HT II ..…Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) bozhkoae*
R IV+V 0.5-1.0 × HT II..…12
12Tibiae mainly pale, dark apically and at extreme bases…..13
Tibiae mainly or entirely dark…..14
13Cauda dark like SIPH …..Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) erigeronis ssp. villosae*
Cauda paler than SIPH..… Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) asteris
14SIPH 1.25-1.40 × cauda….. Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) soosi
SIPH 0.8-1.1 × cauda…..15
15ANT III with only 1-2 rhinaria …..Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) konyratica*
ANT III with 9-15 rhinaria…..16
16ANT tubercles very poorly developed so that front of head is almost straight in dorsal view…..Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) argynica*
ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces divergent in dorsal view …..17
17ANT III with 9-11 rhinaria. Cauda with 8 hairs. Small MTu often present on some or all of ABD TERG 2-5…..Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) galatellae
ANT III with 12-15 rhinaria. Cauda with c.12 hairs. ABD TERG 2-5 without MTu…..Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) quinifontana*
18ANT tubercles very poorly developed so that front of head is almost straight in dorsal view. ANT PT/BASE 2.6-4.0. SIPH 0.15-0.20 × BL…..19
ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces divergent in dorsal view, so that there is a deep frontal sinus. ANT PT/BASE 2.6-7.4. SIPH 0.14-0.55 × BL…..20
19SIPH 0.95-1.25 × cauda, which is brown or dark brown, concolorous with distal half of SIPH…..Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) davazhamci
SIPH 1.27-1.32 × cauda, which is pale …..Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) aktaschica*
20SIPH with zone of polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.15-0.5 of length, and comprising many small cells of maximum diameter less than 0.25 of width of SIPH at that point. Flange often weakly developed…..21
SIPH with zone of polygonal reticulation extending over 0.03-0.2 of length, and comprising large cells, of maximum diameter more than 0.25 of width of SIPH at that point. Flange well developed …..55
21Cauda much paler than distal part of SIPH…..22
Cauda almost as dark as distal part of SIPH..…50
22Coxae dark, clearly darker than trochanters and basal halves of femora …..23
Coxae pale like trochanters and basal halves of femora…..25
23Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 mostly not placed on dark scleroites. R IV+V 0.73-0.88 × HT II…..Uroleucon sonchi
Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 all or mostly placed on dark scleroites. R IV+V 1.1-1.6 × HT II…..24
24R IV+V 1.25-1.67 × ANT VI BASE and 1.17-1.33 × HT II. Cauda with 18-28 hairs …..Uroleucon cichorii
R IV+V 1.1-1.2 × ANT VI BASE and 1.5-1.6 × HT II. Cauda with 30-37 hairs …..Uroleucon doellingeriae*
25SIPH dusky with darker apices, and 0.18-0.22 × BL ..…Uroleucon bradburyi*
SIPH either entirely dark or mainly dark with a pale basal section; 0.16-0.55 × BL .….26
26SIPH mainly dark but with a pale basal section.….27
SIPH uniformly pigmented…..38
27ABD TERG 8 with a pair of spinal tubercles (STu), and ABD TERG 6 and 7 sometimes also with 1-2 STu. SIPH about 0.16-0.18 × BL, about equal in length to cauda …..Uroleucon nodulum*
ABD TERG 6-8 without STu. SIPH 0.21-0.55 × BL and 0.9-2.5 × cauda ….28
28SIPH 0.21-0.24 × BL, with pale section at base of SIPH less than 0.13 of total length ..…29
SIPH 0.22-0.55 × BL, with pale basal section often more than 0.16 of total length …..30
29R IV+V 1.2-1.4 × HT II…..Uroleucon crepusisiphon
R IV+V 0.65-0.80 × HT II…..Uroleucon manitobense
30R IV+V 1.4-1.85 × HT II, and bearing more than 14 accessory hairs…..31
R IV+V 0.6-1.34 × HT II, and bearing 6-12 accessory hairs …..32
31ANT III with 8-25 rhinaria. SIPH 1.5-2 × cauda .….Uroleucon zymozionense
ANT III with 28-46 rhinaria. SIPH 1.1-1.4 × cauda …..Uroleucon anomalae
32SIPH (1.8-) 2.1-2.8 × cauda..…33
SIPH 0.9-2.0 × cauda..…34
33Cauda with one or more hairs near apex that are short and blunt or capitate. Tibiae mainly pale or dusky with dark apices. (R IV+V 0.9-1.1 × HT II) ..…Uroleucon erigeronense
Cauda with all hairs pointed. Tibiae dark…..Uroleucon katonkae
34R IV+V 1.15-1.4 × HT II…..35
R IV+V 0.6-1.0 × HT II…..36
35ANT dark beyond base of III. SIPH pale on basal 0.2-0.3. HT II without ventral hairs on proximal 0.5-0.7 of length, or these hairs very small or vestigeal.….Uroleucon gravicorne
ANT entirely or at least distally pale. SIPH c.0.33 × BL and pale only on basal c.0.08. (HT II with normal chaetotaxy?)…..Uroleucon vera*
36R IV+V 0.6-0.75 × HT II which is 0.19-0.22 mm long …..Uroleucon tenuitarsus
R IV+V 0.8-1.0 × HT II which is 0.14-0.17 mm long.….37
37SIPH 1.4-2.0 × cauda which bears 7-12 hairs…..Uroleucon breviscriptum
SIPH 0.9-1.4 × cauda which bears 10-19 hairs…..Uroleucon macgillivrayae
38SIPH 1.7-2.2 × cauda. Dorsal abdominal hairs long, pointed and rather numerous; ABD TERG 8 with 6-8 hairs.….Uroleucon monticola
SIPH 0.9-1.8 × cauda. Dorsal abdominal hairs pointed or blunt; ABD TERG 8 with 2-8 hairs.….39
39R IV+V 1.6-1.9 × HT II, and bearing 17-24 accessory hairs. (ANT III with 10-30 rhinaria)..…Uroleucon astronomus
R IV+V 0.8-1.75 × HT II, and bearing 6-16 accessory hairs…..40
40R IV+V 1.4-1.75 × HT II, and bearing 6-10 accessory hairs. ANT III with 25-63 rhinaria …..41
R IV+V 0.9-1.4 × HT II, and bearing 6-16 accessory hairs. ANT III with 4-47 rhinaria …..42
41ANT III black and longer than SIPH…..Uroleucon picridis
ANT III pale and shorter than (less than 0.9 ×) SIPH …..Uroleucon asteriae*
42SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.35-0.4 of length. Tibiae entirely dark. ANT III with 13-47 rhinaria (usually more than 20).….Uroleucon atripes
SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.23-0.35 of length. Tibiae variably pigmented, but if entirely dark then ANT III has less than 20 rhinaria.….43
43Hind tibia with a ventral row of short peg-like hairs. Dorsal abdominal hairs long and fine-pointed (longest more than 90 μm)..…Uroleucon fuchuense
Hind tibia without a row of short peg-like hairs. Dorsal abdominal hairs pointed or blunt, maximally c.70 μm long.….44
44R IV+V 0.8-1.1 × HT II..…45
R IV+V 1.15-1.4 × HT II…..48
45SIPH 0.9-1.0× cauda. ANT III with 6-17 rhinaria …..Macrosiphoniella aizhanae*
SIPH more than 1.3× cauda. ANT III with 16-46 rhinaria…..46
46SIPH c.1.8 × cauda. ANT III with 36-42 rhinaria …..Uroleucon asteromyzon
SIPH 1.4-1.6 × cauda. ANT III with 16-39(-46)rhinaria…..47
47Cauda with 15-29 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2-4 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-0.6 × BD III…..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae
Cauda with c.37 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 4-6 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.2 × BD III…..Uroleucon kamtshaticum*
48Tibiae entirely dark. ANT III with 4-16 rhinaria .….Uroleucon paucosensoriatum
Tibiae with paler section on basal half. ANT III with 7-35 rhinaria …..49
49SIPH usually longer than (0.95-1.25 ×) ANT III, and 0.29-0.35 × BL. Cauda with 21-36 hairs. ANT III with 7-17 rhinaria..…Uroleucon olivei
SIPH usually shorter than (0.7-1.05 ×) ANT III, and 0.21-0.29 × BL. Cauda with 12-27 hairs. ANT III with 8-35 rhinaria.….Uroleucon ambrosiae lizerianum
50Coxae pale, and femora only dark over distal 0.25 or less …..Uroleucon floricola
Coxae dusky or dark, and femora dark over at least distal 0.3.….51
51Tibiae wholly dark. SIPH very thick, with apical diameter more than 0.5 of basal diameter..…Uroleucon pachysiphon
Tibiae with pale basal or middle section. SIPH tapering apically to less than 0.5 of basal diameter…..52
52SIPH 1.1-1.3 × cauda, with reticulation extending over distal 0.33-0.4. ANT III with 17-32 rhinaria.….Uroleucon amamianum
SIPH 1.35-2.7 × cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.15-0.33. ANT III with 11-19 or 48-c.70 rhinaria..…53
53ANT III with 11-19 rhinaria confined to basal half of segment. (Al. with 32-54 rhinaria on ANT III)….. Uroleucon lactucicola
ANT III with 47-c.70 rhinaria extending over 0.69-0.75 of its length. (Al. with more than 73 rhinaria on ANT III) …..54
54SIPH 1.88-1.98 × cauda. ANT III with c.60-70 rhinaria …..Uroleucon sileneobium*
SIPH 1.35-1.65 × cauda. ANT III with 47-65 rhinaria …..Uroleucon asterophagum
55SIPH entirely dark, or only pale at base…..56
SIPH pale or dusky, somewhat darker on reticulated subapical part…..57
56Dorsal abdomen somewhat sclerotic, often with dark markings. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 × BD III. tibiae mainly pale.….Sitobion africanum
Dorsal abdomen membranous, pale. Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 × BD III. Tibiae mainly dark..…Macrosiphum pallidum
57R IV+V 1.4-2.1 × HT II, with 14-45 accessory hairs…..58
R IV+V 0.8-1.2 × HT II, with 7-10 accessory hairs…..59
58R IV+V not more than 2 × its basal width, with 34-45 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. ANT BASE VI 2.7-3.3 × HT II..…Macrosiphum olmsteadi
R IV+V more than 2 × its basal width, with 14-28 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. ANT BASE VI 1.4-1.7 × HT II..…Illinoia subviride
59Hairs on ANT III very short and inconspicuous, the longest about 0.33 × BD III. SIPH clearly somewhat swollen proximal to reticulated subapical zone, which is only 0.03-0.05 of total length of SIPH…..Illinoia goldamaryae
Hairs on ANT III conspicuous, the longest 0.5 × BD III or longer. SIPH cylindrical or very slightly swollen proximal to reticulated subapical zone, which is 0.13-0.2 of its total length..…Macrosiphum euphorbiae
60ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, with inner faces convergent, parallel or divergent, projecting considerably beyond middle part of front of head in dorsal view ..…61
Front of head sinuous, straight or convex in dorsal view, with ANT tubercles absent or, if at all developed, then broadly divergent and not or hardly projecting beyond middle of head in dorsal view…..75
61Head and inner face of ANT I spiculose/scabrous, and ANT tubercles rather low with inner faces broadly divergent. ANT III with 4-11 rhinaria on basal part. R IV+V 1.4-1.8 × HT II. SIPH 2.5-3.2 × cauda. Tergum extensively scleotised…..62
If head and ANT I are both spiculose or scabrous then inner faces of ANT tubercles are steep-sided or apically convergent, ANT III has either 0-2 rhinaria near base or 4-12 distributed over most of its length, and other characters not in above combination …..63
62ANT PT/BASE 6.3-6.9. R IV+V 1.4-1.5 × HT II. SIPH 2.5-2.8 × cauda…..Chitinosiphum kalimeris*
ANT PT/BASE 7.0-8.6. R IV+V 1.5-1.8 × HT II. SIPH 2.7-3.2 × cauda …..Chitinosiphum doellingeriae*
63Cuticle of head almost smooth or with spicules only ventrally. Inner face of ANT I almost smooth…..64
Cuticle of head densely spiculose, nodulose or scabrous, dorsally as well as ventrally. Inner face of ANT I nodulose or scabrous…..66
64ANT III with 17-29 rhinaria distributed along most of its length …..Aulacorthum asteris
ANT III with 0-5 rhinaria on basal half…..65
65Dorsal hairs with expanded apices. SIPH pale. Cauda conical, with 5 hairs. R IV+V shorter than HT II..…Pleotrichophorus asterifoliae
Dorsal hairs with blunt apices. SIPH dark except at base, with some ill-defined subapical reticulation. Cauda long and finger-like, with 6-7 hairs. R IV+V longer than HT II ..…Acyrthosiphon bidenticola
66Dorsal abdomen with a large, roughly horseshoe-shaped dark patch, and broad dark bars on dorsal thorax.…. Neomyzus circumflexus
Dorsal abdomen without a large dark patch (in aptera)..…67
67Subgenital plate strongly produced posteriorly, broadly conical (Fig.15d). SIPH tapering from a broad base, narrow on distal half (Fig.15e).….Myzus siegesbeckicola
Subgenital plate normal. SIPH not tapering from a broad base, cylindrical or slightly to moderately swollen on distal half…..68
68Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings .….Myzus ornatus
Dorsal abdomen without intersegmental markings..…69
69SIPH tapering/cylindrical…..70
SIPH swollen on distal half…..73
70ANT III with 4-12 secondary rhinaria distributed in a line over most of its length. ANT PT/BASE 5.4-7.2…..Aulacorthum asteriphagum*
ANT III with 0-3 small rhinaria near base. ANT PT/BASE c.2.7-5.5…..71
71ANT longer than body with ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5. ANT III with (0-)1-2(-3) small rhinaria near base…..Aulacorthum solani
ANT shorter than body with ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.8. ANT III without rhinaria R IV+V c. 2.5 × HT II and bearing c.20 accessory hairs. ANT III without rhinaria …..72
72R IV+V c. 2.5 × HT II and bearing c.20 accessory hairs…..Myzus sp. (Korea, BMNH collection)
R IV+V 1.01-1.43 × HT II with c.8 accessory hairs…..Myzus asterale*
73Head and ANT I dusky to dark. R IV+V 1.7-2.1 × HT II. (Al. with broad dark bands along the wing veins)..…Neotoxoptera yasumatsui
Head and ANT I pale. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 × HT II. (Al. with unbordered wing veins) …..74
74SIPH 4-9 times longer than their minimum width, clearly shorter than head width across eyes (Fig.15f). ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.0…..Myzus asteriae
SIPH 9-15 times longer than their minimum width, as long as or longer than head width across eyes. ANT/PT BASE 2.8-5.1…..Myzus persicae
75Tarsi completely absent from all legs..…Atarsos grindeliae
Tarsi present…..76
76SIPH smooth, conical, less than twice as long as their basal width, usually with an annular incision proximal to the flange (e.g. Fig.15g). ANT tubercles completely undeveloped, so that front of head is convex in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without marginal tubercles (MTu) ..…77
SIPH imbricated and more than twice their basal width, with no subapical annular incision. ANT tubercles weakly developed, so that front of head has sinuous outline in dorsal view. MTu always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7..…79
77SIPH shorter than their basal width. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)Xerobion ulytavicum*
SIPH longer than their basal width. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles ..…78
78Cauda helmet-shaped, with all hairs long and fine-pointed …..Brachycaudus helichrysi
Cauda broad at base, narrower on distal part, with an apical hair that is usually hooked or blunt (Fig.15h)…..Acuticauda asterensis
79Stridulatory apparatus present, consisting of a row of very short peg-like hairs on hind tibiae and a pattern of cuticular ridges on abdominal sternites 5-6.….Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
No stridulatory apparatus..…80
80Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black patch.….Aphis craccivora
Dorsal abdomen without an extensive solid black patch; with or without segmentally divided or scattered black markings.….81
81ANT III (in normal apt.) with 1-14 rhinaria. SIPH 0.7-1.2 × R IV+V. Dorsal abdomen with variable, often rather extensive, dark patches…..Protaphis middletonii
ANT III without rhinaria (except in alatiform apt). SIPH more than 1.5 × R IV+V. Dorsal abdomen without or with a few scattered markings anterior to SIPH ..…82
82SIPH 0.24-0.40 × BL, about twice as long as the much paler cauda. Head, ANT I, II and basal part of III very pale, contrasting with dark rest of ANT .….Aphis coreopsidis
SIPH only up to 0.2 × BL. Cauda pale or dark. Head and antennal segments differently pigmented.….83
83Cauda dark with 4-6 hairs. Hind tibiae entirely dark…..Aphis astericola*
Cauda either pale/dusky with 4-9 hairs, or dusky/dark with 7-27 hairs. Hind tibiae with at least middle section pale/dusky..…84
84ABD TERG 2-5 mostly bearing MTu. SIPH and cauda both dusky. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.9. Cauda with 5-9 hairs. (Al. with 1-6 rhinaria on ANT IV, and 0-2 on V) ..…Aphis tripolii
ABD TERG 2-5 usually without MTu, sometimes with small ones on some segments. SIPH dark, cauda dark, dusky or pale. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.5. Cauda with 4-27 hairs. (Al. with 0-2 rhinaria on ANT IV, 0 on V) .….for separation of the remaining polyphagous Aphis spp. (asclepiadis, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola), use relevant couplets in polyphagous aphids key
Asteriscus aquaticus Brachycaudus helichrysi; Capitophorus inulae
A. graveolensBrachyunguis harmalae; Myzus persicae
A. maritimus = Pallenis maritima
A. spinosusAcyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis gossypii;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Brachyunguis harmalae;
Protaphis terricola
Asteriscus sp.[Macrosiphum rosae]

Key for apterae on Asteriscus:-

1Rather elongate spindle-shaped aphid with very long thin curved SIPH ……2
Oval-bodied aphid. SIPH not very long, thin and curved..…3
2Dorsal hairs thick and capitate. BL 1.2-1.8 mm. ANT PT/BASE 5.5-9.5 …..Capitophorus inulae
Dorsal hairs inconspicuous. BL 2.5-3.5 mm. ANT PT/BASE 3-4…..Acyrthosiphon gossypii
3 ANT PT/BASE 0.4-1.4. SIPH 0.4-1.3 × cauda…..4
ANT PT/BASE 1.7-5.3. SIPH 0.8-2.0 × cauda …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
4 Head and coxae pale or dusky. ANT PT/BASE 0.4-0.75. SIPH pale, 0.4-0.7 × cauda, which is tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width…..Brachyunguis harmalae
Head and coxae dark. ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.4. SIPH dark, 0.4-1.3 × cauda, which is bluntly triangular, not longer than its basal width…..Protaphis terricola
Astilbe chinensis = A. rubra
A. davidii = A. rubra
A. longicarpaTaiwanomyzus montanus
A. microphyllaRhopalosiphoninus staphyleae; Taiwanomyzus montanus
A. philippinensisTaiwanomyzus montanus
A. rivularisTaiwanomyzus [darjeelingensis], montanus
A. rubraAulacorthum solani;
[Aphis astilbes Matsumura 1917 (nomen nudum)];
[Macrosiphum sorbi]
A. thunbergii (incl. var. congesta) [Eriosoma astilbensis (Shinji 1939)]; Taiwanomyzus
Astilbe spp. (and cultivars) Aphis fabae, [Aphis sp. – Leonard 1973, 3];
Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to aphids on Astilbe:-

1Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation. SIPH slightly to strongly swollen on distal half. Cauda with 5 hairs…..2
Without this combination of characters …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
2ANT III with 3-26 rhinaria. SIPH black, dorsum with an extensive solid dark shield. SIPH widest at c.0.8-0.85 of length, where diameter is c.1.5 × that of narrowest part of stem. SIPH c.0.33 × BL…..Taiwanomyzus montanus
ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria. SIPH dusky, dorsum with segmentally-divided dark sclerites. SIPH widest at c. 0.6-0.7 of length, where diameter is c.2 × that of narrowest part of stem. SIPH c. 0.25 × BL…..Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae
Astomaea seselifolia Aphis fabae
Astracantha adscendens Brachyunguis skafi; Therioaphis pteromaculata
A. caucasica Therioaphis astragali
A. gossypina Aphis craccivora; Bicaudella astragalensis, rostrata;
Brachyunguis skafi;
A. granatensisTherioaphis trifolii
A. siculaAphis craccivora; Therioaphis trifolii
A. parrowiana Brachyunguis skafi

Use key to apterae under Astragalus.

Astragalus adscendens = Astracantha adscendens
A. adsurgensAphis astragalicola, craccivora
A. albifrons (?)Aphis fabae
A. alopeciasAphis craccivora
A. alpinusAcyrthosiphon kondoi, loti, pisum;
Aphis astragali, [loti], masoni, polaris
A. arenariusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora, tacita;
Therioaphis trifolii ssp. ventromaculata
A. armatusAphis craccivora
A. asteriasAphis craccivora
A. bisulcatusAphis craccivora
A. boeticusAcyrthosiphon caraganae; Aphis craccivora
A. brachypusAcyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis craccivora
A. campylorrhynchus Aphis craccivora
A. canadensisAcyrthosiphon pisum
A. canescensAcyrthosiphon kondoi
A. caucasicus = Astracantha caucasica
A. chinensisAphis craccivora
A. cicerAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis ciceri; Therioaphis trifolii
A. commixtusAphis craccivora
A. condoleanus (?) Acyrthosiphon pisum
A. danicusAphis astragalicola, craccivora
A. davuricus = Astragalus stevenianus
A. ellipsoideusAphis craccivora
A. falcatusAcyrthosiphon pisum
A. flexusAphis craccivora
A. follicularisAcyrthosiphon pisum
A. forsskaliiAphis craccivora
A. frigidusAcyrthosiphon loti; Aphis astragali
A. fruticosusAphis astragali, craccae
A. glaucophyllus Aphis fabae
A. globicepsAphis craccivora
A. glycyphyllosAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora, fabae
A. gossypinus = Astracantha gossypina
A. granatensis = Astracantha granatensis
A. granatensis ssp. siculus = Astracantha sicula
A. hamosusAphis craccivora
A. harpilobusAphis craccivora
A. hypoglottis[Acyrthosiphon parvum]
A. hyrcanusAphis craccivora, [cytisorum]
A. leucopsis = Astralagus trichopodus var. lonchus
A. melanophrurius Acyrthosiphon kondoi
A. melilotoidesAphis astragalicola, craccae, craccivora
A. membranaceus Acyrthosiphon kondoi; Aulacorthum solani
A. monspessulanus Therioaphis trifolii
A. onobrychisAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;
Therioaphis trifolii, trifolii ssp. ventromaculata
A. parrowianus = Astracantha parrowiana
A. paucijugusAcyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis craccivora
A. pectinatusAphis astragalina, gallowayi
A. pelecinus Aphis craccivora
A. penduliflorusAcyrthosiphon pisum
A. polyphyllusAphis craccivora
A. pomonensisAcyrthosiphon kondoi
A. propinquusAcyrthosiphon loti
A. pseudosquarrosus = Astragalus squarrosus
A. purpureus = Astragalus hypoglottis
A. schelichowiiAcyrthosiphon extremiorientale, pisum;
Aphis astragali, craccae
A. sempervirensAphis craccivora; Therioaphis trifolii
A. sesamoidesAphis craccivora
A. sieversianusAphis solanella
A. sinicusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora; Myzus persicae;
Therioaphis trifolii
A. spinosusAcyrthosiphon gossypii; Brachyunguis harmalae
A. spruneriAcyrthosiphon pisum
A. squarrosus Therioaphis kermanica
A. steinbergianus Aphis craccivora
A. stevenianusAphis astragalicola, craccivora
A. sulcatusAphis craccivora; Acyrthosiphon pisum
A. transiliensis = Astragalus ellipsoideus
A. trichopodus var. lonchus Aphis craccivora
A. turczaninowiiAphis craccivora
A. uliginosusAphis astragali, craccae, craccivora
A. variusAcyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora
A. vesicarius Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;
Aulacorthum solani
A. virgatus = Astragalus varius
A. vulpinusAphis craccivora
A. xiphidiumBicaudella astragalensis
A. xipholobusAphis craccivora
Astragalus spp.Acyrthosiphon astragali, [ilka], umarovi;
[Aphis pseudocomosa];
Bicaudella denaensis, farsiana, laurestanica;
Brachyunguis [astragali Narzikulov and Umarov 1972
(nomen nudum)];
Microparsus tephrosiae;
Therioaphis arnaultae, azerbaidjanica, khayami

Key to aphids on Astragalus and Astracantha:-

(Couplets 1-13 are applicable to both apterae and alatae)

1Fore coxae greatly enlarged. SIPH in form of truncate cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. Dorsal hairs usually with expanded apices, and/or often arising from tuberculate bases (Figs 16a-c).….2
Fore coxae normal. Form of SIPH various. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire. Dorsal hairs with blunt or pointed apices, and never arising from tuberculate bases ..…14
2Knob of cauda surmounted by a conical or finger-like process (e.g. Fig.16d-e) …..3
Knob of cauda without a conical or finger-like process (Fig.16f-g).….7
3SIPH black. Head and thorax with a black longitudinal spinal band, having a narrow unpigmented median suture. ABD TERG 1 with black pleural and marginal sclerites, and ABD TERG 2 with black marginal sclerites. ANT III of apt. with 2-4 secondary rhinaria . .…Bicaudella denaensis
SIPH pale. Dorsum without such conspicuous black markings. ANT III of apt. without any rhinaria..…4
4Rostrum 0.31-0.40 × BL, with R IV+V 1.65-1.97 × HT II, and bearing 7-9 accessory hairs …..Bicaudella rostrata
Rostrum 0.17-0.31 × BL, with R IV+V 0.74-1.42 × HT II and bearing 4-6 accessory hairs .….5
5Front of head with median projection weakly developed and hairs not arising from clearly tuberculate bases (Fig.16a). R IV+V 1.23-1.42 × HT II .….Bicaudella astragalensis
Front of head with a well developed median projection bearing hairs arising from tuberculate bases (Fig.16b, c). R IV+V 0.51-0.93 × HT II …..6
6Caudal knob bearing a conical or finger-like process which is 60-80 μm long (Fig.16d). Median frontal projection quadrate, bearing hairs arising from low tuberculate bases (Fig.16b). Dorsal cuticle generally pale, with abdominal hairs arising from pale tuberculate bases. SIPH 1.8-2.4 times longer than their basal widths..…Bicaudella farsiana
Caudal knob with a small conical process 22-38 μm long (Fig.16e). Median frontal projection bearing hairs arising from large conical to cylindrical bases, longer than their basal widths (Fig.16c). Dorsal cuticle of head and thorax lightly pigmented, with a narrow unpigmented spinal suture, and dark rings of pigment around the bases of the dorsal abdominal hairs. SIPH 1.2-1.5 times longer than their basal widths …..Bicaudella laurestanica
7ABD TERG 1-5 each with 4-5 hairs, which are only 5-11 μm long …..Therioaphis arnaultae
ABD TERG 1-5 each with 4-15 hairs which are 19-85 μm long…..8
8ABD TERG 1-5 (of al.) each with only 4 hairs (one spinal pair and one marginal pair)…..9
ABD TERG 1-5 (apt. and al.) each with at least 6 hairs…..10
9(Al.) Forewing with pterostigma more than twice as long as broad and mainly pale with thick black border. R IV+V 0.75-1.0 × HT II. ABD TERG 1-5 with hairs 40-60 μm long …..Therioaphis astragali
(Al.) Forewing with pterostigma 1.8-2.0 × longer than broad and mainly black with small pale centre. R IV+V 0.57-0.68 × HT II. ABD TERG 1-5 with hairs 19-40 μm long …..Therioaphis pteromaculata
10ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs, or rarely, 3. ABD TERG 1-5 each usually with 6 hairs. Tibiae without any spiculose ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE 0.46-0.69..…Therioaphis kermanica
ABD TERG 8 with 4-9 hairs. ABD TERG 1-5 mostly with more than 6 hairs. Tibiae ornamented with spicules at least distally. ANT/PT BASE 0.77-1.4.….11
11ANT PT 0.90-1.31 × R IV+V, which bears 8-10 accessory hairs. R IV+V 1.03-1.14 × HT II .….Therioaphis azerbaidjanica
ANT PT more than 1.8 × R IV+V, which bears 3-6 accessory hairs. R IV+V 0.67-0.92 × HT II ..…12
12Cauda less than 150 μm long, only 1.40-1.77 × R IV+V and 1.20-1.46 × HT II, with a subspherical apical knob that is about as long as wide and bears 7-9 hairs (Fig.16f). Dorsal hairs rather fine and not distinctly expanded apically. ANT III of apt. with 0-5 rhinaria ..…Therioaphis khayami
Cauda 190-230 μm long, 2.26-2.45 × R IV+V and 1.56-1.78 × HT II, with a knob that is longer than wide and bears 11-16 hairs (Fig.16g). Dorsal hairs rather thick with distinctly expanded apices. ANT III of apt. with 4-10 rhinaria.….13
13Ventral abdomen with large black submarginal sclerites, each encompassing the bases of 5-6 ventral hairs …..Therioaphis trifolii ssp. ventromaculata
Ventral abdomen usually without any submarginal sclerites, sometimes with small or fragmented dusky-dark sclerites, each encompassing bases of 1-4 hairs .….Therioaphis trifolii
14Front of head with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces divergent, parallel or apically convergent. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH pale or dark and cauda pale or dusky. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings ..…15
ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. SIPH usually and cauda often black. Dorsal abdomen often with dark markings..…23
15SIPH 1.0-1.1 × cauda, and distinctly clavate…..Microparsus tephrosiae
SIPH 1.2-3.3 × cauda; tapering, or cylindrical on distal part, or slightly clavate .….16
16ANT BASE VI 1.8-3.0 × R IV+V. SIPH attenuate distally…..17
ANT BASE VI 1.1-1.7 × R IV+V. SIPH not attenuate distally…..19
17 SIPH 0.42-0.50 × BL and 2.2-3.5 × cauda …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii (incl. umarovi)
SIPH 0.22-0.38 × BL, and 1.2-1.9 × cauda…..18
18 ANT and SIPH mainly dark. ANT III with 4-10 secondary rhinaria. ANT VI BASE 2.8-3.0 × R IV+V…..Acyrthosiphon extremiorientale*
ANT and SIPH mainly pale. ANT III with 1-5 secondary rhinaria. ANT VI BASE 1.5-2.5 × R IV+V….. Acyrthosiphon pisum
19Head spinulose. ANT tubercles with inner faces approximately parallel or apically convergent. R IV+V 0.9-1.4 × HT II…..20
Head smooth. ANT tubercles with inner faces divergent. R IV+V 0.75-0.92 × HT II …..21
20ANT tubercles with inner faces approximately parallel. SIPH tapering/cylindrical, without any distal swelling. ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base…..Aulacorthum solani
ANT tubercles with inner faces apically convergent. SIPH slightly clavate. ANT III without rhinaria…..Myzus persicae
21Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 38-48 μm long, about equal to BD III. SIPH 2.0-2.6 × cauda.…. Acyrthosiphon astragali
Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 15-36 μm long, 0.5-0.6 × BD III. SIPH 1.2-2.1 × cauda .…. 22
22SIPH 1.6-2.1 × cauda. ANT PT/BASE 4.1-6.0…..Acyrthosiphon kondoi
SIPH 1.2-1.6 × cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.7-4.2…..Acyrthosiphon loti
23ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH pale and 0.57-0.91 × cauda .….Brachyunguis skafi
ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH dark, 0.5-2.5 × cauda…..24
24Well-developed, dome-like MTu present on all of ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-5, as well as 1 and 7 (Fig.16h)…..25
MTu absent from, or only sporadically present, and usually small, on ABD TERG 2-5…..26
25ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.2. SIPH 1.6-2.1 × cauda. Hairs on ANT III short and blunt, shorter than BD III…..Aphis astragalicola
ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.1. SIPH 1.1-1.6 × cauda. Hairs on ANT III finely pointed, longer than BD III…..Aphis ciceri
26SIPH much darker than cauda. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. Cauda with 4-8 hairsAphis gossypii
SIPH and cauda similarly dark. Dorsal abdomen with dark markings at least posteriorally. Cauda with 4-25 hairs…..27
27Hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.75 × BD III. Dorsal abdomen usually with a solid black shield extending over all of ABD TERG 1-6. Cauda with 4-9 hairs ..…Aphis craccivora
Hairs on ANT III 0.8-2.2 × BD III. Dorsal abdomen with scattered or segmentally-divided black markings, or with a variably developed or fragmented black shield that does not usually extend laterally to unite with marginal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-3. Cauda with 7-25 hairs…..28
28SIPH almost always shorter than (0.5-1.1 ×) cauda, which bears 8-16 hairs …..29
SIPH usually longer than (0.8-1.9 ×) cauda, which bears 7-25 hairs.….32
29Dorsal abdomen with solid black shield extending over middle parts of ABD TERG 1-3 or 1-4 and completely across ABD TERG 4-6 or 5-6. ANT PT/BASE (1.7-)1.9-2.4…..Aphis craccae
Dorsal abdominal sclerotisation variable but all tergites with at least some intersegmental division. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.9 (-2.0) …..30
30 SIPH 0.50-0.65 (-0.67) × cauda…..Aphis masoni
SIPH (0.65-) 0.70-1.1 × cauda…..31
31 Dorsal abdomen with spino-pleural bars on ABD TERG 4-6 or 5-6, but ABD TERG 1-2 (-3) only ever with scattered small sclerites (Fig.16i). Cauda tongue-shaped, 0.23-0.33 mm…..Aphis astragali
Dorsal abdomen variably but more evenly sclerotised. Cauda elongate triangular, 0.16-0.21 mm…..Aphis polaris
32 ABD TERG 8 with a dark transverse band of even width that extends latero-ventrally, encircling the segment almost to the subgenital plate (Fig.16j)..…33
ABD TERG 8 with a short dark transverse bar that is not extended latero-ventrally …..34
33ANT III with 0-13 rhinaria in apt. R IV+V a little longer than HT II. Cauda with 8-15 hairs .….Aphis gallowayi
ANT III without rhinaria in apt. R IV+V a little shorter than HT II. Cauda with 17-22 hairs ..…Aphis astragalina
34Cauda with 7-13 hairs (usually 7-9). Hairs on ABD TERG 3 very short, 7-17 μm long .….Aphis tacita
Cauda with 11-25 hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 usually more than 18 μm long …..Aphis fabae (or solanella)
Astrantia majorAphis fabae
A. ponticaMyzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Astrocodon Campanulaceae
Astrocodon kruhseanus = Campanula expansa
Astroloba Asphodelaceae
Astroloba congesta Aloephagus myersi
Astydamia latifolia Hyadaphis coriandri
Asyneuma canescens Uroleucon phyteumae
Asystasia coromandeliana = A, gangetica
A. gangeticaAphis gossypii
A. mysorensisAphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae
A. schimperi = A. mysorensis

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Atalantia buxifolia Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Athamanta cretensis Cavariella aegopodii
A. turbith ssp. haynaldii Cavariella aegopodii
Athanasia linifolia Coloradoa tanacetina; Metopeurum fuscoviride
A. trifurcataAphis fabae, gossypii; Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Tanacetum.

Athyriopsis petersenii = Deparia petersenii
Athyrium alpestre Macrosiphum [adianti], dryopteridis, lapponicum, walkeri
A. distentifolium = A. alpestre
A. filix-feminaAmphorophora ampullata; Aulacorthum solani;
Macrosiphum [adianti], dryopteridis, lambi, [ptericolens],
Taiwanomyzus alpicola
A. macrocarpum = A. monanthes
A. monanthesMacromyzus woodwardiae; Shinjia orientalis
A. pycnosorum = Deparia pycnosora
A. rubripesAmphorophora ampullata
A. yokoscenseAmphorophora ampullata; Taiwanomyzus filicis
Athyrium spp.Amphorophora ampullata ssp. bengalensis;
Macromyzus maculatus; Micromyzella judenkoi

For a key to fern-feeding aphids see under Polypodium.

Atractylis flavaProtaphis carthami(?)
Atractylodes japonica Aphis gossypii; Uroleucon gobonis
A. ovataUroleucon gobonis

Use key to polyphagous aphids; U. gobonis will come out as U. compositae.

Atragene see ClematisRanunculaceae
Atraphaxis buxifolia = A. caucasica
A. caucasicaAcaudella puchovi
A. compactaBrachyunguis atraphaxidis
A. frutescensAphis fabae, nasturtii; Brachycaudus shaposhnikovi
Brachyunguis atraphaxidis, monstratus;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae
A. karataviensisBrachyunguis atraphaxidis
A. laetevirensBrachyunguis atraphaxidis, monstratus
A. muschketowiiBrachyunguis atraphaxidis
A. pungensBrachyunguis atraphaxidis
A. pyrifoliaBrachycaudus shaposhnikovi; Brachyunguis atraphaxidis
A. replicata = A. spinosa
A. spinosaAcaudella puchovi; Aphis craccivora;
Brachycaudus shaposhnikovi
Brachyunguis atraphaxidis, monstratus
A. virgataBrachycaudus shaposhnikovi;
Brachyunguis atraphaxidis, monstratus

Key to aphids on Atraphaxis:-

1ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5…..2
ANT PT/BASE less than 1.2..…3
2Cauda hardly evident, very broadly rounded, much less than 0.5 × longer than its basal width. Dorsum with black sclerotisation. Small marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 2-4, and spinal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 and 8 …..Brachycaudus shaposhnikovi*
Cauda helmet-, tongue- or finger-shaped, much more than 0.5 × longer than its basal width, and other characters not in that combination …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
3Cauda absent. SIPH smooth and of characteristic shape; swollen in middle and strongly constricted subapically, with a large flange. ANT 5-segmented .….Acaudella puchovi*
Cauda conical. SIPH shorter than cauda, barrel-shaped, with imbrication. ANT 6-segmented…..4
4SIPH 0.055-0.065 × BL and 0.7-0.9 × cauda …..Brachyunguis atraphaxidis*
SIPH 0.04-0.05 × BL and 0.45-0.5 × cauda…..Brachyunguis monstratus*
Atrichum undulata Decorosiphon corynothrix; Muscaphis musci;
Myzodium modestum

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

Atriplex acuminata = A. hortensis
A. angustifolia = A. repanda
A. arenaria = A. cristata
A. aucheriBrachyunguis harmalae
A. babingtonii = A. glabriuscula
A. belangeri = A. repens
A. breweri = A. lentiformis ssp. breweri
A. calothecaHayhurstia atriplicis
A. canaAphis craccivora; Metopeuraphis atriplicis;
Pemphigus fuscicornis; Xerobion juchnevitchae
A. canescens (incl. tetraptera) Brachyunguis bonnevillensis, tetrapteralis; Myzus ornatus
A. cristataAphis fabae
A. desertorum = A. aucheri
A. dimorphostegia Brachyunguis harmalae
A. flabellumAphis craccivora, [Aphis sp. (Davletshina 1964)];
Brachyunguis harmalae
A. glabriusculaHayhurstia atriplicis
A. halimusAphis craccivora, fabae; Hayhurstia atriplicis;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae
A. hastata = A. prostrata ssp. calotheca
A. heterosperma = A. micrantha
A. hortensisAphis craccivora, fabae; Hayhurstia atriplicis;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae
A. incisa = A. laciniata
A. laciniataHayhurstia atriplicis
A. laevisHayhurstia atriplicis
A. lampaBrachyunguis bahamondesi
A. latifoliaAulacorthum solani; Hayhurstia atriplicis
A. lentiformisBrachyunguis tetrapteralis; Myzus ornatus
(incl. ssp. breweri)
A. leucocladaAphis craccivora
A. littoralisHayhurstia atriplicis
A. marina = A. littoralis
A. micranthaAcyrthosiphon gossypii; Hayhurstia atriplicis
A. nitens = A. sagittata
A. nudicaulisHayhurstia atriplicis
A. nummulariaAphis fabae
A. oppositifolia = A. prostrata
A. patulaMyzus ornatus; Hayhurstia atriplicis
A. portulacoidesHayhurstia atriplicis
A. prostrataAphis fabae; Hayhurstia atriplicis;
(incl. ssp. calotheca) Macrosiphum euphorbiae
A. repandaAphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Hayhurstia atriplicis;
[Hyalopterus pruni]; Myzus persicae
A. repens Hayhurstia atriplicis
A. roseaAphis fabae
A. sagittata Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [Aphis sp.
(Davletshina 1964)];
Hayhurstia atriplicis
A. semibaccataBrachyunguis tetrapteralis; Hayhurstia atriplicis
A. tataricaAcyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis craccivora, fabae;
Brachyunguis harmalae; Hayhurstia atriplicis;
Pemphigus fuscicornis (?); Smynthurodes betae
A. verruciferaPemphigus fuscicornis (?)
A. vesicariaAphis craccivora, Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus persicae

Key to aphids on Atriplex:-

1SIPH very long and thin, 2.5-3.5 × cauda and 0.33-0.5 × BL …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii
SIPH (if present) not more than 2.5 × cauda or 0.33 × BL…..2
2 ANT PT/BASE 0.5-1.4..…3
ANT PT/BASE either less than 0.3 or more than 1.4.….7
3SIPH dark…..4
SIPH pale…..5
4ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.4. SIPH cylindrical…..Brachyunguis bahamondesi
ANT PT/BASE 0.5-1.0. SIPH volcano-shaped.….Xerobion juchnevitchae*
5Hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 16-20 μm long, 0.8-1.0 × BD; hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 28-36 μm long, 1.4-1.8 × BD III.….Brachunguis harmalae
Hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 10-16 μm long, 0.5-0.7 × BD III; hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 15-30 μm long, 0.7-1.2 × BD III..…6
6R IV+V 1.3-1.8 × ANT PT. ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.73. SIPH 0.05-0.095 mm long ….. Brachyunguis tetrapteralis
R IV+V 0.9-1.2 × ANT PT. ANT PT/BASE 0.70-1.0. SIPH 0.07-0.16 mm long …..Brachyunguis bonnevillensis
7SIPH cylindrical or slightly swollen, only 0.5-0.7 × cauda, which bears 5-7 hairs .….Hayhurstia atriplicis
SIPH (if present) more than 0.7 × cauda..…8
8SIPH with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.3-0.4 of length, and much shorter than the distance between their bases.….Metopeuraphis atriplicis
SIPH (if present) without polygonal reticulation, or if such reticulation is present then it extends over less than distal 0.3 of length, and SIPH are as long as or longer than the distance between their bases…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Atropa acuminata Myzus persicae
A. belladonnaAphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;
[Brevicoryne brassicae]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Atropis see PuccinelliaPoaceae
Aubretia deltoidea Myzus ascalonicus, cymbalariae, ornatus, persicae;
Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Aucklandia lappa see Saussurea lappa
Aucuba japonicaAulacorthum [linderae], solani;
Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus;
[Nipponaphis coreana]; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Aucuparia see SorbusRosaceae
Aulacomnium palustre [Pachpappa rosettei, sacculi]

(or try key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum]

Aulacospermum sp. Aphis fabae
Aureolaria see AgalinisOrobanchaceae
Auricula see Primula auriculaPrimulaceae
Austrocedrus chilensis Cinara cupressi, [cupressivora], fresai, tujafilina

Use key to apterae on Cupressus.

inulifolium Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; [Tuberolachnus salignus]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Avena barbataDiuraphis noxia; Metopolophium dirhodum;
Myzus persicae; Rhopalosiphum padi;
Schizaphis dubia, graminum, rufula;
Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae
A. brevisMetopolophium dirhodum
A. byzantinaAploneura lentisci; Forda marginata;
Rhopalosiphum padi, rufiabdominale; Sitobion avenae
A. chinensisMetopolophium dirhodum
A. desertorum = Helictotrichon desertorum
A. fatua[Acyrthosiphon gossypii]; Anoecia corni, radiciphaga;
Aphis fabae; Diuraphis noxia; Forda orientalis;
Geoica setulosa, utricularia; Israelaphis lambersi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Metopolophium albidum, dirhodum; Myzus persicae;
Rhopalosiphum padi;
Schizaphis graminum, longicaudata, rufula; Sipha maydis;
Sitobion avenae, fragariae, miscanthi;
Tetraneura caerulescens
A. ludoviciana = A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana
A. nudaMetopolophium dirhodum; Schizaphis graminum;
Sitobion miscanthi
A. orientalis = A. sativa
A. persica = A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana
A. sativaAnoecia corni, fulviabdominalis, vagans;
Aulacorthum solani; Carolinaia rhois; Diuraphis noxia;
Forda formicaria, marginata; Geoica setulosa, utricularia;
Israelaphis lambersi; Laingia psammae;
Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae ssp. cerealium;
Neomyzus circumflexus;
Pemphigus sp. (?groenlandicus; Zwölfer 1958);
[Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon];
Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi, rufiabdominale;
Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans, flava, maydis;
Sitobion avenae, fragariae, miscanthi;
[Smynthurodes betae]; Tetraneura caerulescens, ulmi;
[Utamphorophora humboldti]
A. sterilis Anoecia corni, furcata; Baizongia pistaciae;
[Dysaphis apiifolia]; Forda formicaria, marginata, rotunda;
Geoice utricularia; Israelaphis carmini, ilharcoi, lambersi;
Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum maidis;
Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae
A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana Anoecia corni; Melanaphis pyraria;
Metopolophium dirhodum; Sipha arenarii; Sitobion avenae
A. strigosaMetopolophium dirhodum; Sitobion avenae
A. wiestii = A. barbata
Avena sp.Chaetosiphella stipae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Avenastrum see HelictotrichonPoaceae
Avenula see HelictotrichonPoaceae
Averrhoa bilimbi Aphis gossypii
A. carambolaAphis aurantii, gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Axonopus compressus Hysteroneura setariae; Sitobion miscanthi;
(incl. var. affinis) Tetraneura fusiformis
A. fissifoliusHysteroneura setariae; Sitobion miscanthi
A. scopariusRhopalosiphum maidis
Axonopus sp.Sipha flava

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Axyris amaranthoides Aphis axyriphaga, axyriradicis
A. lanata = Krascheninnikovia lanata

Key to apterae on Axyris:-

Marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 2-4 (-6) as well as 1 and 7. Marginal hair on ABD TERG 1 is 0.3-0.5 × height of adjacent tubercle. Cauda with 7-9 hairs …..Aphis axyriradicis
MTu absent from ABD TERG 2-6. Marginal hair on ABD TERG 1 is about 0.9 × height of adjacent tubercle. Cauda with only 3-5 hairs…..Aphis axyriphaga
Azadirachta indica Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Azalea see RhododendronEricaceae
Azaleastrum albiflorum [Ericaphis scoliopi];
[Illinoia sp. (Oregon, Washington, USA;];
Macrosiphum opportunisticum
Azanza garckeana Aphis craccivora, gossypii
Azolla caroliniana = A. filiculoides
A. filiculoidesRhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Azorella selagoMyzus ascalonicus
Azorina vidalii Aphis sp. (Azores, BMNH collection)


Babiana angustifolia Myzus cymbalariae
Baccaurea sp.Greenidea anonae
Baccharis (including Baccharidastrum) Asteraceae
Baccharis caprariifolia Brachycaudus helichrysi
B. concavaAphis fuentesi
B. coridifoliaAphis coridifoliae; Uroleucon tucumani
B. dracunculifolia Aphis gossypii, spiraecola
B. halimifoliaAphis coreopsidis, fabae, oenotherae;
Brachycaudus [cardui], helichrysi;
Myzus persicae; Prociphilus erigeronensis;
Uroleucon ambrosiae, erigeronense
B. junceaAphis gossypii; Uroleucon mendocinum
B. latifoliaMacrosiphum edrossi
B. linearisAphis conspicua, fuentesi, ingeborgae;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae;
Uroleucon brevisiphon, erigeronense, macolai
B. melastomifolia = B. punctulata
B. magellanica = B. tricuneata
B. oxiodontaAphis gossypii
B. patagonicaUroleucon brevisiphon
B. pilularisAphis baccharicola, coreopsidis, gossypii;
Brachycaudus helichrysi;
Uroleucon ambrosiae, erigeronense
B. platensisAphis gossypii
B. polifoliaUroleucon macolai
B. punctulataUroleucon ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum, bereticum,
[littorale], tucumani
B. racemosaUroleucon pseudomuermosum
B. rhomboidalisAphis fuentesi
B. salicifoliaAphis conspicua, coreopsidis, [craccivora];
Uroleucon chilense, essigi, macolai, tucumani
B. salicinaAphis gossypii;
Uroleucon [rudbeckiae (= ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum?)]
B. schultziiAphis gossypii
B. spartioides = Psila spartioides
B. tricuneata Aphis fuentesi; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus
B. trineuraAphis spiraecola
B. triplinervis = B. trineura
B. viminea = B. salicina
Baccharis spp.Aphis aurantii, solitaria;
Uroleucon [baccharidis (Clarke 1903, nomen nudum)],
chilense, essigi, paucosensoriatum, pseudomuermosum

Key to aphids on Baccharis:-

1ANT about 0.25 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. Cauda and anal plate protruding backward, dark…..Prociphilus erigeronensis
ANT more than 0.4 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH present. Cauda and anal plate normal, pale or dark.….2
2SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation…..3
SIPH without any polygonal reticulation…..14
3SIPH with distal reticulation on less than 0.07 of length and comprising only 2-4 rows of polygonal cells…..Macrosiphum edrossi
SIPH with distal reticulation on more than 0.1 of length and comprising more than 6 rows of polygonal cells…..4
4Cauda with some apical hairs usually short and blunt. SIPH pale at base, dark distally. Dorsal cephalic hairs 18-35 μm long .….Uroleucon erigeronense
Cauda with apical hairs finely pointed like the more proximal hairs. SIPH variously pigmented. Dorsal cephalic hairs 32-75 μm long.….5
5SIPH usually more than 1.6 × cauda, which is 0.24-0.34 mm long and bears 7-12 hairs .….6
SIPH usually less than 1.6 × cauda, which is 0.33-0.85 mm long and bears 9-31 hairs ….7
6First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 3.7-4.2. ANT III with 3-6 rhinaria, on basal half. R IV+V shorter than HT II. SIPH pale at base and lacking imbrication on basal half..…Uroleucon essigi
First tarsal segments with 4-5 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 4.1-5.3. ANT III with 5-14 rhinaria extending onto distal half. R IV+V longer than HT II. SIPH dark and imbricated to base …..Uroleucon tucumani
7SIPH 0.36-0.54 mm long, 0.9-1.1 × cauda, which is 0.36-0.51 mm long. R IV+V shorter than HT II..…Uroleucon brevisiphon
SIPH 0.47-1.00 mm long, 1.1-1.6 × cauda which is 0.33-0.85 mm long. R IV+V longer or shorter than HT II..…8
8Cauda pale, contrasting with dark brown-black SIPH and distal part of hind femur. SIPH 1.1-1.5 × cauda, which is 0.46-0.85 mm long…..9
Cauda somewhat pigmented, not contrastingly pale in comparison with SIPH or, if SIPH are very dark, not pale in comparison with distal part of hind femur. SIPH 1.3-1.6 × cauda, which is 0.33-0.64 mm long…..10
9R IV+V longer than ANT VI BASE. Cauda with 19-28 hairs .….Uroleucon ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum
R IV+V shorter than ANT VI BASE. Cauda with 12-15 hairs ..…Uroleucon mendocinum
10R IV+V 0.163-0.193 mm long, 1.1-1.3 × HT II…..11
R IV+V 0.123-0.173 mm long, 0.8-1.1 × HT II..…13
11Dorsal abdominal sclerites all pale and inconspicuous. ANT PT/BASE more than 6. ANT III with 7-19 rhinaria (al. with 14-22)…..Uroleucon chilense
Dorsal abdomen with dark post-siphuncular sclerites and variably pigmented sclerites at bases of dorsal hairs. ANT PT/BASE 4.3-6.1…..12
12ANT III with 18-29 rhinaria (al. with 24-39). ANT PT/BASE 4.3-5.4. Scleroites at bases of dorsal abdominal hairs are as dark as the postsiphuncular sclerites…..Uroleucon pseudomuermosum
ANT III with 4-16 rhinaria (al. with 33-50). ANT PT/BASE 5.0-6.1. Scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs are paler than the postsiphuncular sclerites …..Uroleucon paucosensoriatum
13ANT I dark compared with II and basal part of III, and dorsal abdomen with dark postsiphuncular sclerites and sclerites around bases of dorsal hairs. ANT III with 7-15 rhinaria restricted to basal half of segment (alata with 11-24) …..Uroleucon macolai
ANT I, II and basal part of III similarly pale to dusky, and dorsal abdominal sclerites pale. ANT III with 15-32 rhinaria distributed over most of segment (alata with 21-35) …..Uroleucon bereticum
14ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces convergent and scabrous. SIPH pale and slightly to moderately clavate..…Myzus persicae
ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, divergent and smooth. SIPH pale or dark, tapering.….15
15Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width. SIPH short, truncate, smooth and pale. Spiracular pores large and rounded. Marginal tubercles (MTu) absent ..…Brachycaudus helichrysi
Cauda tongue-shaped, usually longer than its basal width. SIPH pale or dark, tapering, with imbrication. Spiracular pores reniform. MTu present at least on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7..…16
16SIPH pale. R IV+V with 3-10 accessory hairs…..17
SIPH dark. R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs…..18
17ANT III usually with 1-15 rhinaria on distal part, and IV with 0-4 …..Aphis solitaria
ANT III and IV without rhinaria…..Aphis oenotherae
18Cauda paler than SIPH…..19
Cauda as dark as SIPH..…20
19SIPH 0.14-0.20 × BL. Cauda pale or dusky. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.5 ..…Aphis gossypii
SIPH 0.25-0.40 × BL. Cauda very pale. ANT PT/BASE 3.25-4.0 …..Aphis coreopsidis
20Stridulatory apparatus present (a row of short peg-like hairs on hind tibia and cuticular ridges on abdominal sternites 5 and 6). ANT PT/BASE 3.7-5.1…..Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
Stridulatory apparatus absent. ANT PT/BASE 1.0-3.7.….21
21ABD TERG 2-6 usually without MTu; sometimes with just 1-2 MTu per side (smaller than those on ABD TERG 1 and 7).….22
ABD TERG 2-6 (or at least ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-5) consistently with MTu .….26
22Dorsal abdomen without any dark sclerotisation…..Aphis spiraecola
Dorsal abdomen at least with marginal sclerites, usually with dark bands on ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8, and often with dark postsiphuncular sclerites and/or some dark markings anterior to SIPH, or with much more extensive dark sclerotisation…..23
23ANT PT/BASE 1.2-2.0, rarely more than 1.8. MTu on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7 large and often of irregular shape, and sometimes with wrinkles or warts…..Aphis ingeborgae*
ANT PT/BASE 1.6-4.0, rarely less than 1.8. MTu on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7 hemispherical or hemiovoidal, without wrinkles or warts…..24
24Dorsal abdomen usually with an extensive black sclerotic patch. Cauda with 4-9 hairs…..Aphis craccivora
Dorsal abdomen much less extensive, dispersed sclerotisation. Cauda with 7-24 hairs…..25
25SIPH often bearing 1-3 hairs; 1.6-2.5 × cauda, which bears 7-12 hairs..…Aphis baccharicola
SIPH always without hairs; 0.8-1.6 × cauda which bears 11-24 hairs .….Aphis fabae
26SIPH short, 0.05–0.11 mm long, 1.2–2.9 × their midlength diameter and 0.3–0.6 × cauda..…Aphis fuentesi*
SIPH longer than 0.10 mm, at least 2.8 × their midlength diameter and at least 0.8 × cauda…..27
27MTu on ABD TERG 1, 7 and usually all of ABD TERG 2-6 very broad, wider than adjacent spiracular sclerites. R IV+V 0.12–0.14 mm long. Dorsal abdomen anterior to SIPH with variable sclerotisation..…Aphis conspicua*
MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7 (sometimes absent from 7) and on ABD TERG 2–4 and 6 not broad, not wider than adjacent spiracular sclerites. R IV+V 0.09–0.11 mm long. Dorsal abdomen anterior to SIPH without any sclerotisation…..Aphis coridifoliae
Bacopa monnieri Myzus persicae
Bactris spp.Cerataphis brasiliensis
Baeckea see SannanthaMyrtaceae
Baeckea virgata = Sannantha virgata
Bahia absinthifolia Uroleucon ambrosiae, erigeronense
B. ambrosoidesAphis spiraecola

Use key to apterae on Erigeron.

Balanites aegyptiaca Aphis gossypii
Ballota foetida = B. nigra
B. nigraAphis ballotae, [nasturtii]; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus ballotae;
Cryptomyzus alboapicalis, ballotae, [galeopsidis];
Myzus ornatus; Ovatomyzus sp. (chamaedrys?);
[Ovatus cataegarius]

Key to aphids on Ballota:-

1Most dorsal hairs long, thick and capitate…..2
Dorsal hairs not long, thick and capitate…..3
2ANT PT 1.4-1.8 × SIPH. ANT PT/BASE 5.9-8.8. Cauda 0.6-0.8 × R IV+V, which bears 9-14 accessory hairs. R IV+V 1.4-1.7 × HT II. SIPH 3.7-4.3 × cauda. ANT III and IV normally articulated…..Cryptomyzus ballotae
ANT PT 4.4-6.5 × SIPH. ANT PT/BASE 7.8-10.5. Cauda 1.2-1.5 × R IV+V, which bears 3-4 accessory hairs. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 × HT II. SIPH 1.0-1.5 × cauda. ANT III and IV often fused…..Cryptomyzus alboapicalis
3Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Dorsal abdomen dark, or with dark cross-bands. Spiracles large and rounded …..Brachycaudus ballotae
Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Dorsum mainly or entirely pale. Spiracles reniform …..4
4SIPH dark. ANT tubercles weakly developed, front of head sinuous in outline in dorsal view. Marginal tubercles (MTu) always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7 .….Aphis ballotae
SIPH pale. ANT tubercles well developed, projecting well beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. MTu never present on ABD TERG 1 and 7..…5
5Head smooth. Cauda constricted at base. SIPH usually slightly swollen distally, with a small flange.….Ovatomyzus sp.
Head spiculose. Cauda not constricted at base. SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half, with a moderate to large flange…..6
6Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental ornamentation. ANT III without any rhinaria. SIPH with a slight “S”-curve….Myzus ornatus
Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. ANT III with 1-2 small rhinaria near base. SIPH straight…..Aulacorthum solani
Balsamina see ImpatiensBalsaminaceae
Balsamina hortensis = Impatiens balsamina
Balsamita major = Tanacetum balsamita
B. suaveolens = Tanacetum balsamita
Balsamorhiza sagittata Macrosiphum euphorbiae
Balsamorhiza sp. Aphis asclepiadis; Illinoia goldamaryae; Uroleucon erigeronense, [madia]
1SIPH with a distinctly paler basal part contrasting with dark distal part, and with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.25-0.35 of total length. Distal caudal hairs usually shorter and blunt or capitate…..Uroleucon erigeronense
SIPH more uniformly pale, dusky or dark, with or without polygonal reticulation. Distal caudal hairs all pointed…..2
2SIPH pale and clearly somewhat swollen proximal to a short reticulated subapical zone, which is only 0.03-0.05 of total length of SIPH (Fig.49a). Hairs on ANT III very short and inconspicuous, the longest about 0.33 × BD III…..Illinoia goldamaryae
SIPH pale, dusky or dark, if pale with subapical reticulation then they are tapering, cylindrical or only very slightly swollen proximal to reticulated zone, which is 0.13-0.20 of the total length, and the hairs on ANT III are conspicuous, the longest 0.5 × BD III or longer…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Baltimora rectaAphis coreopsidis, gossypii
SIPH 0.14-0.20 × BL. Cauda pale or dusky. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.5 ..…Aphis gossypii
SIPH 0.25-0.40 × BL. Cauda very pale. ANT PT/BASE 3.25-4.0 …..Aphis coreopsidis
Bambusa Bamboos Poaceae

About 40 species of aphid colonise members of the genus Bambusa. Many of these also occur on other bamboo genera, and the large number recorded from Bambusa may simply be because it is the best known genus. The key is an updated and expanded version of that provided by Blackman & Eastop (1984). It includes species recorded from unidentified bamboos, possibly not of this genus. The Hormaphidinae associated with bamboos are in need of further study to determine their life cycles and clarify taxonomic relationships, and reliable identification of Astegopteryx and Ceratovacuna to species is not usually possible in the present state of knowledge. Aoki et al. (2007) provide a key to bamboo-feeding Pseudoregma.

Bambusa arundinacea = B. bambos
B. bambosAstegopteryx bambusae, minuta; Ceratovacuna silvestrii;
Pseudoregma alexanderi; Takecallis arundinariae
B. beecheyanaAstegopteryx bambusae
B. blumeanaAstegopteryx bambusae; Ceratovacuna japonica;
Chucallis bambusicola; Melanaphis bambusae;
Phyllaphoides bambusicola;
Pseudoregma bambucicola, koshunensis, montana
B. cornigeraAstegopteryx bambusae
B. dolichocladaAstegopteryx bambusae;
Pseudoregma bambucicola, koshunensis
B. dolichomerithalla = B. multiplex
B. duriusculaPseudoregma bambucicola
B. emeiensisAstegopteryx bambusae; Cerataphis bambusifoliae
B. floribunda = B. multiplex
B. glaucescens = B. multiplex
B. multiplexAstegopteryx bambusae, formosana, liukueinensis, minuta;
Melanaphis bambusae, meghalayensis;
Pseudoregma alexanderi, bambucicola, koshunensis,
Takecallis arundinariae
B. nana = B. multiplex
B. oldhamiiAstegopteryx bambusae, formosana;
Pseudoregma alexanderi, bambucicola, koshunensis
B. pachinensisPseudoregma koshunensis
B. sinospinosaPseudoregma koshunensis
B. stenostachya = B. blumeana
B. textilisAstegopteryx minuta
B. tuldoidesPseudoregma koshunensis
B. utilisPseudoregma bambucicola, koshunensis
B. ventricosa = B. tuldoides
B. vulgarisAstegopteryx bambusae; Forda hirsuta;
Melanaphis bambusae;
Pseudoregma alexanderi, bambucicola, koshunensis;
Smynthurodes betae
Unidentified Bambusa spp. Aleurodaphis antennata; [Aphis craccivora, gossypii];
Astegopteryx basalis, glandulosa, [himalayensis],
[lutescens], [malaccensis], [neelagiriensis], pallida,
[similis], singaporensis, [striata], [styracophila],
Ceratoglyphina bambusae, bengalensis, brachyskeroae;
Ceratovacuna [brevicornis], floccifera, hoffmanni, indica,
keduensis, [longifila];
Chaitoregma [aderuensis], tattakana;
Glyphinaphis bambusae; Hysteroneura setariae;
Melanaphis [arundinariae], [donacis], [grossisiphonellus],
[Myzus obtusirostris, persicae];
Neocranaphis bambusicola; Pemphigus sp.;
Pseudoregma [albostriata], [cantonensis], carolinensis,
[gombakana], [panicola], pendleburyi, [uscare];
Rhopalosipum rufiabdominale; [Schizaphis graminum];
Sitobion bambusicola, fragariae, miscanthi;
Subtakecallis brevisetosa, pilosa;
Takecallis affinis, arundicolens, assumenta, sasae, taiwana

Key to apterae on Bambusa and other bamboos (but note separate keys are provided for Arundinaria and Sasa):-

1 Aptera with multifacetted eyes and antennae more than 0.4× BL or, if only alatae are present, these have usually 6-segmented antennae bearing circular, oval or elongate oval secondary rhinaria…..2
Apterae with 3-facetted eyes and antennae less than 0.4× BL. Alatae usually with 5-segmented antennae bearing ring-like rhinaria which extend more than half-way around the circumference of the antenna (not in Fordini)…..14
2 Anal plate bilobed, cauda knobbed. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.2. (All viviparae alate) …..3
Anal plate entire, cauda tongue-shaped (sometimes with a mid-way constriction). ANT PT/BASE at least 1.5…..8
3 Abdomen with long, finger-like, hair-bearing spinal and marginal tubercles, especially large marginally on ABD TERG 4 (fig. 30E)…..Chucallis bambusicola
Abdomen at most with only small tubercles, none longer than width at base …..4
4 ANT PT/BASE 0.6 or less…..5
ANT PT/BASE at least 0.75…..7
5 Clypeus without an anterioventral projection. ANT I more than 1.5× longer than wide …..Neocranaphis bambusicola
Clypeus with a nose-like anterioventral projection. ANT I about as long as wide …..6
6 Dorsal abdominal hairs 30-35 µm long, at most equal to basal diameter of ANT III. ANT PT/ BASE 0.5-0.6. Dorsal abdominal sclerites small…..Subtakecallis brevisetosa
Dorsal abdominal hairs 60-95 µm, much longer than the basal diameter of ANT III. ANT PT/BASE 0.24-0.30. Dorsal sclerites large, at least on ABD TERG 3-4 …..Subtakecallis pilosa
7 Eyes without ocular tubercles. SIPH cones very flat, mammariform …..Phyllaphoides bambusicola
Eyes with ocular tubercles. SIPH cones truncate…..Takecallis spp. (for separation see couplets 6-11 of key to aphids on Arundinaria)
8 Antennae of aptera 5-segmented with longest hairs 3 or more × basal diameter of ANT III. ANT PT often markedly curved…..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale
Antennae of aptera 6-segmented with much shorter hairs. ANT PT not markedly curved …..9
9 SIPH short and truncate, similar in length to the equally dark cauda…..10
– SIPH at least 1.4 × the paler cauda…..11
10 Hairs on ANT III short and inconspicuous, maximally about 0.5 × basal diameter of segment. Alata with dark wing veins…..Melanaphis bambusae
Hairs on ANT III at least 2-3 times longer than basal diameter of segment. Alata with wing veins not deeply pigmented….. Melanaphis meghalayensis
11 SIPH without a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda long and pale, with only 4 hairs…..Hysteroneura setariae
SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale or dusky with about 8 hairs…..12
12SIPH of aptera 1.4-1.9 × cauda…..Sitobion miscanthi
SIPH of aptera 2.0-2.7 × cauda…..13
13Cauda of aptera 0.16-0.17 × BL, and c. 4.1 × HT II, and tapering to an almost pointed apex…..Sitobion bambusicola
Cauda of aptera 0.12-0.14 × BL, and 1.8-2.7× HT II; rounded at apex and usually showing a slight midway constriction …..Sitobion fragariae
14SIPH pores absent …..15
SIPH pores present…..17
15Dorsal abdomen with honeycomb-like wax pore plates especially on posterior tergites. HT I with 2 hairs…..Pemphigus sp.
No wax pore plates. HT I with 4 or more hairs…..16
16 ANT III less than 2×ANT II. Dorsum densely hairy. BL (of aptera) 1.5-2.5 mm…..Smynthurodes betae
ANT III more than 2× ANT II. Dorsum sparsely hairy. BL 2.7-3.7 mm…..Forda hirsuta
17 Body of aptera including head with a continuous row of small wax glands forming a complete, crenulate margin…..18
Body of aptera without a complete crenulate margin of wax glands…..19
18 Body of aptera narrowly oval; BL about 2× greatest width. Entire dorsal cuticle ornamented with numerous small, nodulose wax glands. R IV+V longer than HT II…..Aleurodaphis antennata
Body of aptera broadly oval to almost circular; BL maximally about 1.5× its greatest width (fig. 30A). Dorsum without nodules. R IV+V shorter than HT II…..Cerataphis bambusifoliae
19 Head of aptera without frontal horns. Dorsal and marginal body hairs thick and spine-like, and usually long…..Glyphinaphis bambusae
Head of aptera with a pair of forwardly-directed frontal horns. Body hairs short, or if long then fine…..20
20 Cauda rounded and anal plate entire. Frontal horns of adult aptera usually longer than ANT I and II combined…..21
Cauda knob-like, anal plate bilobed. Frontal horns of adult aptera not longer than ANT I + II combined…..23
21 Frontal horns of aptera only c.1.33 × ANT II. Dorsal abdomen with 4 longitudinal rows of wax glands (spinal as well as marginal) …..Ceratoglyphina brachyskeroae
Frontal horns at least 2 × ANT II. Dorsal abdomen with only marginal rows of wax glands…..22
22 Frontal horns of aptera with 8-10 hairs, the longest 22-33 µm. SIPH with 4-6 surrounding hairs…..Ceratoglyphina bambusae (or styracicola)
Frontal horns of aptera with 14-18 hairs, the longest 60-65 µm. SIPH with 6-11 surrounding hairs…..Ceratoglyphina bengalensis
23 SIPH pores placed on shallow cones encircled by long fine hairs. Dorsum mainly membranous, with any sclerotised areas non-pustulate. Aptera with wax pore plates if present usually arranged in longitudinal marginal rows…..24
SIPH pores on small pigmented shallow cones and usually without a ring of fine hairs; if with hairs then sclerotic areas of dorsum have numerous small pustules. Wax pore plates of aptera if present not arranged in longitudinal marginal rows…..31
24 Frontal horns of aptera with rounded apices…..25
Frontal horns of aptera with pointed apices…..28
25 Marginal wax pore plates of aptera in clusters…..Astegopteryx liukueinensis*
Marginal wax pore plates of aptera either in rows or completely absent…..26
26 ABD TERG 6 of aptera usually with 3 or more hairs, and ABD TERG 2 and 3 each with 9-15 hairs (in addition to the hairs near the wax glands). Marginal wax pore plates often touching each other over half their width, so that the adpressed margins are straight (fig. 30B) …..Astegopteryx formosana or A. bambusae (part) – see text
ABD TERG 6 of aptera usually with 2 hairs, and ABD TERG 2 and 3 each with 4-11 hairs (in addition to those near the wax glands). Marginal wax pore plates if developed mostly touching over much less than half their width, and therefore more rounded …..27
27Marginal wax pore plates of aptera small (10-15 µm diameter), rounded, not touching each other (fig. 30B), and sometimes completely absent from some or all segments…..Astegopteryx minuta
Marginal wax pore plates of aptera larger, diameter mostly 20-40 µm, usually touching over some distance in middle (fig. 30B), present on most segments…..Astegopteryx bambusae (part)
28 Frontal horns of adult aptera narrowed distally and acutley pointed apically, more than 1.5× ANT I, and usually about as long as ANT I + II together …..Astegopteryx pallida
Frontal horns of adult aptera short, conical, broad-based, about equal in length to or shorter than ANT I…..29
29Frontal horns of aptera much shorter than ANT I, only 0.04-0.08 × head width across eyes. Marginal wax pore plates form clusters when well developed …..Astegopteryx glandulosa
Frontal horns of aptera similar in length to ANT I, 0.09-0.24 × head width across eyes. Marginal wax pore plates form longitudinal rows when well developed …..30
30 SIPH of aptera usually with 2-3 surrounding hairs (rarely up to 7), and 2-3 hairs on ABD TERG 5 between SIPH. Total antennal length 0.65-0.85× width of head across eyes. R IV+V 0.73-0.92× HT II …..Astegopteryx basalis
SIPH of aptera with 4-11 surrounding hairs, and 3-7 hairs on ABD TERG 5 between SIPH. Total antennal length 0.7-1.1 × head width across eyes. R IV+V 0.55-0.70 × HT II…..Astegopteryx singaporensis
31 Dorsal cuticle of aptera uniformly sclerotised…..32
Aptera with at least the abdominal tergites partly membranous…..33
32 Frontal horns of aptera thumb-shaped; cylindrical with broadly rounded apices, even in immature individuals. Wax pores all dispersed, not forming wax pore plates, even on ABD TERG 8…..Chaitoregma tattakana
Frontal horns of aptera conical, their apices rounded in adults, narrower and more pointed in immatures. Wax pore plates present, at least as a central group on ABD TERG 8 (fig. 30F) …..Pseudoregma pendleburyi
33 Sclerotic areas of dorsum, especially head and pronotum, evenly covered with small rounded or irregularly shaped pustules or denticles (e.g. fig. 30C)…..34
Sclerotic areas of cuticle smooth or slightly wrinkled…..37
34 R IV+V conical, tapering gradually to tip, 0.15-01.6 mm long …..Pseudoregma baenzigeri
R IV+V tapering abruptly at tip and less than 0.12 mm long…..35
35 Apterae elongate pear-shaped….Pseudoregma alexanderi
Apterae broadly oval…..36
36 Aptera often without spinal wax glands. ABD TERG 1-5 may have 1-4 wax pore plates in paired spinal groups; there may be 1-2 centrally on ABD TERG 7 and 1-4 centrally on ABD TERG 8. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 25-48, IV 11-20, V 4-13, and SIPH with a posterior extension of the perisiphuncular sclerite…..Pseudoregma bambucicola/ carolinensis
Aptera usually with well-developed wax glands on paired spinal sclerites, only rarely without. ABD TERG 1-5 usually have 1-13 large wax pore plates in each spinal group, and 3-4 on ABD TERG 8, but usually none on ABD TERG 7. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 22-30, IV 6-12, V 7-11, and SIPH with a very small perisiphuncular sclerite without any posterior extension…..Pseudoregma montana/koshunensis
37 Aptera with wax pore plates well developed only on margins of body, except for a large medial group on the ABD TERG 8 …..38
Aptera with wax pore plates well-developed spinally as well as marginally …..39
38 Aptera with SIPH cones lightly sclerotised and bearing some long, fine hairs. Wax pore plates on ABD TERG 8 arranged in a row…..Ceratovacuna indica*
Aptera with SIPH cones low, well sclerotised and without hairs. Wax pore plates on ABD TERG 8 not in a row (e.g. fig. 30G) …..Ceratovacuna japonica/longifila/floccifera
39 Aptera with wax pore plates very large and numerous, almost occupying the whole of the dorsal cuticle (fig. 30D)…..Ceratovacuna silvestrii
Aptera with fewer wax pore plates; most abdominal tergites with one spinal group and one marginal group on each side …..Ceratovacuna hoffmanni/keduensis/doipuiensis
Bamia see HibiscusMalvaceae
Banisteriopsis sp. Aphis gossypii
Banksia integrifolia Aphis fabae
Baptisia tinctoria Myzus persicae
Barbarea arcuata = B. vulgaris
B. orthocerasAphis fabae, [neopolygoni (= triglochinis?)];
Lipaphis pseudobrassicae; Myzus ornatus
B. strictaAphis solanella, triglochinis; Myzus persicae;
Pseudobrevicoryne buhri
B. vernaMyzus ornatus
B. vulgarisAphis [craccivora], fabae, mizutakarashi,
[neopolygoni (= triglochinis?)], triglochinis;
Aulacorthum solani;
Brevicoryne barbareae, brassicae, crambe, Brevicoryne sp.
(barbareae of David & Hameed 1975, nec. Nevsky);
Lipaphis [erysimi], pseudobrassicae;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;
Pemphigus populitransversus; Pseudobrevicoryne buhri;
[Rhopalosiphum padi]; [Volutaphis karatavica]
Barbarea sp.[Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]

Key to aphids on Barbarea:-

1ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. Wax pore-plates on posterior abdomen ..…Pemphigus populitransversus
ANT PT/BASE more than 1.0. SIPH present (sometimes very small). No wax pore-plates …..2
2ANT tubercles well developed, projecting forward much further than middle of front of head in dorsal view ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4
ANT tubercles less well developed or absent, so that outline of front of head is sinuate, straight or convex in dorsal view…..3
3SIPH as very short, pigmented cones, less than 0.5 × the short, triangular cauda. Apt. with secondary rhinaria on distal part of ANT III, and also usually on IV and V ..…Pseudobrevicoryne buhri
SIPH tubular, at least 0.6 × cauda. ANT of apt. without secondary rhinaria …..4
4SIPH tapering. Marginal tubercles (MTu) always present at least on ABD TERG 1 and 7 ..…5
SIPH usually somewhat swollen. MTu never present on ABD TERG 1 and 7 .….7
5 ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.8. SIPH and cauda pale or dusky. Cauda with 5-11 hairs. (Alata with 25-60 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 9-25 on IV and 7-17 on V).….Aphis triglochinis
ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.5. SIPH and cauda black. Cauda with 11-25 hairs. (Alata with 7-33 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 0-10 on IV and 0-2 on V)…..6
6 Dorsal abdomen with dark cross bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and usually with some dark markings anterior to SIPH (in addition to dark intersegmental muscle sclerites). Longest hairs on ANT III 0.7-2.2 × BD III…..Aphis fabae
Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Longest hairs on ANT III c.0.6-0.7 × BD IIII …..Aphis mizutakarashi*
7ANT III 1.2-1.7 × SIPH. ABD TERG 2-4 usually without dark markings (except intersegmental ones) in mounted preparations. Cauda tongue-shaped to elongate triangular …..Lipaphis pseudobrassicae
ANT III 1.8-3.7 × SIPH. ABD TERG 2-4 usually with dark spots or cross-bands; if not then cauda is bluntly triangular…..8
8Dorsal body hairs mostly short with expanded, fan-shaped apices ..…Brevicoryne crambe
Dorsal body hairs with blunt or pointed apices…..9
9Tibiae pale except at apices. Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerites. SIPH a little longer than the bluntly triangular cauda.….Brevicoryne barbareae
Tibiae entirely dark. Dorsal abdomen with dark sclerites. SIPH 0.7-1.0 × cauda …..10
10SIPH 0.6-0.8 × cauda which is tongue-shaped or elongate triangular, more than 1.5 × its basal width. ABD TERG all with large paired dark sclerites which may be joined medially to form broad cross-bands ..…Brevicoryne sp. (barbareae of David & Hameed 1975, nec Nevsky)
SIPH 0.8-1.0 × cauda which is broadly triangular, not longer than its basal width. ABD TERG 1-5 with paired sclerites but these are usually small, and never form cross-bands .….Brevicoryne brassicae
Barbula sp.Muscaphis musci

(or use the key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum)

Barkhausia see CrepisAsteraceae
Barleria. cristata Aphis citricidus, gossypii, spiraecola
B. prionitisMyzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Barnadesia odorata Myzus persicae
Barringtonia asiatica Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii
Bartsia (including Bellardia) Orobanchaceae
Bartsia alpinaBrachycaudus helichrysi; Nasonovia ribisnigri
B. trixagoBrachycaudus persicae
B. viscosaBrachycaudus [cardui], helichrysi
Bartsia sp.Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Bartsia:-

1. Cauda finger-like. SIPH 0.18-0.28 × BL..…2
Cauda rounded or helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width, SIPH 0.05-0.125 × BL…..3
2. Dorsum with a pattern of brown intersegmental markings. Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones. SIPH tapering…..Nasonovia ribisnigri
Dorsum without brown intersegmental markings. Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. SIPH slightly clavate…..Myzus persicae
3. Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black shield. SIPH black, 0.105-0.125 × BL. Anterior part of mesosternum with a pair of mammariform processes …..Brachycaudus persicae
Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. SIPH pale/dusky, 0.05-0.09 × BL. Mesosternum without mammariform processes..…Brachycaudus helichrysi
Basella albaAphis gossypii; [Lipaphis pseudobrassicae];
Myzus persicae
B. rubra = B. alba
Use key to polyphagous aphids.
Basilicum polystachyon Aphis gossypii
Bassia hyssopifolia Aphis craccivora
B. prostrata Aphis craccivora, fabae, salsolae;
[Brachyunguis harmalae]; Chaitaphis tenuicauda;
Xerobion eriosomatinum
B. scopariaAphis craccivora, gossypii, salsolae, spiraecola;
Chaitaphis tenuicauda; Clypeoaphis suaedae;
Myzus persicae; Xerobion eriosomatinum
B. sedoidesChaitaphis kazakhstanica, tenuicauda;
Macchiatiella rhamni (? – Ivanoskaya 1977)
Bassia sp.Brachyunguis tetrapteralis

Key to apterae on Bassia:-

1ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.73…..Brachyunguis tetrapteralis
ANT PT/BASE 0.8-8.2…..2
2Cauda very short and broadly rounded, hardly discernible. ANT PT/BASE 6.5-8.2 ..…Macchiatiella rhamni (?)
Cauda tongue- or finger-like. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-4.5…..3
3Dorsal hairs with expanded, often furcate apices (Fig.36a, b). Cauda long and thin, 4-5 × longer than its middle width (e.g. Fig.36c)…..4
Dorsal hairs blunt or pointed. Cauda less than 4 × its middle width…..5
4SIPH 0.08-0.10 × BL and 0.83-1.10 × R IV+V. ABD TERG 8 with 4 (-5) hairs …..Chaitaphis kazakhstanica*
SIPH 0.10-0.13 × BL and 1.10-1.23 × R IV+V. ABD TERG 8 with 6-8 hairs …..Chaitaphis tenuicauda
5 ANT PT/BASE 1.4-4.5. SIPH (0.8-)1.2-2.2 × cauda …..go to key to polyphagous aphids(but specimens running to A. craccivora may be A. salsolae)
ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.4. SIPH 0.5-0.9 × cauda…..6
6SIPH in form of dark, broad-based cones, shorter than their basal widths (Fig.36f). Cauda bluntly conical, shorter than its basal width. Clypeus dark and swollen, but not globose (Fig.36e)…..Xerobion eriosomatinum
SIPH pale or dusky, tubular, often slightly swollen, much longer than their basal widths (Fig.36i). Cauda finger-like, longer than its basal width. Clypeus globose (Fig.36d) …..Clypeoaphis suedae
Bathmium trifoliatum Idiopterus nephrelepidis
Batrachium see RanunculusRanunculaceae
Batrachium aquatile = Ranunculus aquatilis
B. fluitans = Raninuculus fluitans
Bauera rubioides Aphis spiraecola
Bauhinia aculeata Aphis gossypii
B. acuminataAphis spiraecola
B. blakeanaAphis gossypii
B. corniculataAphis gossypii
B. divaricataAphis craccivora, gossypii
B. petersianaAphis craccivora, gossypii; Myzus persicae
B. purpureaAphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola
B. tomentosaAphis craccivora; Myzus persicae
B. variegataAphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Sinomegoura citricola
Bauhinia sp.[Cervaphis apatii (nomen nudum)]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Becium see OcimumLamiaceae
Becium obovatum = Ocimum obovatum
Beckmannia syzigachne Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi; Sitobion avenae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Bedfordia salicina Brachycaudus helichrysi
Begonia cucullata Aphis fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;
Myzus ornatus, persicae
B. fimbristipulaBrachycaudus helichrysi
B. heracleifoliaNeomyzus circumflexus
B. ×hiemalisAulacorthum solani
B. ×hortensisNeomyzus circumflexus
B. lomensisAphis gossypii
B. procumbens = B. radicans
B. radicansAphis gossypii; Myzus persicae
B. rexAphis fabae; Myzus ornatus, persicae
B. semperflorens = B. cucullata
B. ×sempervirens (?) Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae
Begonia spp.Aphis frangulae group; [Rhodobium porosum]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Behen see SileneCaryophyllaceae
Belamcanda see IrisIridaceae
Belamcanda chinensis = Iris domestica
Bellardia see BartsiaOrobanchaceae
Bellevalia trifoliata Myzus persicae
Bellidiastrum see AsterAsteraceae
Bellis perennisAcyrthosiphon malvae;
Aphis gossypii, [plantaginis], [spiraephaga],
[vandergooti], [wartenbergi];
Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Pseudomegoura magnoliae
B. sylvestrisMyzus persicae

Key to apterae on Bellis:-

Dorsum with an extensive black sclerotic shield. Cauda a little shorter than its basal width, helmet-shaped, with a slight basal constriction. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammari-form processes …..Brachycaudus cardui
Without that combination of characters…..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Bellium bellidioides Aulacorthum solani
Beloperone guttata = Justicia brandegeeana
Bencomia caudata Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum sp.; Macrosiphum rosae
B. maderensis see Sanguisorbia maderensis
B. moquinianaMacrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae; Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Bencomia:-

Head dark with well-developed, divergent ANT tubercles, SIPH black .….Macrosiphum rosae
Head and SIPH pale (or if dark then ANT tubercles are weakly developed) …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Benincasa cerifera = B. hispida
B. hispida Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, solanella, [umbrella]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Berberidopsis corallina Neomyzus circumflexus
Berberis aetnensis Liosomaphis berberidis
B. aggregataLiosomaphis berberidis
B. amurensisAphis spiraecola; Berberidaphis lydiae;
(incl. var. japonica) Liosomaphis berberidis, ornata
B. aquifoliumLiosomaphis berberidis; Macrosiphum euphorbiae
B. aristataLiosomaphis atra, himalayensis
B. asiaticaLiosomaphis atra, himalayensis
B. brachypodaLiosomaphis berberidis
B. bromtonensis (?) Liosomaphis berberidis
B. buxifolia = B. microphylla
B. canadensisBerberidaphis lydiae; Liosomaphis berberidis
B. chinensisBerberidaphis lydiae
B. circumserrata Berberidaphis lydiae
B. coriariaLiosomaphis berberidis
B. crataegifolia (?) Liosomaphis berberidis
B. crataeginaLiosomaphis berberidis
B. darwiniiAphis berberidorum, patagonica
B. diaphanaLiosomaphis berberidis
B. empetrifoliaAphis berberidorum
B. francisci-ferdinandi Liosomaphis berberidis
B. gilgianaLiosomaphis berberidis
B. heterobotrysLiosomaphis berberidis
B. heteropodaBerberidaphis lydiae; Liosomaphis atra, berberidis
B. hispanica = B. vulgaris ssp. australis
B. hybrido-gagnepainii Liosomaphis berberidis
B. ilicifoliaAphis patagonica; Liosomaphis berberidis
B. iliensis Amegosiphon platicaudum; Berberidaphis lydiae
B. integerrimaAmegosiphon platicaudum; Berberidaphis lydiae;
Liosomaphis atra, berberidis
B. julianaeLiosomaphis berberidis
B. koreanaBerberidaphis lydiae; [Hydaphias hofmanni];
Liosomaphis berberidis
B. lyciumLiosomaphis atra, berberidis, ornata; Myzus persicae
B. microphyllaAphis patagonica; Liosomaphis berberidis
B. × neubertiiLiosomaphis berberidis
B. nummulariaLiosomaphis ornata
B. oblongaBerberidaphis lydiae; Liosomaphis berberidis
B. orientalis = B. vulgaris
B. petiolarisLiosomaphis berberidis
B. poiretiiBerberidaphis lydiae
B. pseudumbellata Liosomaphis atra
B. regeliana = B. amurensis
B. repensLiosomaphis berberidis
B. sargentianaLiosomaphis berberidis
B. sibiricaLiosomaphis berberidis
B. sieboldiiLiosomaphis berberidis
B. silva-taroucana Liosomaphis berberidis
B. sphaerocarpa = B. heteropoda
B. × stenophyllaLiosomaphis berberidis
B. thunbergiiAphis nasturtii; Berberidaphis lydiae;
Liosomaphis atra, berberidis, ornata;
[Metopolophium berberinutritum]; [Wahlgreniella nervata]
B. turcomanicaLiosomaphis berberidis
B. umbellataLiosomaphis berberidis, himalayensis;
[Tricaudatus polygoni]
B. vernaeLiosomaphis berberidis
B. verruculosaLiosomaphis berberidis
B. vulgarisAmegosiphon platycaudum; [Aphis pomi];
Aulacorthum solani; Berberidaphis lydiae;
Liosomaphis berberidis, ornata;
Macrosiphum euphorbiae
B. wallichianaLiosomaphis himalayensis
B. wilsoniaeLiosomaphis berberidis
Berberis spp.Aphis aurantii, citricidus, odinae; [Greenidea kumaoni];
[Macrosiphum pachysiphum]; [Prociphilus erigeronensis];
[Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale];
[Xenosiphonaphis conandri]
Key to aphids on Berberis:-
1SIPH swollen, with maximum width of swollen part broader than base. Head smooth, with ANT tubercles either weakly developed or with inner faces broadly divergent …..2
SIPH tapering or, if slightly clavate, then maximum width of swollen part is narrower than base, and head is nodulose with well-developed, convergent ANT tubercles …..7
2SIPH slightly and uniformly swollen over most of length, narrowing at base and apex, with regularly-spaced, close-set spinulose imbrication (Fig.17a). Cauda tongue-shaped with 20-30 rather short hairs (Fig.17d). ANT tubercles well-developed, broadly divergent ..…Amegosiphon platicaudum
SIPH markedly clavate (Figs 17b, c), and lacking imbrication except near apex. Cauda with less than 20 hairs (Figs 17e, f). ANT tubercles variously developed.….3
3Cauda shorter than its basal width, with 12-18 hairs (Fig.17e). ANT PT/BASE 2.0-2.75 ..…Berberidaphis lydiae
Cauda much longer than its basal width, with 5-8 hairs (Fig.17f). ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.9 …..4
4Dorsum sclerotic, with variably developed dark pigmentation or a complete dark shield ..…5
Dorsal abdomen pale..…6
5ANT PT/BASE 1.6-1.9. Dorsal pigmentation variable. SIPH as long as or longer than head width across (and including) eyes…..Liosomaphis ornata
ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.6. Dorsum usually with a complete shield. SIPH shorter than head width across eyes..…Liosomaphis atra
6ANT 0.52-0.73 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.1 …..Liosomaphis himalayensis
ANT 0.4-0.5 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.4…..Liosomaphis berberidis
7ANT tubercles well developed, so that there is a deep frontal sinus. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5
ANT tubercles weakly developed, not or hardly projecting beyond middle part of front of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with MTu.….8
8 Stridulatory apparatus present, consisting of a conspicuous pattern of ridges on ventro-lateral areas of abdominal sternites 5 and 6, and a row of short, peg-like hairs on hind tibia…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 26
Stridulatory apparatus not present…..9
9 R IV+V 1.0-1.24 × HT II (with R IV+V always less than 0.12 mm)..…10
R IV +V 0.7-1.0 × HT II (if more than 0.9 × HT II then R IV+V is more than 0.12 mm) …..11
10SIPH and cauda black..…Aphis spiraecola
SIPH and cauda mainly pale, only darker distally..…Aphis nasturtii
11R IV+V 0.09-0.12 mm, 0.35-0.46 × cauda. Cauda 0.12-0.15 × BL. Dorsal abdomen without sclerotisation anterior to SIPH.….Aphis patagonica
R IV+V 0.12-0.15 mm, 0.55-0.77 × cauda. Cauda 0.10-0.12 × BL. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed sclerotisation anterior to SIPH.….Aphis berberidorum
Berchemia floribunda [Longistigma liquidambarus]; Sitobion berchemiae
B. lineataSitobion berchemiae
B. racemosaSitobion berkemiae; Aphis gossypii
B. zeyheriAphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus

Key to apterae on Berchemia:-

1SIPH black and having distal 0.25-0.45 with polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale …..2
If SIPH are black then they are without polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale or dark ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids
2SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.25-0.33. R IV with about 8 accessory hairs …..Sitobion berchemiae
SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.32-0.44. R IV with 4-6 accessory hairs …..Sitobion berkemiae
Bergenia afghanica = B. stracheyi
B. crassifoliaMyzus persicae; Smynthurodes betae
B. stracheyiAphis fabae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Berkheya arenarium = Agriophyllum squarrosum
B. decurrensBrachycaudus helichrysi
B. rigidaBrachycaudus helichrysi
B. robustaProtaphis pseudocardui
B. zeyheriAphis gossypii; Uroleucon compositae

Key to aphids on Berkheya:-

ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.2.….Protaphis pseudocardui
ANT PT/BASE either less than 0.5 or more than 1.5 …..go to key to polyphagous aphids
Bersama ugandensis Aulacorthum solani; Sitobion halli, leonidasi

Key to aphids on Bersama:-

1 Inner faces of antennal tubercles parallel in dorsal view. SIPH without apical reticulation …..Aulacorthum solani
Inner faces of antennal tubercles divergent in dorsal view. SIPH with an apical zone of polygonal reticulation…..2
2 Aptera with extensive black dorsal pigmentation and dark antennae, legs, SIPH and cauda …..Sitobion leonidasi
Aptera without extensive dark pigmentation …..Sitobion halli
Berteroa incana Aphis beteroae, craccivora, fabae, frangulae, gossypii,
nasturtii, Aphis sp. (Czech Republic, BMNH collection);
Aulacorthum solani; Brevicoryne brassicae;
Lipaphis erysimi, ruderalis (as berteroaella Mamontova);
Myzus persicae; Smiela fusca; Spatulophorus incanae
B. mutabilisSmiela fusca
Berteroa sp.[Aphis triglochinis]

Key to aphids on Berteroa:-

1Cauda broad, bluntly triangular, shorter than or not longer than its basal width …..2
Cauda elongate triangular, tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width …..3
2 SIPH black and volcano-shaped, with a large perisiphuncular sclerite. ANT III with 5-16 rhinaria and IV with 0-5…..Smiela fusca
SIPH truncate conical or barrel-shaped, without a dark perisiphuncular sclerite. ANT III and IV (of apt.) without rhinaria…..Brevicoryne brassicae
3Dorsal hairs with fan-shaped apices. Dorsal cuticle of head, prothorax and ABD TERG 7-8 very rugose..…Spatulophorus incanae
Dorsal hairs with blunt or pointed apices. Dorsal cuticle rugose or not rugose …..4
4ANT III as long as or longer than ANT IV+V together. Cuticle of front of head rugose. SIPH with slight subapical swelling…..5
ANT III shorter than ANT IV+V together. Cuticle of front of head smooth, spiculose or nodulose. SIPH tapering, cylindrical or clavate…..6
5ANT tubercles developed, projecting about as far as median tubercle, so that front of head is sinuate in outline in dorsal view. ANT more than 0.5 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.7. ABD TERG 8 without a rugose conical process.….Lipaphis erysimi
ANT tubercles undeveloped, front of head convex in dorsal view. ANT less than 0.5 × BL, with ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.0. ABD TERG 8 with a rugose conical process .….Lipaphis ruderalis
6ABD TERG 1-4 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH are dusky to dark, tapering, 0.13-0.17 × BL and 1.1-1.4 × the similarly pigmented slender cauda, which bears 5 or 6 hairs…..Aphis sp. (Czech Republic; BMNH collection)
MTu either absent or usually only on ABD TERG 1 and 7; rarely on 2-4, in which case other characters are not in the same combination…..7
7MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7 very large; diameter of MTu on ABD TERG 1 is at least 3 × length of adjacent marginal hair (which is c.10 μm). SIPH without a distinct flange, 1.85-2.27 × cauda which bears 8-11 hairs…..Aphis berteroae
Diameter of MTu (if present) on ABD TERG 1 is 0.2-1.4 × length of adjacent marginal hair (which is 10-40 μm). SIPH with a distinct flange, 0.8-2.5 × cauda which bears 4-25 hairs..…go to key to polyphagous aphids
Berula erectaCavariella aegopodii, cicutae; Hyadaphis foeniculi;
Pemphigus protospirae; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

Key to aphids on Berula:-

1ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent.….Pemphigus protospirae
ANT PT/BASE more than 0.6. SIPH present (with distal part swollen)..…2
2ABD TERG 8 with a supracaudal process. ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.3..…3
No supracaudal process. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.9..…4
3BL 4.4-5.7 × SIPH. SIPH 5.9-8.6 × maximum diameter of swollen part and 8.3-11.5 × least diameter of stem, which is about equal to the diameter of the hind tibiae at midlength ..…Cavariella aegopodii
BL 5.6-6.4 × SIPH. SIPH 3.5-4.6 × maximum diameter of swollen part and 4.1-5.5 × least diameter of stem, which is about 1.5 × diameter of hind tibiae at midlength .….Cavariella cicutae
4SIPH 0.9-1.4 × cauda. R IV+V 0.65-1.0 × HT II…..Hyadaphis foeniculi
SIPH more than 2 × cauda. R IV+V 1.0-1.4 × HT II …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
Beschorneria yuccoides Myzus persicae